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Ladies'  Guide 



fflirHiood,  Jjaidenhood,  lifeiiood,  iotherhooiL 

By  J.  H.  KELLOGG,  M.  D., 

M«mb«r  of  the  British  Association  for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  The  Societe  d'  Hy- 
giene of  France,  The  American  Public  Health  Association,  The  American  Society 
of  Microtcopists,  The  American  Social  Science  Association,  The  Michigan 
State  Medical  Association,  State  Board  of  Hearth  of  Michigan,  Editor  of 
"Good  Hearth,"  Author  of  "The  Home  Hand- Book  of  Domestic 
Hygiene  and   Rational  Medicine,"  and  Various  Other  Works. 

™»  f M")»IN!k^ouiitway 





^••Wnoo  -v  tfouvj  4  9411 

Entered,  according  to  Act  of  Congress,  in  the  year  1882,  by 

J.  H.  KELLOGG,  M.  D., 

In  the  Office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress,  at  Washington,  D.  C. 


^HE  author  of  this  volume  was  induced  to  undertake  its 
preparation  by  the  belief  that  there  was  a  real  and  urgent 
demand  for  such  a  work,  and  the  hope  that  the  ef- 
fort would  do  something  at  least  toward  supplying 
that  demand.  The  very  remarkable  increase  in  the  number  and 
frequency  of  that  very  large  class  of  maladies  familiarly  known  as 
"  diseases  of  women  "  observable  in  modern  times,  especially  among 
the  women  of  the  more  civilized  nations,  and  those  of  this  country 
in  particular,  has  attracted  the  attention  of  many  intelligent  physi- 
cians. The  ailments  from  which  women  suffer  constitute  a  large 
part  of  the  practice  of  the  majority  of  physicians,  and  probably  con- 
tribute more  to  the  support  of  the  medical  profession  than  any  other 
class  of  maladies.  So  numerous  and  complicated  has  this  class  of  dis- 
eases become  in  recent  times,  that  a  new  race  of  specialists  has  sprung 
up,  who  confine  themselves  exclusively  to  this  branch  of  practice ; 
and  many  a  fashionable  woman  has  her  favorite  gynecologist  as 
well  as  her  favorite  milliner  or  dress-maker,  and  is  as  much  de- 
pendent upon  the  first  to  keep  her  internal  arrangements  in 
proper  order  as  upon  the  second  and  third  to  regulate  her  head- 
gear and  garments  in  accordance  with  the  ruling  fashion.  We 
have  no  sympathy  with  that  large  class  who  seem  to  consider 
chronic  invalidism  necessary  to  gentility ;  and  it  is  not  the  purpose 
of  this  work  in  any  way  to  increase  or  exaggerate  the  tendency  in 
this  direction  which  is  so  apparent  among  American  women  at  the 
present  time.  What  we  hope  to  do  is  in  some  degree  to  mitigate 
this  growing  evil  by  calling  attention  to  the  causes  out  of  which  it 
springs  and  pointing  out  the  remedy. 

The  fact  to  which  we  have  above  referred  has  received  many 
different  interpretations.  One  author  attributes  the  increasing 
physical  infirmity  of  woman  to  her  increasing  intellectuality ;  an- 

!•  rn 


other,  to  faulty  methods  of  education,  particularly  the  coeducation 
of  the  sexes.  Still  another,  and  an  eminent  authority  among  gyn 
ecologists,  suggests  that  there  is  a  general  tendency  to  deterioration 
in  this  country,  observable  among  animals  as  well  as  human  be- 
ings, and  so  he  attributes  the  failure  in  health  from  special  ail- 
ments of  so  large  a  proportion  of  the  female  part  of  the  popula- 
tion to  the  malign  influence  of  some  subtle  agency  native  to 
the  country  and  wholly  beyond  the  reach  of  human  control.  One 
of  the  prime  objects  of  this  work  is  to  show  that  the  sufferings  of 
American  women  from  special  diseases  above  those  of  other  races, 
is  not  due  to  injurious  climatic  influences,  nor  to  excessive  mental 
culture  and  development;  but  to  a  lack  of  physical  culture,  defect- 
ive home  training,  sedentary  habits  of  life,  too  much  excitement, 
especially  during  the  developing  period,  and  numerous  other  causes 
which  may  be  removed  by  proper  attention  on  the  part  of  parents, 
if  the  effort  is  begun  at  a  sufficiently  early  age. 

Believing  that  the  growing  delicacy  and  increasing  susceptibil- 
ity to  disease  and  lack  of  endurance  so  manifest  in  American  wo- 
men, is  chiefly  due  to  neglects  of  various  sorts  arising  from  ig- 
norance of  the  laws  which  relate  to  the  proper  development  and 
maintenance  in  health  of  the  special  set  of  organs  characteristic  of 
the  sex,  we  have  deemed  it  best  to  present  as  an  introduction  to 
the  more  practical  portion  of  the  work  a  concise  description  of  these 
organs  and  their  functions.  We  are  well  aware  that  in  the  minds 
of  a  few  the  anatomical  portion  of  the  work  will  be  considered  ob- 
jectionable; but  this  has  not  deterred  us  from  presenting  this  part 
of  the  subject  in  such  a  manner  as  we  hope  will  accomplish  the  de- 
sired end,  viz.,  the  education  of  those  into  whose  harids  the  work 
may  fall  respecting  the  important  functions  considered,  to  such  a 
degree  as  to  enable  them  to  avoid,  if  they  desire  to  do  so,  the  pit- 
falls into  which  so  large  a  share  of  their  sisters  fall,  thereby  preserv- 
ing and  increasing  their  store  of  that  choicest  of  all  possessions, 
GOOD  health,  and  fitting  themselves  to  transmit  the  same  as  a 
priceless  legacy  to  their  children.  The  old  adage,  "  a  little  knowl- 
edge is  a  dangerous  thing,"  has  done  a  vast  deal  of  mischief  both  in 
deterring  those  fitted  to  impart  useful  information  on  these  topics 
from  giving  it,  and  in  discouraging  those  who  needed  such  instruction 
from  seeking  it.  We  have  never  yet  known  a  case  in  which  a 
woman  was  injured  by  scientific  information   respecting  her  own 

PREFACE.  iii 

body  and  its  functions.  We  believe  that  enlightenment  on  this  and 
kindred  topics,  and  on  all  that  relates  to  the  physical,  mental,  and 
moral  well-being  of  woman,  is  the  surest  means  of  correcting  some 
of  the  greatest  evils  which  curse  the  race  at  the  present  time,  and 
which  are  sapping  the  very  foundations  of  society. 

In  order  to  point  out  in  the  clearest  manner  possible  the  way  of 
escape  for  woman  from  the  thralldom  of  aches  and  pains  and  "  weak- 
nesses "  in  which  the  sex  is  as  a  class  enslaved,  we  have  endeavored 
to  trace  the  outlines  of  what  we  conceive  to  be  the  method  of  train- 
ing by  which  a  higher  type  of  womanhood  may  be  developed,  be- 
ginning with  "The  Little  Girl,"  and  considering  in  succeeding 
sections  under  the  respective  headings,  "  The  Young  Lady,"  "  The 
Wife,"  and  "  The  Mother,"  the  several  phases  of  woman's  life. 

The  remainder  of  the  work  is  devoted  to  the  practical  considera- 
tion of  the  various  maladies  to  which  women  are  subject  In  this 
section  it  has  not  been  the  attempt  of  the  author  to  furnish  a  sub- 
stitute for  the  physician,  except  so  far  as  the  physician  fails  to  do 
his  duty  in  instructing  his  patient  in  relation  to  the  nature,  causes, 
and  rationale  of  cure  of  her  maladies,  information  to  which  every 
intelligent  woman  is  entitled.  We  have,  however,  endeavored  to 
make  the  instruction  given  so  simple  and  untechnical,  and  so  prac- 
tical in  character  as  to  enable  any  woman  of  ordinary  ability  to 
discover  the  beginnings  of  local  ailments,  and  to  manage  successfully 
many  of  the  most  common  diseases  of  the  sex,  and  in  the  absence 
of  a  competent  physician,  to  treat  with  a  fair  prospect  of  success 
most  of  the  curable  maladies  known  as  "  female  diseases." 

Having  for  years  enjoyed  exceptionally  good  opportunities  for  the 
study  of  this  class  of  maladies,  as  physician  in  charge  of  one  of  the 
largest  Sanitariums  in  the  United  States,  and  with  unlimited  facili- 
ties at  command  for  the  treatment  of  the  hundreds  of  invalid 
women  who  annually  visit  the  institution  for  treatment  for  every 
variety  of  disease  peculiar  to  the  sex,  we  feel  in  some  measure 
prepared  to  discriminate  with  some  degree  of  fairness  with  refer- 
ence to  the  methods  in  use  by  physicians  as  well  as  by  specialists  in 
the  treatment  of  this  very  large  class  of  maladies.  We  have  en- 
deavored to  select  from  the  great  number  of  remedies  and  methods 
in  use,  those  which  have  been  attended  by  the  highest  degree  of  suo- 
in  our  hands  and  in  the  practice  of  the  most  successful  spe- 


cialiflts  of  this  and  other  countries ;  and  we  are  happy  to  be  able 
to  say  to  our  readers  that  those  methods  whioh  are  the  most  effi- 
cient and  the  most  essential  in  the  treatment  of  these  maladies, 
are  so  simple  that  by  the  aid  of  a  few  inexpensive  appliances  and 
the  exercise  of  a  fair  degree  of  intelligence,  they  may  be  managed 
by  the  patient  herself  with  perfect  safety,  and  with  success. 

We  believe  that  the  intelligent  and  unprejudiced  physician  will 
•  welcome  this  work,  and  wish  it  placed  in  the  hands  of  all  his  lady 
patients,  since  it  will  in  no  degree  detract  from  the  confidence 
which  ought  to  be  reposed  in  him,  if  he  is  worthy  of  such  confi- 
dence, but  will  increase  the  esteem  in  which  he  is  held  by  placing 
his  patient  beyond  the  reach  of  quackery,  and  adding  to  his  success 
in  severe  oases  which  may  have  long  withstood  his  best  skill,  by  so 
instructing  the  patient  as  to  enable  her  to  cooperate  intelligently 
and  efficiently  in  the  effort  to  aid  nature  in  effecting  a  cure. 

•  The  reader's  indulgence  is  craved  for  any  seeming  evidences  of 
haste  in  the  arrangement  or  subject  matter  of  the  work,  since  it  has 
been  written  amid  the  distractions  and  anxieties  incident  to  the  care 
of  a  large  hospital  for  chronic  invalids  and  surgical  cases,  and  every 
line  is  the  product  of  time  stolen  from  sleep. 

In  conclusion,  we  will  add  that  another  circumstance  which  has 
led  to  the  preparation  of  this  volume  has  been  our  acquaintance 
with  the  cases  of  a  large  number  of  women  whose  lives  have  been 
made  wretched  by  the  almost  endless  torture  to  which  they  have  been 
subjected  with  cauterizations,  the  wearing  of  pessaries  of  every  de- 
scription,— fearfully  and  wonderfully  made,  but  of  little  or  no  cura- 
tive value,  if  not  actually  detrimental, — and  malpractice  at  the  hands 
of  ignorant  and  unprincipled  physicians  and  charlatans,  sometimes 
too  horrible  even  for  description.  The  sufferings  of  these  unhappy 
victims  of  ignorance  and  cupidity  have  often  roused  within  us  the 
keenest  sympathy  and  the  deepest  indignation ;  and  if  this  work 
shall  be  the  means  of  saving  a  few  from  such  a  life  of  misery,  and 
of  rescuing  even  one  sufferer  from  the  calamitous  fate  which  has 
befallen  so  many  thousands,  the  writer  will  feel  amply  repaid  fbr 
all  the  labor  and  pains-taking  effort  required  in  its  preparation. 

J.  H.  K. 

€S>».      .....      ■      .y~~., 

Preface 1 

Anatomy  and  Physiology  of  Reproduction. 

Man  the  masterpiece — Animated  atoms — Study  of  microscopic  life — 
The  protoooccus — The  amoebae — Similarity  between  plants  and 
animals — Marvels  of  minute  living  forms — Distinguishing 
feature  of  animals  and  vegetables — The  body  an  aggregation  of 
living  cells. 

General  Survey  of  the  Body 27 

The  digestive  system — The  alimentary  canal — The  teeth — The  sal- 
ivary glands — The  oesophagus,  or  meat-pipe — The  stomach — 
The  intestines — The  liver — The  pancreas — The  spleen — The 
portal  system — The  five  digestive  juices — The  elements  of  food 
— The  saliva — The  gastric  juice — The  bile — The  pancreatic 
juice — The  intestinal  juice — Absorption — Disintegration  and 
elimination — Assimilation — The  motive  system — The  nervous 
system — Brain  cells — Nerve  fibres. 

The  Reproductive  System 37 

The  eoosperm — The  ovum — The  organs  of  reproduction — The  ovary 
— The  womb,  or  uterus — The  fallopian  tubes — The  bladder — The 
rectum — The  perinseum — Blood-supply  of  the  uterus  and  ovaries 
— Nerves  of  the  uterus  and  ovaries— Supports  of  the  uterus — 
Broad  ligaments — The  pelvis — The  sacrum — The  coccyx — 
The  symphysis — Promontory  of  the  sacrum — Differences  be- 
tween the  male  and  the  female  pelvis — Proper  proportion  of 
the  form  in  females — Canal  of  the  pelvis — The  pelvic  canal  in 
lower  animals — Measurements  of  the  pelvis — Curve  of  the  pel- 
vic cavity — Pelvis  of  the  guinea-pig — Pelvis  of  the  cow — 
Changes  in  the  pelvis  prior  to  childbirth  in  the  human  female 



and  in  lower  animals — Other  interesting  facts  about  the  pelvis 
— The  breasts,  or  mammary  glands — Lacteal  secretion — Mech- 
anism of  lactation — A  curious  modification  of  the  mammary 
glands  in  lower  animals — Supernumerary  mammary  glands — 
Secretion  of  milk  in  virgins— Milk  secretion  in  infants. 

Mysteries  of  Reproduction 56 

Ovulation — Viviparous  and  oviparous  animals — Procreation  a  bud- 
ding process — Reproduction  in  polyps — Curious  mode  of  repro- 
duction in  the  fluke — Ovulation  periodic — Ovulation  in  lower 
animals — Menstruation — Menstrual  discharge — (Estimation  — 
Condition  of  the  uterus  and  ovaries  during  menstruation — 
Relation  of  menstruation  to  other  functions — Origin  of  the 
menstrual  blood — Nature  of  the  menstrual  discharge — Influ- 
ence of  the  moon  on  menstruation — Vicarious  menstruation — 

Sex  in  Plants  and  Animals 67 

Fecundation  in  lowly  forms  of  life — Male  and  female  elements  of 
generation — Sex  in  flowers — Fecundation  in  flowers — Marvel- 
ous mechanism  of  reproduction  in  plants — Reproduction  in  in- 
fusoria— Reproduction  in  the  earth-worm,  snail,  and  leech — In- 
teresting arrangement  for  fecundation  in  the  tape-worm — Her- 
maphrodite animals — Hermaphrodite  flowers — Hermaphrodism 
in  human  beings — Fecundation  in  fishes — Method  of  fecunda- 
tion in  frogs — Fecundation  in  the  human  species — Action  of 
the  womb  in  fecundation — Union  of  the  spermatozoa  and  ovum 
— Nature  of  fecundation — Relation  of  fecundation  to  heredity. 

Conception 78 

Circumstances  favoring  conception — When  conception  is  not  likely 
to  occur — Multiple  conception*! — Superfecundation — Precocious 
conception — Conception  in  advanced  age — Influence  of  parents 
upon  offspring  in  conception — The  determining  cause  of  sex 
— How  to  predict  and  regulate  the  sex  of  offspring — The  be- 
ginning of  life — Wonderful  rapidity  of  changes  in  the  ovum 
— Significance  of  "  quickening.1' 

Gestation,  or  Pregnancy 86 

Care  of  eggs  by  fishes  —  A  nursery  in  a  mouth — Singular 
form  of  gestation  in  the  "  obstetric  toad " — Gestation  in 
the  tree-frog — Gestation  in  mammalia — Changes  in  the  uterus 
after  conception — Changes  in  the  nerve  centers— Develop- 
ment of  the   ovum   during  gestation — Segmentation   of  the 


ovum — The  primitive  trace — The  origin  of  monsters  explained 
— The  Siamese  twins — Resemblance  of  the  human  embryo  at 
different  stages  to  various  species  of  lower  animals — How  the 
digestive  organs  are  formed — The  reversed  position  of  the  in- 
ternal organs — Development  of  the  heart — Development  of  tbe 
arms  and  legs — Development  in  lower  animals  and  human 
beings  compared — Formation  of  the  face — Cause  of  hare-lip — ■ 
Causes  of  congenital  deformities — Nourishment  of  the  embryo 
— The  placenta — Influence  of  the  foetus  on  the  mother — W  hj 
a  woman's  children  by  a  second  husband  resemble  the  first — 
The  foetal  pulse — Means  of  determining  the  sex  of  an  unborn 
child — Position  and  condition  of  the  foetus  in  the  womb— The 
amniotic  fluid,  or  "  the  waters." 

Summary  of  Development  100 

Sixe  of  the  embryo — Size  of  embryo  at  different  periods  of  pregnancy 
— Length  of  gestation — Gestation  in  the  horse,  rabbit,  and  other 
animals — Abbreviated  gestation — Prolonged  gestation — Quick- 
ening— Changes  in  the  system  of  the  mother  during  gestation — 
Why  women  sometimes  enjoy  superior  health  during  pregnancy 
— The  uterine  souffle — Preparation  of  the  system  for  parturitiou 
— Extra-uterine  pregnancy — Abdominal  pregnancy — Tubal 
pregnancy — Ovarian  pregnancy — Parturition — Expulsion  of 
the  "  after-birth  " — Involution  of  the  uterus — The  lochia— 
Changes  in  the  child  at  birth. 

Development  of  the  Body  after  Birth 112 

Relative  size  of  different  parts  of  the  body  of  new-born  infants 
— Cause  of  inferior  development  of  the  legs  in  infants- «- 
Shedding  of  the  hair  in  infants — Development  of  the  teeth — 
The  temporary  or  milk  teeth — The  permanent  teeth — Ages  at 
which  the  different  temporary  and  permanent  teeth  make  their 
appearance — Puberty. 


Errors  in  the  Early  Education  of  Girls 118 

Difference  between  boys  and  girls  largely  the  result  of  education — 
The  inefficiency  of  women  the  result  of  early  perverting  influ- 
ences— The  physical  development  of  the  sexes  run  parallel  till 
puberty — The  influence  of  fashion  very  detrimental  to  little 
girls — Early  training. 

viii  CONTENTS. 

Education  of  Girls 122 

Education  should  begin  with  the  earliest  dawn  of  reason — Dam- 
aging influence  of  "  baby-talk  " — Small  children  highly  im- 
itative— The  nursery  should  be  a  sacred  place — The  build- 
ing of  a  brain  a  work  of  high  art — Why  women  as  a  class  are 
dependent — How  to  encourage  normal  development — Advan- 
tages of  the  kinder-garten  as  a  means  of  teaching  temperance 
and  morality — School  education  of  little  girls — School  life  of 
children  perverted — Damaging  effects  of  wrong  methods  of  in- 

Moral  Culture  of  Children 123 

Children  should  be  taught  to  do  right  from  principle — Senile  manners 
— Artificial  manners  in  children — Contrast  between  a  real  and 
an  artificial  little  girl — Responsibility  of  parents — Juvenile  par- 
ties— Juvenile  flirtations — Natural  simplicity  of  childhood  to 
be  cherished — Hypocrisy  in  pareuts  imitated  by  children. 

Clothing*  of  Girls 128 

Cause  of  mortality  in  young  children — Why  diseases  of  the  throat 
and  lungs  are  more  frequent  among  young  children  than 
adults — So-called  "  mysterious  providences  "  result  of  inexcusa- 
ble neglect — The  right  of  little  girls  to  live — How  the  body  should 
be  clothed — Directions  for  making  undergarments  for  little  girls 
— Dressing  to  "  develop  the  form  "  an  insult  to  nature — Ne- 
cessity for  careful  adaptation  of  children's  clothing  to  the 
weather — Night-clothing. 

Exercise  for  Girls 135 

The  play -room  or  family-gymnasium  —  Necessity  for  out-of-door  ex- 
ercise—  "  Model  children"  usually  monstrosities — Early  teach 
to  be  useful — Pernicious   results  of  "  coddling." 

Rest  and  Sleep 137 

Care  of  children  during  sleep — Feather-mattresses  to  be  avoided 
— Sleeping  of  children  with  older  people — A  popular  fallacy. 

Diet  for  Girls 141 

Harmful  effects  of  candies  and  nicknacks — Digestive  organs  of  chil- 
dren easily  injured — Best  diet  for  children— Damaging  effect 
of  stimulating  foods— Pernicious  results  of  eating  between 
meals — Infant  dyspeptics — Regular  attention  to  bowels  and 


Vicious  Habits ' 144 

Alarming  prevalence  of  solitary  vice— Boarding  schools — Effects 
of  secret  vice  in  girls — A  cause  of  early  "  break  down  "— 
Signs — Suspicious  evidences — How  the  vice  is  acquired — Evil 
associations — Mothers  should  be  aroused — A  human  fiend 
— Various  causes  of  vice — Bad  books— Sentimental  literature 
dangerous — Sunday-school  books  not  above  suspicion  —  Im- 
proper dressing  of  infants— A  few  sad  examples — A  remarka- 
ble case — How  to  cure  vicious  habits— Appeals  from  anxious 
mothers — A  few  words  to  girls. 


Puberty 171 

The  physiological  import  of  puberty  —  Age  at  which  it  oc- 
curs—Precocious puberty  —  Causes  of  precocious  puberty 
— Delayed  puberty — Influences  whicn  delay  puberty — A  pecul- 
iar case — Signs  of  the  approach  of  puberty — Mental  and  phys- 
ical changes — A  mental  malady  incident  to  puberty — Hygiene 
of  puberty — Mistaken  notions— Sad  results  of  ignorance — Neg- 
lect of  mothers  to  impart  information — Illustrative  cases — A 
solemn  duty  on  the  part  of  mothers — Special  care  necessary  at 
puberty — Precautions  to  be  observed. 

Education  of  Young  Ladies 185 

Home  training — Mistakes  of  mothers — Useless  accomplishments — 
A  knowledge  of  house-keeping  essential — School  education — 
Young  ladies'  seminaries — u  Young  girl  graduates." 

Mental  Equality  of  the  Sexes 190 

Arguments  for  the  mental  inferiority  of  woman  considered — Recent 
studies  in  comparative  brain  weight — Average  size  of  male 
brain — Average  size  of  female  brain — Woman's  brain  propor- 
tionately larger  than  man's — Brain  capacity  of  lower  ani- 
mals— Great  mental  capacity  sometimes  observed  in  small 
brains — Dr.  Bastian  on  brain  quality — The  brain  capacity  of 
idiots — Mental  difference  between  men  and  women  the  result 
of  education — Fallacious  arguments  of  a  popular  writer  exposed 
— Relation  of  heredity  to  this  question — Female  brain  in  bar- 
barous nations — Parisian  brains — The  supposed  mental  inferi- 


ority  of  woman  an  argument  for  better  opportunities  rather  than 
the  reverse — Comparative  mental  capacity  of  Egyptian  women 
— Coeducation  of  the  sexes — Overstudy  at  critical  periods. 

Novel  Reading  and  Dancing 207 

Impurity  of  speech — The  immoral  dance — Testimony  of  a  dancing 

Diet 215 

Tea-drinking — Tea  and  temper — Late  suppers,  ices,  confectionary, 
etc. — Too  much  meat. 

Drugs,  Stimulants,  and  Narcotics 221 

Dangers  from  habitual  use  of  drugs — The  opium,  chloral,  liquor, 
and  tea  and  coffee  habits — Chloralism — Damaging  dosing — 
Use  of  cigarettes  by  women. 

Exercise 280 

Physical  culture  among  Grecian  women — Lack  of  physical  develop- 
ment among  English  and  American  girls — Frequency  of  nar- 
row backs,  flat  chests,  round  shoulders,  and  scrawny  arms — 
Deficient  muscular  development  a  cause  of  uterine  disease — 
How  to  cure  "  backache  " — Healthfulness  of  work — Degenera- 
tion of  unused  muscles — How  to  take  exercise — When  to 
exercise — Best  forms  of  exercise — Skating,  rowing,  dancing — 
Calisthenics — Parlor  gymnastics — Necessity  for  unrestrained 
action — Physical  training  of  young  women — Cause  of  round 
shoulders  and  spinal  curvatures — Bad  positions  in  sleeping, 
sitting,  and  standing — How  to  prevent  and  cure  spinal  curva- 
tures and  weak  backs — A  home-made  gymnasium — Light  cal- 
isthenics for  girls— How  to  develop  the  chest — Exercises  to 
straighten  the  spine  and  develop  the  waist. 

The  Question  of  Woman's  Dress 246 

Extravagances  of  fashionable  dress — The  slavery  of  fashion — Natural 
requirements  for  drees — Essential  qualifications  of  healthful 
clothing — Male  corset  wearers — Fashionable  dress  examined — 
Corsets  and  tight-lacing — Natural  female  form — Female  form 
deformed  by  fashion — Venus  of  Milo — Modern  Parisian  Belle 
— The  corset  a  cause  of  consumption — How  a  good  complexion 
is  spoiled — Corset-stiffened  chests — Corsets  and  vital  capacity 
— Health  missionaries  needed — Heart  disease  caused  by  tight- 
lacing — Other  effects  of  tight-lacing — Corsets  and  dyspepsia — 


Death  from  pressure  over  stomach — Tight-laced  fissure  of  the 
Jiver — A  patient  in  BeUevue  Hospital — Various  deformities 
of  the  liver  from  tight-lacing — A  liver  cut  in  two — Other  evil 
results — Instant  death  from  tight-lacing — The  corset  not  a  ne- 
cessity— The  corset  a  modern  invention — From  one  folly  to 
another — Elastics — A  cause  of  cold  feet  and  headache — Fash- 
ionable suicides — Equable  protection  of  the  body  necessary — 
Bustles — Unclad  limbs — What  drags  the  life  out  of  a  woman  ? 
— A  cause  of  uterine  disease — Abuse  of  the  feet — French 
heels — Evils  of  narrow  shoes  and  high  heels — Chinese  treat- 
ment of  the  feet — Fashion  in  deformity — False  hair  and  hair 
dyes — Healthful  clothing  for  women — Grecian,  Hawaiian,  and 
Hindoo  customs — How  to  dress  warm — Flounces  and  over- 
skirts — Testimony  of  a  distinguished  lady  physician — Re- 
marks of  Prof.  T.  G.  Thomas,  M.  D. 

Pebsonal  Beauty 276 

How  to  be  beautiful — A  beautiful  character — An  active  liver  and 
sound  digestion  needed — Danger  of  using  cosmetics — Bathing 
— How  to  avoid  colds — A  cause  of  skin  diseases — Bathing  a 
natural  instinct — How  to  bathe — Treatment  of  common  diseases 
of  the  skin — Heat-rash — Treatment — Erythema,  or  redness  of 
the  skin — Treatment — Acne,  face-pimples — Treatment — Com- 
edones— Treatment — Acne  rosacea — Treatment — Oily  skin — 
Treatment — Dry  skin — Treatment — Dandruff — Treatment — 
Offensive  perspiration — Treatment —  Freckles  —  Treatment  — 
Moth  patches — Treatment  —  Baldness  —  Treatment — Patchy 
baldness — Treatment — Hirsutes,  overgrowth  of  hair — Treat- 
ment— Depilatories. 

Mabriage. 291 

Marriage  conducive  to  longevity — Different  views  respecting  marriage 
— Modern  disregard  for  the  sanctity  of  marriage — Object  of 
marriage — When  to  marry — Marriage  in  Japan,  in  the  Orient, 
in  Africa,  Italy,  Spain,  and  the  Sandwich  Islands — Plato's 
view  of  the  time  for  marriage — Wisdom  of  stock  breeders — 
Young  wives  and  old  husbands — Proper  difference  in  age  be- 
tween husband  and  wife — Whom  to  marry — Characteristics  of 
a  man  who  will  make  a  good  husband — Good  health  requisite 
— Danger  from  results  of  early  "  indiscretions  " — Danger  of 
marrying  a  man  who  has  been  "  just  a  little  fast " — Women 
should  be  as  scrupulous  as  men  about  past  character — May  he  be 
a  cousin  ? — Who  ought  not  to  marry — Folly  of  marrying  to 
cure  disease — A  word  of  advice — Little  girls  should  not  marry 
— Courting — Dangers  of  courtship — Flirting. 


The  Social  Evil 322 

Extent  of  the  evil — Hideous  results  of  vice  increasing — Danger  of 
contamination — Causes  of  falls  from  virtue — Men  not  wholly 
at  fault — Sowing  "  wild  oats  " — Purity  of  mind  a  complete 
safeguard — Illustrative  cases — The  evil  influence  of  "gush- 
ing "  manners — Religion  the  best  safeguard — The  restraining 
influence  of  physical  exercise. 


Influence  of  the  true  wife — Dignity  of  wifehood  — The  import  of 
marriage — The  dangers  of  ignorance — Prime  object  of  marriage 
— The  hygiene  of  marriage — Useful  suggestions  to  young  wives 
— Wedding  journeys — Excesses — A  woman's  rights — A  sug- 
gestion from  nature — Suggestions  to  wives  who  desire  children 
— The  Limitation  of  offspring — Harmful  means  of  preventing 
conception — Criminal  abortion — Unreliability  of  preventives — 
How  respect  for  the  maternal  function  is  destroyed. 

Criminal  Abortion 351 

Revolting  character  of  the  crime — Its  prevalence  in  ancient  times — 
Recommended  by  Aristotle — Not  prohibited  by  ancient  Greeks 
or  Romans — Modern  apologists  for  the  crime — General  preva- 
lence in  modern  times — A  notorious  fact — Destroys  more 
lives  than  "  war,  pestilence,  and  famine,  combined  " — Preva- 
lence among  Southern  negroes — Fatality  to  the  mother — Al- 
most certain  cause  of  life-long  invalidism — A  dangerous  com- 
plication of  abortion — Even  physicians  not  aware  of  the  extent 
of  the  crime — Horrible  results  of  attempted  abortion — A  cause 
of  deformed  children — Influence  of  abortion  on  future  pregnan- 
cies— Influence  of  abortion  on  children  afterward  born — Diffi- 
culty of  convicting  abortionists — The  only  hope  for  the  future 
— Duty  of  society  toward  the  perpetrators  of  the  crime — Duty 
of  physicians — Testimony  of  eminent  physicians — A  cause  of 
cancer  of  the  womb. 

The  Meno-Pause,  or  Change  of  Life. 369 

When  the  change  occurs — Nature  of  the  change — The  grand  cli- 
macteric— A  critical  period — A  "  Pandora's  box  "  of  ills — 
"  An  ounce  of  prevention  worth  a  pound  of  cure  " — Symptoms 
indicating  approach  of  the  change — Morbid  symptoms  during 

CONTENTS.  xiii 

the  change — "Flushings" — Treatment — Perspirations — Treat- 
ment— Mental  excitement  with  tendency  to  mania — Numerous 
symptoms — Liability  to  tumors  and  malignant  disease — A 
special  cause  of  the  occurrence  of  cancer  at  the  change  of  life 
— Hygiene  of  the  change  of  life — Special  care  required. 


The  motherly  instinct — Woman's  ruling  passion — An  unhappy 
tendency — The  dignity  of  motherhood — A  mother's  mission — 
Mischievous  teaching — The  prospective  mother. 

Heredity 388 

u  Like  father  like  son  " — Sons  resemble  the  father  and  daughter* 
the  mother — The  question  of  pedigree— Neglect  of  the  matter 
of  pedigree  in  contracting  marriages — The  race  deteriorating; 
from  neglect  of  hereditary  influence — A  fatal  element  at  work 
in  modern  society — Lesson  from  stock  breeders — Curious  illus- 
trative facte — Origin  of  a  new  race  of  sheep — An  acquired 
deformity  inherited — Transmission  of  acquired  habits — The? 
Lambert  family — The  "  Porcupine  Man  " — Remarkable  exper- 
iment by  Prof.  Brown  Sequard — Heredity  in  Guinea  pigs- 
Testimony  of  Francis  Galton — Hereditary  genius — Curious- 
observation  respecting  parentage  of  remarkable  divines — The 
criminal  classes — Bad  habits  of  parents  become  irresistible 
tendencies  in  children — The  children  of  drunkards — The  Juke 
family — A  remarkable  Chinese  custom — The  case  of  Ouiteau 
— The  poets  Coleridge — Effect  of  long-continued  anxiety — The 
case  of  James  I. — Napoleon — Interesting  examples  of  pre-natal 
influence — The  puny  progeny  of  young  animals — Testimony 
of  Aristotle  against  premature  marriages — Bad  results  of  youth- 
ful marriages  in  France — The  only  hope  for  the  physical 
redemption  of  the  race. 

Gestation,  ob  Pregnancy 397 

Signs  of  pregnancy — Cessation  of  menstruation — u  Morning  sick- 
ness —  Abdominal  flattening  —  Changes  in  the  breasts  — 
" Quickening M  —  Explanation  of  "quickening"  —  Ascent  of 
womb— Abdominal  enlargement — Vomiting  of  later  months — 
— Leucorrhoea — Descent  of  the  womb. 


Hygiene  of  Pregnancy 402 

How  to  secure  painless  childbirth — The  mother's  responsibility — 
Necessity  for  special  care— -Measures  which  conduce  to  com- 
fort and  safety  of  the  mother  during  pregnancy  and  child- 
birth— Physiological  childbirth — Parturition  without  pain — 
Diet — Stimulants — An  erroneous  theory — "  Longings  *  — Ex- 
ercise— Massage — Dress — The  dress  of  pregnant  women  reg- 
ulated by  law  in  ancient  times — Bathing — Local  bathing — 
Care  of  the  breasts — Measures  which  influence  the  child — 
Hygiene  of  ante-natal  life — Mental  condition  of  mother — Ef- 
fects of  intoxication  at  conception — Hap-hazard  generation — 
How  to  secure  special  mental  qualities  in  children — Care  of  the 

Disorders  of  Pregnancy 426 

Pregnancy  specially  liable  to  certain  derangements  of  the  system — 
Results  of  perverting  influences — "  Morning  sickness  " — Treat- 
ment —  Acidity  —  Flatulence  —  Treatment  —  Constipation  — 
Treatment — Hemorrhoids,  or  piles — Treatment — Disorders  of 
the  bladder — Treatment — Disorders  of  the  womb — Treat- 
ment —  Vaginal  discharges  —  Treatment — Itching  genitals — 
Treatment — Varicose  or  enlarged  veins — Treatment — Dropsi- 
cal swelling  of  the  feet  and  limbs — Treatment— Pufliness  of 
the  face — Neuralgia — Treatment  —  Headache  and  disturban- 
ces of  vision  —  Shortness  of  breath  —  Fainting  —  Miscarriage 
and  abortun  —  Treatment  —  Premature  labor — Death  of  the 
foetus  —  Molar  or  false  pregnancy  —  Flooding  —  Treatment  — 
Puerperal  convulsions  —  Treatment  —  Cramps  —  Treatment — 
Painful  breast — Treatment — Palpitation  of  the  heart — Rigid 
skin — Treatment — Malpositions,  how  to  remedy. 

Labor,  or  Childbirth 444 

Length  of  p  regnancy — Signs  of  approach  of  childbirth — Uterine  pains 
— False  pains — Presentation  and  position — "  Breech  presenta- 
tion " — Other  abnormal  presentations — Stages  of  labor — Length 
of  labor — Causes  of  delay  in  labor — Rigidity  of  the  womb- 
Rigidity  of  the  perinaeum — Inactivity  of  the  womb— Means  of 
hastening  labor — Massage  used  by  the  Chinese,  Siamese,  Jap- 
anese, and  other  nations  —  Cong-fou  —  Ambouk — Methods  in 
use  among  the  natives  of  Africa,  India,  the  South  Sea  Islands, 
Mexico,  Pueblos,  and  among  the  Welch  and  Dutch  peasantry 
— Relics  of  the  peculiar  methods  used  by  the  early  settlers  of 
Kentucky  and  Ohio — The  preparation  for  labor — Vaginal 
douche  —  Massage  —  Fomentations  — Frictions — Management 


of  labor — Mid  wives — The  preparation  of  the  bed — Position 
of  patient  during  the  different  stages — The  employment  of 
u  expression  "—How  to  apply — A  substitute  for  the  forceps 
— To  prevent  laceration  of  "the  perinaeum — Delivery  of  the 
child — Expulsion  of  the  placenta,  or  after-birth — What  to  do 
in  cases  of  still-birth — Artificial  respiration  for  infant — Wash- 
ing and  dressing  the  child — Dressing  the  cord — The  belly-band — 
The  colostrum — Meconium — The  binder — Diet  of  the  mother 
— Care  of  the  bladder  and  bowels — The  lochia!  discharge — 
Vaginal  injections. 

Complications  of  Childbirth 463 

Milk-fever  —  How  to  prevent  —  Diet — Treatment — Care  of  the 
breasts — Massage  to  nipple — Treatment  for  retracted  nipples 
— Sore  nipples — Treatment — Causes — Inflammation  of  the 
breast — Treatment — How  to  empty  the  breast — How  to  sup- 
port the  breast — To  check  the  secretion  of  milk — Galactor- 
rhuea — Treatment — To  promote  the  secretion  of  milk — "Get- 
ting up" — Subinvolution — Hemorrhage  after  labor — Treat- 
ment— Inactivity  of  the  womb — Treatment — Retention  of  the 
afler-birth — Treatment — Rigidity  of  the  womb — Treatment — 
Rigidity  of  the  perinaeum — Treatment — After-pain — The  use 
of  ergot — Use  of  anaesthetics — Chloroform — Twins — Abdom- 
inal pregnancy — Puerperal  fever — Treatment — Lacerations  of 
the  womb  and  perinaeum — Phlegmasia  dolens — Milk-leg — 
Treatment — Puerperal  "mania— Treatment — Pelvic  inflamma- 
tions— Adhesions — Pelvic  abscess — Treatment — Misplaced  af- 
ter-birth, "Placenta  previa" — Treatment, 


Causes  of  increasing  frequency — Effects  of  perverted  social  habits 
— Evils  of  fashion — Neglect  of  the  bowels  and  bladder — Causes 
of  habitual  constipation — Deficient  muscular  exercise — Incon- 
venient and  imperfect  privy  accommodations — The  earth 
closet — Perpetual  "  dosing  " — Homeopathy — False  modesty — 
"Female  weaknesses  "—Success  of  rational  methods — Leu- 
oorrhcea,  ox  whites — Treatment — Vaginitis,  or  inflammation  of 
the  vagina — Treatment — Vaginismus — Treatment — Itching  of 
genitals — Treatment — Inflammation  of  the  labia — Treatment — 
Uterine  catarrh,  or  endometritis — Treatment — Inflammation  of 
the  womb — Treatment — Congestion  of  the  womb — Treatment 
—Erosion,  or  so-called  ulceration  of  the  neck  of  the  womb— 

rxvi  CONTENTS. 

Treatment — Amenorrhea,  or  suppressed  menstruation — Treat- 
ment— Molimen  —  Emmenagogues  —  Scanty  menstruation — 
Treatment — Infrequent  menstruation — Treatment — Vicarious 
menstruation — Treatment — Menorrhagia,  or  profuse  'menstrua- 
tion—  Treatment  —  Metrorrhagia,  or  uterine  hemorrhage  — 
Treatment — Too  frequent  menstruation  —  Treatment — Fetid 
menstruation  —  Treatment — Dysmenorrhea^  or  painful  men- 
struation— Treatment — Congestive  dysmenorrhea* — Treatment 
— Obstructive  dysmenorrhea* — Treatment — Membranous  dys- 
'  menorrhoea — Treatment — Ovarian  dysmenorrheas^ — Treatment 
— Neuralgic  dysmenorrhea  —  Treatment — "  Inter-menstrual " 
dysmenorrhea — Treatment — Congestion  of  the  ovaries  or 
ovarian  irritation — Treatment — Inflammation  of  the  ovaries — 
Treatment — Cellulitis,  pelvic  peritonitis,  inflammation  about 
the  womb — Treatment — Prolapsus,  or  falling  of  the  womb- 
Treatment — Pessaries  —  Anteversion  —  Treatment — Anteflex- 
ion —  Treatment  —  Retroversion  —  Treatment  —  Retroflexion 
— Treatment — Lateral  displacements — Treatment —  Prolapsus 
of  the  ovaries — Treatment — Cystocele,  or  prolapsus  of  the 
bladder — Treatment — Rectocele — Treatment  —  Nymphomania 
— Treatment — Sterility — Treatment  —  Coccygodynia,  painful 
sitting — Treatment  —  Irritable  or  hysterical  breast  —  Treat- 
ment— Dyspareunia,  or  painful  connection — Treatment — Tu- 
mor of  the  urethra  —  Treatment  —  Disease  of  the  ure- 
thral glands — Treatment  —  Bladder  disorders  in  women 
— Inability  to  retain  urine — Irritability  of  the  bladder — 
Treatment — Hemorrhoids,  or  piles — Treatment — Constipation 
—  Treatment  —  Backache  —  Treatment  —  Chlorosis  —  Treat- 
ment —  Rupture  of  the  neck  of  the  womb — Treatment — Lac- 
eration of  the  perinaeum — Treatment — Vesicovaginal  fistula, 
Recto-vaginal  fistula — Treatment — Stricture  of  the  womb — 
Tumors  of  the  womb— Fibroid  tumor — Polypus — Treatment 
— Ovarian  dropsy — Treatment — Floating  tumor  of  abdo- 
men— Floating  kidney — Treatment — Cancer  of  the  womb — 
Treatment — Tumors  of  the  breast — Treatment — Cancer  of 
the  breast  —  Treatment — Relaxed  and  pendant  breast  — 
Treatment  —  Atrophy  of  the  breast — Treatment — Imper- 
forate hymen — Treatment  —  Deficient  development  of  the 
ovaries — Enlarged  or  relaxed  abdomen  —  Treatment — Hys- 
teria—  Treatment — Nerve-tire  and  various  nerve  ailments 
— Treatment  —  Retention  of  urine  —  Treatment  —  Use  of 

Practical  Suggestions 591 

First  symptoms  of  uterine  disease — Exercise  and  rest — Position 
during  sleep — Diet 

CONTENTS.  xvii 


Diseases  of  Children 609 

Hints  about  the  diet  of  infante — Wet-nurses — Overfeeding — Care 
during  warm  season — Danger  from  lead-poisoning— "  Baby 
foods  " — Weaning — Col  vulsions —  Treatment  —  Night  terrors 
— Treatment — Pain  in  the  bowels  —  Treatment  —  Worms — 
Treatment — Vomiting — Treatment  — Eruptions — Treatment 
— Mumps —  Treatment  —  Measles — Treatment  —  Whooping- 
oough — Treatment — Diphtheria — Treatment — Scarlet  fever,  or 
scarlatina — Treatment — Chicken-pox — Treatment  —  Infantile 
Dyspepsia — Treatment — Diarrhea — Treatment — Dysentery — 
Treatment — Prolapsus  Ani — Treatment — Wetting  the  bed — 
Treatment — Colds — Treatment — Nasal  Catarrh — Treatment- 
Ear-ache— Treatment — Discharge  from  the  ear — Treatment — 
Sore  eyes — Treatment — Croup — False  or  spasmodic  croup — 
Treatment — Sore  mouth — Treatment — Sore  throat — Treat- 

Applications  of  Water  and  Electricity C°,i 

Rules  for  bathing — Sponge  bath  —  Wet-sheet  pack  —  Sits  or  hip 
bath — Foot  bath — Wet  girdle — Vaginal  douche  —  Enema — 
Fomentations — Compresses — Oil  bath — Heat  and  cold  to  spine 
— Electricity,  how  to  use  —  Galvanism  —  Electric  douche — 
Bladder  douche. 

Postural  Treatment  and  Massage 639 

To  strengthen  the  muscles  of  the  trunk — Ladder  exercises  —  Arm 
and  leg  movements — To  restore  displaced  organs  to  position — 
Knee-chest  position — Massage — Massage  of  bowels— Massage 
of  womb. 

Miscellaneous  Remedies  and  Prescriptions 643 

8oap-and- water  enema — Camphor-water  enema — Glycerine  enema 
— Linseed  tea  enema — Quassia  enema— Starch  enema — Lo- 
tions for  use  in  cancer  of  the  breast — Lotions  and  other  reme- 
dies for  sore  nipples — Vaginal  lotions — Vaginal  pledgets,  or 
tampons  —  Glycerine  —  Vaseline  — Alum — Vinegar — Vaginal 
suppositories — For  bladder  douohe — Prescriptions  for  constipa- 
tion— For  catarrh — For  mouth  and  throat — Lime-water — 

Disinfectant  lotions — Miscellaneous — Salt  glow. 
2  * 

xviii  CONTENTS. 

Useful  Dietetic  Recipes 653 

Breads — Soft  biscuit  —  Rice  waffles  —  Oatmeal  breakfast  cake — 
Graham  breakfast  rolls — Rusk  —  Graham  crisps  —  Oatmeal 
crisps — Graham  and  oatmeal  crackers — Diabetic  bread — Gru- 
els— Beef  tea  and  oatmeal — Milk  gruel — Oatmeal  gruel — Rice 
gruel — Milk  porridge — Farina  gruel — Cream  gruel — Chicken 
jelly — Lemon  jelly — Bread  jelly — Sago  jelly — Drinks — Tap- 
ioca milk — Rice  milk — Bran  tea — Rice  water1 — Apple  and 
toast  water — Tamarind  water — Currant  water — Toast  water — 
Lemonade — Hot  lemonade— Flaxseed  lemonade — Barley  wa- 
ter— Gum  arabic  water — Flaxseed  tea — Bran  or  wheat  coffee 
— Liquid  foods — Chicken  broth — Beef  tea — Milk  diet— Lime- 
water  and  milk — Beef  juice — Koumyss — Preparations  for  nu- 
tritive injections — Pancreas  and  meat  solution — Pancreas  and 
cream — Beef  tea  and  egg — Miscellaneous — White  of  egg — 
White  of  egg  and  milk — Eggs  and  sugar — Slip — Frugolao — 
Rice  milk — To  cook  rice. 

Glossaby 661 

Explanation  of  Plates 663 

Index  665 

^i-, — » „  ^  M  ^fJtXB!!^ 

-4  Qop^gg^^^p^^gi  fr 

*    «  *  C4 

Plate  L — Low  Forms  of  Life,  and  simplest  modes  of  Re- 
Plate  IL — Male  and  Female  Pelvis,  with  Pelvis  of  Guinea- 

Plate  DX — Reproduction  in  Plants. 

Plate  IV. — Ovum  and  Spermatozoa  in  Man  and  Lower 


Plate  V. — The  Womb  and  its  Appendages. 

Plate  VL — Development  of  the  Embryo. 

Plate  VTL — Siamese  Twins  and  Primitive  Trace. 

Plate  VHL — The  Breast  and  the  Areola  of  Pregnancy. 

Plate  IX. — Pregnant  Womb,  Section  of  Ovary,  Reproduc- 
tion in  Tape- Worm,  Ovary  Discharging  Ovum. 

Plate  X — Results  of  Tight-Lacing. 

Plate  XI. — Light  Gymnastics. 

Plate  XH— Postural  Treatment 

Plate    XIII. — Partial    and    Advanced   Prolapsus  of  the 

Plate  XIV. — Anteversion  and  Anteflexion. 

Plate  XV. — Retroversion  and  Retroflexion. 


xx  PLATES. 

Plate  XVI. — Partial    and   Complete    Laceration  of    the 

Platb  A.— (Chromo-lithograph)  Female  Reproductive  Or- 
gans.    Disease  of  Urethral  Glands. 

Plate  B. — (Chromo-lithograph)  Laceration  of  the  Neck  of 
the  Womb. 

Plate  D.— (Chromo-lithograph)  Cancer  of  the  Breast,  be- 
ginning and  advanced. 

Plate    0. — (Chromo-lithograph)   Polypus  and  Cancer  of 
the  Womb. 

Plate  E. — Human  Embryo  and  Embryo  of  Dog. 

Plate  F. — Bad  Positions  Productive  of  Deformity. 

Plate  Q. — Natural  and  Deformed  Waist  Contrasted. 

Plate  H. — Fashion  in  Deformity. 

Plate  J. — Grecian,  Hawaiian,  and  Chinese  Fashion* 

Plate  K.— Models  for  Healthful  Clothing. 

Plate  L. — "  Expression  "  and  "  Turning. " 

Plate  M. — Postural  Exercisea 

Anatomy  and  Physiology 



pursuing  the  study  of  "the  human 
form  divine,"  the  anatomist  or  physiologist 
is  often  led  to  pause  in  the  midst  of  his  dis- 
sections or  observations,  and  to  exclaim 
with  the  Psalmist,  "  Great  and  wondrous 
are  Thy  works."  Even  the  atheist,  who 
recognizes  no  Omnipotent  Hand  as  the  Cre- 
ator of  all  the  marvels  which  greet  the  in- 
vestigating scientist  at  every  turn,  is  loth 
to  believe  himself  to  be  a  creature  of 
chance,  and  is  prone  to  erect  an  altar  dedicated 
to  the  worship  of  Nature,  even  if  he  fails  to  rec- 
ognize the  God  of  Nature.  That  wonderful  machine 
which  we  call  the  body  is  the  masterpiece  of 
the  Infinite  Artist.  In  every  detail  of  fibre 
and  structure  and  function,  the  most  marvelous 
wisdom  and  foresight  are  displayed,  and  such  an 
adaptation  of  means  to  end  as  none  but  an  in- 
finite mind  could  devise.  In  no  part  of  this  won- 
derfully delicate  and  complicated  mechanism  is  this 

8  [21] 


more  strikingly  to  be  observed  than  in  that  por- 
tion of  the  body  devoted  to  the  perpetuation  of  the 
species, — a  function  in  the  performance  of  which  the 
interests  of  the  individual  are  subjugated  to  those  of 
the  race.  To  the  set  of  organs  co  which  this  impor- 
tant work  is  allotted  hi  woman,  and  to  the  nature  and 
peculiaritiea  of  their  several  functions,  this  section  is 
to  be  devoted ;  but  before  entering  upon  the  special 
consideration  of  the  reproductive  system,  and  as  a 
preparation  for  the  most  perfect  understanding  of  the 
subject,  we  will  take  a  hasty  glance  at  life  and  its 
functions  in  general,  and  at  the  structure  of  the  body 
and  its  several  parts,  with  their  various  functions. 

Animated  Atoms. — Let  us  begin  at  the  very 
foot  of  the  scale  of  animate  being.  Did  you  ever  ob- 
serve the  filmy  coat  of  green  which  covers  the  bottom 
of  a  half-dried  pool  by  the  roadside  ?  or  the  greenish 
accumulation  which  occurs  in  old  and  uncleansed 
eaves-troughs?  If  so,  gather  a  little  of  this  same 
green  substance  and  bring  it  to  our  laboratory  where 
we  will  study  it  with  care  by  the  aid  of  a  powerful 
microscope  and  learn  a  lesson  in  the  science  of  life 
from  the  lowly  forms  which  we  may  observe. 

Everything  being  in  readiness,  we  place  beneath 
the  microscope  a  little  speck  of  the  green  slime,  and 
find  that  the  characteristic  color  of  the  same  is  due  to 
the  green  coloring  of  the  myriads  of  minute  specks  of 
life  of  which  it  is  composed.  The  exact  appearance 
of  these  under  the  microscope  is  well  shown  in  Fig. 
1,  Plate  I,  to  which  the  reader's  attention  is  invited. 
Each  little  speck  is  what  is  known  to  the  biologist  as 



a  cell.  It  is  composed  of  a  gelatinous  substance  of 
the  consistence  of  jelly,  transparent  in  all  parts  ex- 
cept its  center,  at  which  may  be  seen  sundry  little 
greenish  specks  to  which  the  color  of  the  aggregated 
mass  is  due.  This  humble  creature,  infinitesimal  in 
size,  is  as  much  a  living  being  as  the  proudest  mon- 
arch, and  bears  the  name  of  protococcus. 

A  little  careful  scrutiny  of  the  object  will  prob- 
ably reveal  other  forms  of  life  closely  allied  to  the 
species  named,  such  as  those  shown  at  Fig.  2,  Plate 
I,  which  are  known  as  amaebce,  and  which  in  many 
respects  differ  little  from  the  protococcus.  However, 
there  is  in  reality  a  wide  difference  between  these  two 
animated  specks,  for  one  is  a  vegetable,  and  the  other 
an  animal.  If  wre  had  the  time  at  command,  it  would 
be  most  interesting  to  study  closely  the  characteris- 
tics and  habits  of  life  of  these  two  representative  creat- 
ures ;  but  we  can  only  glance  a  moment  at  some  of 
their  leading  points  of  interest. 

1.  They  are  more  or  less  globular  in  form,in  wide 
contrast  with  the  sharp,  angular  outlines  of  a  crystal 
of  salt,  a  snowflake,  or  a  minute  grain  of  sand.  This 
is  true  of  all  living  bodies. 

2.  They  eat.  Although  they  are  not  possessed  of 
teeth,  or  even  of  mouths,  they  may  be  observed  to 
eat,  each  in  its  own  way,  and  choosing  its  own  proper 
food.  The  protococcus,  our  little  green  plant,  sub- 
sists upon  the  minerals  and  gases  which  exist  in  the 
moist  earth  where  it  finds  its  home.  A  careful  exam- 
ination of  the  amoeba  suggests  a  reason  why  it  is 
found  in  close  proximity  to  its  humble  relative,  since 


it  is  found  to  contain  within  its  central  portion,  sun- 
dry fragments  which  are  evidently  the  remains  of  a 
protococcus  upon  which  it  has  made  a  sumptuous 

3.  They  grow.  As  they  absorb  and  appropriate 
nourishment,  they  increase  in  size,  up  to  a  certain 
limit,  each  passing  through  the  several  stages  of  ex- 
istence peculiar  to  its  species.  In  many  of  these 
lowly  forms,  as  in  some  higher,  some  of  the  stages 
of  the  existence  of  a  single  individual  involve  such 
remarkable  changes  that  it  loses  all  semblance  of 
its  former  appearance  and  would  not  be  recognized 
as  the  same  by  the  most  acute  observer.  This  is 
true  of  the  protococcus,  as  will  be  seen  by  compar- 
ing the  different  forms  shown  in  the  Plate. 

4.  They  move  about.  The  property  of  voluntary 
or  spontaneous  motion  is  usually  associated  with 
animals  only;  but  this  rule  does  not  apply  to  the 
little  creatures  which  are  found  at  the  lowermost  end 
of  the  scale  of  animate  existence.  Here  both  animals 
and  vegetables  are  endowed  with  the  power  of  motion. 
The  protococcus,  at  least  at  certain  stages  of  its  ex- 
istence, possesses  two  little  filaments  by  the  con- 
stant motion  of  which  it  propels  itself  rapidly  through 
the  water  when  it  is  immersed,  or  wriggles  along  the 
face  of  a  moist  surface.  The  amoeba,  our  atomic 
animal,  possesses  still  greater  powers  of  motion  and 
locomotion.  It  has  no  limbs,  no  feet,  no  hands,  no 
wings,  and  yet  it  moves  about  with  great  facility,  and 
sometimes  after  a  very  lively  fashion. 

5.  They  increase  in  numbers.     These  infinitesimal 


beings,  like  the  larger  members  of  the  animated  world 
of  which  they  are  the  types,  possess  the  power  of  re- 
production, by  which  their  respective  races  may  be 
preserved  from  extinction.  Of  the  exact  modes  of 
reproduction  here  illustrated,  we  shall  take  occasion 
to  spealc  elsewhere,  and  need  not  say  more  in  this 
connection  except  to  mention  that  they  are  essentially 
the  same  in  each  of  the  two  little  creatures  which 
we  are  considering  as  representatives  of  the  two  great 
<li visions  of  the  organic  world,  animals  and  vegetables. 

6.  After  living  its  allotted  span  of  life  and  per- 
forming its  due  share  of  labor  in  the  great  workshop 
of  the  world,  each  of  these  two  little  creatures  "  pays 
its  debt  to  nature "  and  returns  to  its  mother  earth 
whence,  directly  or  indirectly,  it  came. 

Are  animals  and  vegetables  then  so  nearly  alike  ? 
The  verdict  of  science  is  that  the  chief  distinction 
which  can  be  made  between  these  two  great  classes 
in  the  lowest  forms  is  in  the  character  of  the  food 
upon  which  they  subsist.  The  vegetable  finds  its 
food  in  the  inanimate  elements  of  the  soil,  moisture, 
and  air.  The  animal  cannot  appropriate  this  kind  of 
nourishment,  and  feeds  upon  the  vegetables  to  which 
it  is  so  near  akin,  or  upon  its  brothers  of  the  animal 

Slight  as  is  the  difference  between  the  two  classes, 
animals  and  vegetables,  the  difference  between  lowly 
vegetable  forms  and  higher,  and  between  the  amoeba 
and  higher  animals,  is  still  less.  The  giant  oak  is  in 
reality  only  an  aggregation  of  living  cells  each  of  which 
is  essentially  like  the  protococcus.    The  mammoth  ele- 


phant,  man  himself,  is  but  a  community  of  little  creat- 
ures of  which  the  amoeba  is  a  type.  Take  a  drop  of 
blood  from  the  finger ;  place  it  under  the  microscope, 
and  we  find  in  view  thousands  of  little  creatures, 
some  of  which  are  so  nearly  like  the  amoeba  which 
we  found  in  the  slime  from  a  stagnant  pool  that  the 
most  powerful  microscope  scarcely  shows  any  differ- 
ence (Fig.  2,  Plate  i ) .  These  little  creatures  are  known 
as  the  white  blood-corpuscles.  Each  drop  of  the  vi- 
tal fluid  contains  these  and  millions  more  of  other 
little  creatures  known  as  the  red  blood-corpuscles, 
which  are  simply  white  blood-corpuscles  grown  old. 
Tear  off  a  little  bit  of  tissue  from  the  liver  and  sub- 
mit it  to  the  scrutiny  of  a  powerful  magnifying  glass. 
This  too  we  find  to  be  composed  of  curiously  shaped 
little  living  creatures.  These  living  atoms  have  each 
their  particular  individual  work  to  do ;  the  red  cor- 
puscles to  carry  oxygen,  the  white  ones  to  repair  in- 
jured portions  of  the  body  and  in  their  old  age  to 
become  red  corpuscles,  and  the  cells  of  the  liver  to 
make  bile.  In  the  kidneys  are  found  other  peculiar 
creatures  to  which  is  assigned  the  duty  of  removing 
from  the  body  certain  impurities  which  together  form 
the  urine.  In  the  stomach  are  found  creatures  which 
are  adapted  to  the  work  of  making  gastric  juice  to 
digest  the  food.  Other  cells  in  the  body,  devoted  to 
mechanical  work,  form  the  muscles.  In  the  brain 
and  spinal  cord  are  found  still  other  active  creatures 
which  do  our  feeling  and  thinking  for  us.  Thus  the 
whole  body  is  divided  into  groups  of  cells,  each  group 
being  assigned  a  special  work  to  do,  just  as  the  mem- 


bers  of  a  community  might  be  grouped  according  to 
the  several  trades  to  which  its  members  are  devoted. 
Having  now  gained  a  few  fundamental  ideas  re- 
specting the  general  make-up  of  the  body,  let  us  pro- 
ceed to  study  its  several  parts  with  greater  care,  so 
that  we  may  be  better  prepared  to  understand  their 
relations  to  each  other  and  to  the  whole.  We  will 
consider  first, 


All  organized  beings  require  a  more  or  less  con- 
stant supply  of  new  material  to  promote  the  processes 
of  growth  and  repair.  In  order  to  make  this  material, 
termed  food,  available  for  the  purpose  designed,  a  set 
of  organs  has  been  provided  which  are  collectively 
known  as 

The  Digestive  Apparatus. — A  quaint  author  de- 
scribed an  animal  as  a  stomach  with  various  accessory 
organs  for  ministering  to  its  wants.  This  remark 
presents  in  a  somewhat  exaggerated  light  the  relative 
importance  of  the  digestive  apparatus  if  we  consider 
the  human  animal  alone  ;  but  if  we  are  to  regard  the 
animal  kingdom  as  a  whole,  it  cannot  be  considered 
as  very  much  overdrawn.  By  some  mysterious  al- 
chemy, the  exact  nature  of  which  is  by  no  means 
well  understood,  the  stomach  reduces  to  a  soluble 
form  and  a  homogeneous  character  a  great  variety  of 
substances  which  are  used  as  human  food,  and  which 
after  absorption  are  by  further  processes  still  more 
marvelous  and  mysterious,  converted  into  the  various 


tissues  and  elements  which  compose  the  body.  The 
stomach  and  its  accessory  organs  are  the  means  by 
which  fresh  material  is  brought  into  the  body  to  take 
the  place  of  that  which  has  become  worn  out  and  use- 
less, and  provides  the  necessary  pabulum  for  the 
growth  and  development  of  the  yet  immature  body. 
The  digestive  apparatus  consists  first,  of 

The  Alimentary  Canal,  a  muscul.-ir  tube  .ibout 
thirty  feet  in  length,  extending  from  the  mouth  to 
the  anus,  along  which  are  arranged  the  various  acces- 
sory organs  which  take  part  in  the  process  of  diges- 
tion. At  each  end  this  canal  is  guarded  by  a  sphinc- 
ter muscle  for  the  purpose  of  retaining  its  contents 
during  the  process  of  digestion.  Beginning  at  the  up- 
per end,  we  will  examine  in  detail  each  of  the  organs 
of  digestion  in  the  order  in  which  they  occur. 

The  Teeth,  twenty  in  number  in  the  child  and 
thirty-two  in  the  adult,  are  arranged  in  the  upper  and 
lower  jaws,  being  equally  divided  between  the  two. 
Their  function  is  to  reduce  the  food  to  a  pulverulent 
condition  so  that  it  may  be  easily  swallowed  and  may 
be  readily  acted  upon  by  the  digestive  juices.  The 
maintenance  of  the  health  of  the  teeth  requires  their 
vigorous  use  in  the  mastication  of  food  requiring 

The  Salivary  Glands. — Arranged  on  either  side 
of  the  mouth  are  three  glands,  the  office  of  which  is  to 
secrete  a  bland  fluid  which  moistens  the  food  and 
softens  it  preparatory  to  the  act  of  swallowing,  and 
at  the  same  time  acts  an  important  part  in  the 
chemistry  of  digestion,  as   we   shall  see   presently. 


The  amount  of  salivary  fluid  secreted  depends  very 
largely  upon  the  length  of  time  the  food  is  masticated, 
as  its  secretion  is  stimulated  by  the  act  of  chewing. 

The  (Esophagus  or  Meat-pipe. — The  back  part 
of  the  mouth  is  known  as  the  pharynx,  which  con- 
tracts at  its  lower  part  to  form  a  small  tube  which 
extends  downward  to  the  stomach  and  is  known  as 
the  oesophagus.  After  the  food  has  been  masticated, 
it  is  thrown  back  into  the  pharynx  by  the  tongue, 
and  by  a  process  of  squeezing  and  pulling  is  carried 
down  to  the  stomach. 

The  Stomach. — This  organ,  although  one  of  the 
most  important  of  the  various  organs  engaged  in  the 
work  of  digestion,  is  not,  as  is  generally  supposed,  the 
essential  one.  It  performs  only  a  part  of  the  work 
of  digestion,  and  may  be  dispensed  with  as  easily  as 
any  one  of  a  number  of  other  organs  which  are  asso- 
ciated with  it  in  the  perfect  elaboration  of  the  food. 
The  stomach  is  simply  a  dilated  portion  of  the  ali- 
mentary canal,  holding  about  three  pints  when  mod- 
erately distended.  Its  lining  membrane  is  filled 
with  little  glands  which  secrete  a  fluid  known  as 
gastric  juice,  which  contains  a  peculiar  substance 
known  as  pepsine,  the  properties  of  which  we  will 
discuss  presently.  The  gastric  juice  is  intensely  acid, 
and  is  secreted  in  great  abundance  during  the  process 
of  digestion. 

The  Intestines. — From  the  stomach  downward, 
the  alimentary  canal  continues  as  a  small  tube  for  the 
greater  portion  of  its  length,  expanding  about  five 
feet  from  its  termination  to  form  the  large  intestine, 


or  colon,  and  again  contracting  a  few  inches  from  the 
end,  forming  the  rectum,  its  terminal  portion.  All 
along  its  course,  but  especially  in  that  portion  known 
as  the  small  intestine,  this  part  of  the  alimentary 
canal  is  plentifully  supplied  with  glands  which  secrete 
a  complicated  fluid  which  has  an  important  part  to 
play  in  the  work  of  digestion.  While  the  process  of 
digestion  is  in  progress,  the  intestines  are  in  constant 
motion,  wave-like  motions,  termed  peristaltic  move- 
ments, traversing  their  whole  length,  from  the 
stomach  downward,  one  following  another  with  a  sort 
of  rhythmical  action.  Similar  movements  also  take 
place  in  the  stomach  while  that  organ  is  engaged  in 
the  digestion  of  food. 

The  Liver. — This  organ,  the  largest  gland  in  the 
body,  is  located  just  beneath  the  ribs  on  the  right 
side  of  the  body.  Its  left  portion  projects  over  the 
stomach  somewhat.  The  function  of  the  liver  is  a 
complicated  one.  Besides  its  work  of  making  bile,  to 
which  it  may  be  said  to  be  chiefly  devoted,  it  also 
performs  very  important  offices  in  the  process  of 
digestion,  and  other  important  functions  which  may 
be  more  properly  mentioned  elsewhere.  The  bile  is 
conveyed  from  the  liver  to  the  intestine,  which  it  en- 
ters a  few  inches  below  the  stomach,  by  a  duct,  which 
is  joined  before  it  reaches  the  intestine  by  another 
duct  coming  from  an  organ  close  at  hand  which  is 
also  involved  in  the  digestive  process. 

The  Pancreas. — This  is  a  gland  in  many  re- 
spects closely  allied  to  the  salivary  glands.  The 
fluid  which  it  secretes,  the  pancreatic  juice,  is  a  very 


important  digestive  agent  and  very  strongly  resembles 
the  salivary  juice.  It  will  receive  further  attention 
when  we  consider  the  digestive  fluids. 

The  Spleen. — This  organ  is  so  closely  associated 
with  the  digestive  apparatus  that  it  has  been  long 
surmised  that  it  is  in  some  way  involved  in  the 
process  of  converting  food  into  blood ;  but  as  yet, 
what  part,  if  any,  it  acts,  has  not  been  made  out.  It 
is  located  in  the  left  side,  just  under  the  lower  border 
of  the  ribs.  It  is  usually  not  large  enough  to  be  felt, 
but  often  becomes  considerably  enlarged  in  persons 
who  reside  in  a  malarious  country,  sometimes,  as  in  a 
ease  which  we  have  now  under  treatment,  to  ten  or 
twelve  times  its  natural  size,  which  is  scarcely  larger 
than  that  of  the  closed  hand. 

The  Portal  System. — All  the  blood  from  that 
portion  of  the  digestive  system  included  in  the  ab- 
dominal cavity,  is  gathered  info  one  large  vein  by 
which  it  is  carried  to  the  liver,  a  very  wise  provision 
of  nature,  since  it  necessitates  that  whatever  is  taken 
into  the  blood-vessels  from  the  stomach  must  pass 
through  this  natural  strainer  before  it  can  mingle 
with  the  blood  of  the  rest  of  the  body.  This  relation 
of  the  liver  to  the  portal  circulation  is  important,  as 
it  explains  some  cases  of  disease  of  other  abdominal 
organs  which  would  otherwise  be  inexplicable. 

The  Five  Digestive  Juices. — From  the  above 
description,  it  appears  that  there  are  five  distinct  digest- 
ive fluids;  viz.,  the  saliva,  the  gastric  juice,  the  bile,  the 
pancreatic  juice,  and  the  intestinal  juice.  Each  of  these 
several  juices  has  its  particular  work  to  perform  in 
the  digestive  process. 


Food,  in  its  relation  to  the  digestive  organs,  may 
be  divided  into  the  following  classes  : — 

1.  Nitrogenous  elements,  represented  by  the  albu- 
men of  eggs,  the  lean  portion  of  flesh,  and  the  gluten 
or  vegetable  albumen  of  plants ; 

2.  Farinaceous  and  Saccharine  elements,  repre- 
sented by  the  various  kinds  of  starch  and  sugar ; 

3.  Oleaginous  elements,  found  in  the  various  sorts 
of  vegetable  and  animal  fats ; 

4.  Indigestible  and  Innutritiotis  elements,  as  the 
cellulose  of  plants  and  the  tendinous  and  indigestible 
portions  of  flesh  food. 

For  each  one  of  these  classes,  except  the  last,  nat- 
ure has  provided  a  distinct  digestive  fluid. 

The  saliva  digests  starch,  converting  it  into  sugar. 
It  also  changes  cane  sugar  into  grape  sugar. 

The  gastric  juice  digests  albumen,  caseine,  gluten, 
and  all  other  digestible  nitrogenous  elements,  and 
does  not  digest  any  other  of  the  elements  of  food. 

The  bile  digests  the  fatty  elements  of  the  food, 
and  no  others.  The  digestion  of  fats  consists  in  their 
conversion  into  an  emulsion  and  the  saponification  of  a 
small  portion. 

We  have  still  two  digestive  fluids,  the  pancreatic 
and  the  intestinal,  although  we  have  found  provision 
for  the  digestion  of  all  the  digestible  elements  of  food. 
What  use  have  we  for  them?  Here  we  see  an  il- 
lustration of  the  wonderful  economy  of  nature. 
Lest  any  small  portion  of  the  food  should  escape 
without  complete  digestion,  she  has  provided  extra 
means  for  the  digestion  of  the  several  elements  of 
which  our  food  is  composed,  as  follows  : — 


The  Pancreatic  Juice  possesses  the  remarkable 
property  of  being  able  to  digest  two  of  the  elements 
of  food,  and  those  very  dissimilar  in  character,  the 
farinaceous  and  the  oleaginous ;  so  that  if  there  is  any 
portion  of  the  starch  or  sugar  which  escapes  the  action 
of  the  saliva,  it  may  be  acted  upon  by  the  pancreatic 
fluid ;  and  the  fats  not  digested  by  the  bile,  still  have 
a  chance  for  digestion  by  the  same  agent. 

The  Intestinal  Juice  is  a  still  more  wonderful 
fluid,  since  it  is  able  to  digest  all  the  elements  of 
food.  This  remarkable  property  is  undoubtedly  due 
to  the  fact  that  it  is  the  combined  product  of  the  ac- 
tion of  a  very  large  number  of  different  glands-,  and  so 
is  undoubtedly  very  complicated  in  its  composition. 

Absorption. — After  the  food  has  been  reduced  to 
a  fluid  state  by  the  action  of  these  various  juices,  it 
is  absorbed  through  two  sets  of  absorbent  vessels,  and 
in  some  mysterious  manner  which  is  by  no  means  well 
understood,  is  converted  into  blood,  a  sort  of  fluid  tis- 
sue which  circulates  through  the  body  for  the  purpose 
of  conveying  to  the  other  tissues  the  required  nour- 
ishment, and  conveying  away  the  worn  out  material. 

Disintegration  and  Elimination. — Every  move- 
ment of  a  limb,  every  sensation,  even  every  thought, 
results  in  the  destruction  or  breaking  down  of  tissue. 
The  force  employed  in  the  various  life-processes  of 
the  body  is  evolved  at  the  expense  of  tissue.  Even 
the  act  of  digestion  itself  occasions  the  loss  of  a  cer- 
tain amount  of  tissue.  This  process  is  known  as  dis- 
asmnilation  or  disintegration.  The  result  of  it  is  the 
formation  in  the  body  of  certain  substances  known  as 


debris  or  waste  products  which  are  poisonous  to  the  liv- 
ing tissues,  and  require  prompt  removal  to  preserve 
the  hody  in  health.  When  they  are  left  to  accumu- 
late, various  diseases  arise,  and  death  ensues,  some- 
times in  a  very  short  space  of  time. 

To  remove  these  useless  and  poisonous  substances, 
a  special  set  of  organs  is  provided,  which  are  termed 
eliminative  or  excretory.  Each  one  of  the  principal 
poisonous  elements  formed  in  the  body  has  its  special 
organ  to  effect  its  removal.  Urea,  the  poisonous  prod- 
uct of  the  disassimilation  of  the  muscles,  is  eliminated 
by  the  kidneys.  Cholestertne,  which  results  from  the 
freaking  down  of  nerve  tissue,  is  carried  out  of  the 
body  through  the  liver.  Carbon  di-ozide,  or  carbonic 
acid  gas ,  is  eliminated  by  the  lungs.  Various  poison- 
ous elements  are  carried  out  by  means  of  the  skin, 
and  still  others  by  the  intestinal  mucous  membrane. 
By  the  action  #of  these  several  organs,  the  system  is 
kept  free  from  the  waste  matter  which  would  otherwise 
accumulate  to  such  an  extent  as  to  hinder  the  various 
vital  processes,  and  in  a  short  time  obstruct  them  al- 

Assimilation. — The  breaking  down  and  removal 
of  waste  products  creates  a  demand  for  new  material, 
which  is  supplied  through  digestion  and  assimilation. 
Each  tissue  possesses  the  power  to  repair  itself,  and 
this  work  is  constantly  going  forward  in  all  parts  of 
the  body,  especially  during  sleep,  when  the  process 
of  disintegration  is  less  rapid  than  at  other  times. 
Every  tissue  participates  in  this  process  of  change, 
even  the  hardest  bones.     The  soft  tissues  change  very 


often,  probably  every  few  weeks  or  months,  while  the 
more  solid  tissues  probably  change  as  often  as  every 
few  years,  if  not  more  frequently.  The  blood,  a  fluid 
tissue,  changes  completely  every  few  weeks. 


All  of  the  voluntary  and  involuntary  movements 
of  the  body  are  the  result  of  the  contraction  of  the 
minute  fibres  of  the  muscles,  which  constitute  the 
fleshy  portion  of  the  body.  The  bones  also  partici- 
pate in  many  of  the  bodily  movements,  particularly 
those  of  a  voluntary  character,  by  affording  points 
for  the  attachment  of  the  muscles. 


In  the  brain  and  spinal  cord,  and  to  some  extent 
in  other  parts  of  the  body,  there  are  to  be  found 
curious  little  cells,  which  vary  greatly  in  size  and 
shape,  and  are  exceedingly  minute,  but  which  possess 
similar  and  very  remarkable  properties.  When  ex- 
amined closely,  it  is  found  that  these  little  creatures 
are  provided  with  delicate  prolongations  of  their  sub- 
stance, which  may  be  compared  to  fingers,  and  which 
may  be  traced  from  the  cells  themselves  to  the  most 
remote  parts  of  the  body  in  many  instances,  while  in 
others  they  seem  to  be  joined  to  other  cells  in  the 
immediate  vicinity.  Some  cells  are  furnished  with  a 
very  large  number  of  these  fingers,  while  others  have 
but  one  or  two,  or  even  none  at  all.     Certain  cells 


send  fingers  to  the  eye,  others  to  the  ear,  still  others 
to  the  nose,  others  to  the  tongue,  and  others  to  the 

Thus  it  is  that  the  various  sensible  properties  of 
objects  are  perceived  by  the  brain.  Its  cells  are  ex- 
tended into  the  remotest  parts  of  the  body  by  means 
of  their  immensely  long  fingers,  and  thus  are  con- 
scious of  whatever  is  transpifing  at  the  surface  or  out- 
side of  the  body.  Similar  fingers  are  sent  out  by 
other  cells  to  the  muscles,  and  muscular  action  is  pro- 
duced by  impulses  received  from  the  cells  in  the 
brain  or  spinal  cord.  Other  cells  send  out  fingers  to 
the  stomach,  and  through  their  influence  the  work  of 
digestion  is  performed.  Still  other  cells  have  charge 
of  the  work  of  the  liver  in  a  similar  manner.  Thus 
all  the  work  of  the  body  is  done  through  the  influence 
of  the  little  creatures  which  reside  in  the  brain  and 
spinal  cord.  By  means  of  fingers  sent*  out  by  other 
cells,  all  the  various  parts  of  the  body  are  associated 
together  in  the  closest  sympathy.  Every  member 
sympathizes  with  every  other  member.  When  one 
suffers,  all  suffer. 


The  Reproductive  System. 


All  of  the  organs  and  systems  of  organs  thus  far 
considered,  relate  to  the  individual  exclusively. 
Their  object  is  the  development  and  maintenance  of 
the  individual  life.  Reproduction  has  for  its  object 
the  production  of  new  individuals.  This,  so  far  as 
physiology  teaches  us  anything  on  the  subject,  is  its 
sole  and  entire  function.  It  has  reference  to  the  race, 
not  to  the  individual.  Its  exercise  ought  to  be 
wholly  unselfish  in  its  object,  though  the  human  spe- 
cies, unlike  the  majority  of  lower  animals,  too  often 
prostitute  it  to  basely  selfish  purposes. 

As  this  book  is  intended  for  one  sex  only,  we 
shall  in  the  consideration  of  the  anatomy  of  reproduc- 
tion, confine  the  description  to  the  reproductive  appa- 
ratus of  the  human  female,  although  the  consideration 
of  the  physiology  of  reproduction  will  require  us  to 
study  to  some  extent  the  function  in  both  sexes,  and 
in  lower  animals. 

The  organs  of  reproduction  in  both  sexes  may  be 
divided  into  two  classes, —  essential  and  accessory. 
The  essential  organs  are  those  which  produce  the  re- 
productive elements  known  as  the  zoosperm  or  sperma- 
tozoa in  the  man,  and  the  ovum  in  the  female,  the  for- 
mer being  produced  by  the  essential  organ  of  repro- 
duction of  the  male  known  as  the  testicle,  and  the  lat- 
ter by  the  ovary,  the  essential  reproductive  organ  of 
the  female.     The  other  organs  concerned  in  reproduc- 


tion  in  the  female  are  chiefly  for  the  purpose  of  pro- 
tecting the  young  human  being  during  its  develop- 
ment. The  concise  description  of  the  various  organs 
involved  in  the  process  of  reproduction  which  we  shall 
attempt  to  give,  will  be  best  understood  by  reference 
to  Plate  A,  which  represents  the  middle  portion  of 
the  body  as  divided  vertically  through  the  center. 

Beginning  with  the  most  external  portion  of  the 
reproductive  apparatus,  we  find,  first,  two  fleshy  folds 
known  as  the  labia,  which  unite  in  front  at  a 
prominence  known  as  the  mons  veneris,  which,  with 
the  labia,  is  in  the  adult  covered  with  a  thick  growth 
of  hair.  A  vertical  slit  separates  the  labia,  a  short 
distance  from  the  lower  or  posterior  end  of  which  is 
the  anus,  or  circular  opening  of  the  lower  end  tff  the 
alimentary  canal,  or  intestine* 

Just  within  the  labia  are  two  smaller  folds  of  tis- 
sue known  as  the  labia  minora,  which  unite  at  the 
upper  end,  forming  a  sort  of  sheath,  beneath  which  is 
the  clitoris,  which  corresponds  to  the  penis  of  the  male. 
The  clitoris  is  composed  of  erectile  material,  which  is 
also  true  of  the  labia  minora.  Both  of  these  parts  are 
abundantly  supplied  with  nerves  of  sensibility,  and 
together  they  constitute  the  chief  seat  of  sensation  in 
the  sexual  act. 

Just  below  the  clitoris  is  a  small  opening  known 
as*  the  meatus  urinarius,  the  external  orifice  of  the 
urethra,  a  small  passage  connected  at  its  inner  end 
with  the  bladder,  and  serving  as  a  means  of  out-let 
for  the  urinary  secretion. 

A  short  distance  below  the  meatus  urinarius  is  an- 


other  opening  which  leads  into  the  vagina.  This 
opening  is  usually  partially  closed  by  a  thin  mem- 
brane termed  the  hymen.  In  some  cases  the  vaginal 
orifice  is  nearly  closed  by  the  hymen,  while  in  others 
there  is  but  a  mere  trace  of  membrane.  In  excep- 
tional cases  the  hymen  may  be  wholly  absent,  or  may 
completely  close  the  mouth  of  the  vagina.  The 
presence  or  absence  of  the  hymen  is  not,  as  was  form- 
erly supposed,  a  test  of  virginity.  As  just  indicated, 
it  may  be  absent  normally,  and  cases  are  not  rare  in 
which  it  persists  after  marriage  or  even  after  child- 
birth, though  it  is  usually  ruptured  at  the  first  sexual 

The  vagina  is  a  canal  lying  between  the  bladder 
in  front  and  the  rectum  behind.  Its  length  is  usually 
four  to  six  inches.  It  is  lined  with  mucous  membrane 
which  lies  in  folds  so  as  to  allow  distention  at  partur- 
ition. Its  walls  contain  muscular  fibres  by  the  con- 
traction of  which,  at  least  in  part,  the  canal  is  made 
to  return  to  its  normal  size  after  child-birth. 

Projecting  into  the  inner  end  of  the  vaginal  canal, 
as  may  be  seen  in  the  Plate,  are  to  be  found  the 
fleshy  lips  of  the  lower  end  of  the  uterus  or  womb. 
This  organ  is  pear-shaped  in  outline.  Its  length  is 
about  three  inches.  It  is  somewhat  flattened,  being 
about  two  inches  wide  at  its  broadest  point,  and  one 
inch  thick.  Its  tissue  is  chiefly  muscular,  its  fibres 
being  of  the  unstriated  or  involuntary  variety, 
which  contract  independent  of  the  will,  like  those  of 
the  stomach  and  bladder.  The  upper  or  larger  por- 
tion of  the  organ  is  known  as  the  fundus  or  body,  the 


lower  or  tapering  portion,  as  before  stated,  being 
termed  the  cervix  or  neck.  The  cavity  of  the  uterus 
differs  in  form  in  different  parts  of  the  organ.  In  the 
fundus  it  is  triangular,  the  apex  of  the  triangle  point- 
ing downward.  The  cavity  of  the  cervix  is  fusiform. 
The  two  cavities,  that  of  the  fundus  and  that  of  the 
cervix,  are  separated  by  a  constriction  known  as  the 
08  internum  or  internal  os.  The  lower  opening  of  the 
cervix  or  mouth  of  the  womb  is  termed  the  os  exter- 
num or  external  os.  The  uterus  lies  in  the  pelvis 
between  the  bladder  and  the  lower  portion  of  the 
large  intestine,  being  somewhat  inclined  forward  from 
the  axis  of  the  trunk.  The  cavity  of  the  uterus  is 
lined  with  mucous  membrane,  which  is  covered  with 
a  peculiar  kind  of  cell  known  as  ciliated  epithelium. 
These  cells  are  conical  in  shape,  being  attached  by 
their  smaller  extremity.  The  outer  or  free  extremity 
is  covered  with  minute,  hair-like  processes  which  are 
constantly  in  motion.  In  the  lower  portion  of  the 
womb  their  motion  is  such  as  to  produce  a  constant 
current  inward  toward  the  cavity  of  the  body ;  while 
in  its  upper  portion  their  action  is  in  an  opposite  di- 

The  upper  angles  of  the  body  of  the  womb  are  so 
constituted  as  to  form  two  small  tubes,  one  on  either 
side,  known  as  the  fallopian  tubes,  or  ovi-ducts,  which 
terminate  in  a  sort  of  fringe.  At  each  extremity  the 
canal  of  the  fallopian  tubes  is  scarcely  large  enough 
to  admit  a  bristle.  Through  the  middle  portion  of  the 
tube  the  canal  is  considerable  larger.  The  fallopian 
tubes,  like  the  vagina,  are  lined  with  mucous  mem- 


brane,  and,  as  is  the  case  with  the  uterus  also,  their 
lining  membrane  is  covered  with  ciliated  epithelium ; 
but  instead  of  moving  inward,  the  motion, of  the  cilia 
in  the  tubes  is  toward  their  outward  extremity  which 
communicates  with  the  uterus,  the  object  of  which  is 
to  carry  the  ovum  toward  the  cavity  of  the  uterus,  as 
will  be  presently  seen. 

On  either  side  of  the  uterus  and  near  its  central 
portion  are  located  the  essential  organs  of  reproduc- 
tion, the  ovaries.  Each  ovary  is  about  one  and  one- 
half  inches  in  length,  and  is  placed  horizontally,  as 
shown  on  Plate  VI.  The  ovary  is  held  in  position  and 
connected  to  the  uterus  by  a  broad  loid  oi  ii.caibrane 
known  as  the  broad  ligament,  which  also  supports 
along  its  upper  border  the  fallopian  tube,  the  outer 
extremity  of  which  curves  downward  and  terminates 
near  the  ovary.  Each  ovary  is  also  joined  by  its  in- 
ner end  to  the  upper  angle  of  the  uterus  by  a  small 
twisted  cord  known  as  the  ligament  of  the  ovary. 
When  the  ovary  is  cut  m  two,  as  shown  on  Plate  IX, 
and  examined  by  means  of  a  microscope,  it  is  found 
to  be  filled,  especially  near  its  outer  border,  with 
small  cells,  which  are  undeveloped  or  unripe  ova, 
destined  to  be  matured  and  cast  off  one  at 
a  time  at  each  menstrual  period  during  the  life  of 
the  individual,  some,  under  favorable  circumstances, 
to  be  developed  into  human  beings. 

The  Bladder. — The  bladder  in  females  is  located 
in  front  of  the  uterus,  and  is  somewhat  larger  than 
in  the  male,  its  measurement  from  side  to  side  being 
greater  than  from  before  backward.     The  urine  is  dis- 


charged  from  the  bladder  through  a  canal  about 
one-fourth  inch  in  diameter,  known  as  the  urethra, 
the  opening  in  which  is  just  above  that  of  the  upper 
edge  of  the  vagina. 

The  Rectum. — This  portion  of  the  alimentary 
canal,  its  inferior  terminus,  lies  behind  the  uterus 
and  the  vagina  in  the  hollow  of  the  sacrum,  its  lower  end 
being  guarded  by  a  circular  muscle  known  as  the 
sphincter  ant.  Between  the  lower  part  of  the  rectum 
and  that  of  the  vagina  is  placed  a  wedge-shaped  body, 
the  broad  base  of  which  occupies  the  space  between 
the  anus  and  the  vaginal  opening.  This  structure  is 
known  as  the  perineum.  It  is  a  muscular  structure, 
but  is  possessed  of  considerable  solidity,  and  plays  a 
most  important  part  in  maintaining  the  internal 
organs  in  proper  position.  It  is  sometimes  ruptured 
in  parturition,  giving  rise  to  serious  disease,  as  else- 
where shown. 

Blood  Supply  of  the  Uterus  and  Ovaries. — 
The  blood  supply  of  these  associated  organs  is  chiefly 
derived  from  the  same  source,  the  uterine  and 
ovarian  arteries  connecting  in  such  a  way  as  to 
make  the  circulation  of  the  ovary  and  uterus  practic- 
ally the  same.  The  blood-vessels  of  the  uterus  are 
distributed  through  its  substance  in  such  a  way  as  to 
very  readily  give  rise  to  passive  congestion,  being 
very  torturous,  and  venous  obstruction  occurring  very 
easily.  This  accounts  for  the  great  readiness  with 
which  the  organ  becomes  subject  to  diseases  of 
various  sorts  due  to  passive  congestion. 


Nerves  of  the  Uterus  and  Ovaries. — The  nerv- 
ous supply  of  the  uterus  and  ovaries,  as  well  as  of 
the  other  internal  organs  of  generation,  is  chiefly  de- 
rived from  the  organic  or  sympathetic  system  of  nerves, 
very  few  sensory  nerves  being  found  in  their  sub- 
stance. This  accounts  for  the  very  great  degree  of 
insensibility  to  pain  characteristic  of  these  organs  in 
a  state  of  health.  The  nervous  supply  of  the  ovaries, 
uterus,  and  vagina,  is  still  more  closely  associated 
than  the  blood-vessels  of  these  organs,  nearly  all  the 
nerve-branches  being  derived  from  the  same  source ; 
which  accounts  for  the  ¥ery  close  nervous  connection 
which  is  observed  in  both  health  and  disease,  but 
particularly  in  the  latter  condition.  The  nerves  sup- 
plying the  uterus  and  ovaries  are  chiefly  derived  from 
the  perve-centers  of  the  lower  part  of  the  spine, 
which  also  send  branches  to  the  external  tissues  ly- 
ing in  their  vicinity,  which  undoubtedly  accounts  for 
the  great  prominence  of  pain  in  this  region  as  a 
symptom  of  uterine  disease. 

Supports  of  the  Uterus. — The  womb  is  held  in 
place  by  a  variety  of  forces  brought  to  bear  on  it. 
In  a  state  of  health  and  when  unimpregnated,  the 
uterus  weighs  scarcely  more  than  an  ounce  and  a 
quarter,  so  that  little  force  is  required  to  retain  it  in 
position.  Nevertheless,  ample  means  are  supplied  to 
keep  it  in  its  proper  place,  such  as  are  sufficient  when 
there  is  no  departure  from  the  conditions  upon  which 
depends  the  maintenance  of  these  organs  in  a  state 
of  health.  The  uterus  is  connected  with  the  adjacent 
organs  by  six  ligaments.     Two  connect  its  posterior 


surface  with  the  rectum;  two  other  ligaments  con- 
nect it  anteriorly  with  the  posterior  wall  of  the  blad- 
der ;  while  its  sides  are  connected  with  the  sides  of 
the  pelvis  by  means  of  two  broad  folds  of  tissue 
known  as  the  broad  ligaments.  These  ligaments  are 
not  composed  of  fibrous  tissue  as  are  ligaments  in 
other  parts  of  the  body,  but  are  simply  folds  of  the 
serous  membrane  lining  the  abdominal  cavity,  known 
as  the  peritoneum.  They  are  not  muscular  in  char- 
acter, and  so  do  not  possess  the  power  of  contraction, 
though  they  sometimes  become  contracted  as  the  re- 
sult of  disease.  % 

The  broad  ligaments,  with  the  uterus,  divide  the 
pelvic  cavity  into  two  portions.  The  anterior  part 
contains  the  vagina,  bladder,  and  the  anterior  half  of 
the  uterus,  while  the  posterior  portion  contains  the 
rectum  and  the  posterior  half  of  the  womb.  The 
ovaries,  as  before  described,  are  located  in  the  broad 
ligaments  which  form  this  septum.  These  bands  of 
tissue  undoubtedly  play  an  important  part  in  maintain- 
ing the  uterus  in  position,  and  yet  they  are  so  placed 
that  they  cannot  prevent  the  organ  from  settling 
down  into  the  cavity  of  the  pelvis,  or  changing  its 
position  in  various  other  ways,  when  any  degree  of 
force  calculated  to  displace  it  is  brought  to  bear 
upon  it. 

The  maintenance  of  this  organ  in  its  proper  place 
h  undoubtedly  chiefly  due  to  other  means  than  the 
ligaments  just  described.  Probably  the  most  efficient 
of  these  is  the  support  of  contiguous  organs, — the  rec- 
tum, bladder,  and   portions   of  the   small  intestine 


which  lie  closely  about  the  uterus, — and  the  peri- 
neum, the  wedge-shaped  body  occupying  the  space  be- 
tween the  lower  portion  of  the  vagina  and  the  rectum. 
The  latter  organ  must  be  regarded  as  the  chief  means 
by  which  the  descent  of  the  uterus  is  prevented  when 
the  trunk  of  the  body  is  in  a  perpendicular  position. 
The  perineum  is  located  some  distance  below  the  ute- 
rus, and  is  connected  with  the  latter  organ  only 
through  the  vagina ;  but  the  vaginal  walls  possess  suf- 
ficient firmness  when  in  a  healthy  state,  to  act  effi- 
ciently as  a  prop  for  the  womb  attached  to  their  upper 
extremity.  The  efficiency  of  the  vagina  as  a  support 
for  the  uterus  by  the  aid  of  the  perineum,  is  greatly 
increased  by  the  concavity  of  its  posterior  wall,  which 
will  be  observed  by  reference  to  Plate  A,  being  sup- 
ported behind  by  the  rectum,  in  front  by  the  bladder, 
and  below  by  the  perineum.  The  vagina  is  an  effi- 
cient means  of  maintaining  the  uterus  in  position  so 
long  as  its  walls  retain  their  proper  "  tonicity  "  or 

The  muscular  walls  of  the  abdomen  must  also  be 
regarded  as  an  efficient  means  of  supporting  the  ute- 
rus and  ovaries  in  position,  acting  indirectly  through 
the  intestinal  viscera.  The  uterus  and  ovaries  lying 
in  close  contact  with  the  organs  which  occupy  the 
lower  portion  of  the  abdomen  and  the  upper  part  of 
the  pelvis,  are  supported  by  them  so  long  as  the  in- 
testines and  neighboring  organs  are  held  in  position 
by  the  abdominal  walls.  When  the  muscles  of  the 
abdomen  lose  their  tone,  so  that  they  no  longer  sup- 
port the  contents  of  the  abdominal  cavity,  and  allow 


them  to  drop  down  into  the  pelvis,  the  uterus  and 
ovaries  will  be  crowded  out  of  position  in  spite  of  the 
support  which  they  receive  from  several  ligaments, 
the  vagina,  and  the  perineum.  It  is  probable  also, 
that  the  pyri-form  shape  of  the  uterus  aids  in  keeping 
it  in  position,  the  adjacent  organs  being  packed 
around  its  lower  portion  in  such  a  way  as  to  sustain 
it.  This  is  evidenced  by  the  fact  that  its  position 
varies  with  that  of  the  bladder  and  rectum.  When 
these  cavities  are  both  distended,  the  organ  lies  higher 
than  when  they  are  empty.  When  the  bladder  is 
empty  and  the  rectum  distended,  it  is  tilted  over 
toward  the  former;  and  vice  versa.  The  last  named 
means  of  support  for  the  uterus  has  been  too  often 
overlooked,  and,  as  we  shall  hereafter  show,  this 
oversight  has  given  rise  to  injurious  and  unsuccessful 
methods  of  treating  uterine  displacements. 

The  Pelvis. — This  is  a  cavity  formed  by  the  union 
of  several  bones,  the  ossa  innominata  forming  the 
two  sides,  and  the  wedge-shaped  sacrum  and  coccyx 
the  posterior  portion.  Four  joints  are  formed :  one 
by  the  union  of  the  ossa  innominata, — the  symphy- 
sis pubis ;  two  at  the  points  of  union  between  the 
ossa  innominata  and  the  sacrum;  and  the  fourth 
by  the  junction  of  the  coccyx  with  the  lower  end  of 
the  sacrum.  These  joints  are  not  flexible  joints  like 
those  of  the  fingers,  elbows,  or  most  other  joints  of 
the  body,  but  are  almost  immovable  under  ordinary 
circumstances,  the  bones  being  held  together  by  strong 
ligaments.  In  advanced  age  they  often  become  solid; 
in  fact,  this  change  may  occur  in  males  in  early  life. 


The  form  of  the  pelvis  will  be  best  seen  by  referring 
to  Plate  II.  We  would  call  especial  attention  to 
the  expanded  lateral  portion  of  the  pelvis,  formed  by 
the  broad  iliac  bones,  the  space  between  which  is 
known  as  the  false  pelvis,  and  to  the  opening  through 
the  pelvis,  forming  quite  an  essential  cavity,  known 
as  the  true  pelvfe.  The  line  separating  the  false  and 
the  true  pelvis  is  known  as  the  brim  of  the  true  pel- 
vis, a  term  often  used  in  midwifery,  the  significance 
of  which  ought  to  be  understood  on  that  account. 
Just  opposite  the  symphysis  pubis  is  a  prominent 
point  also  of  especial  interest  in  this  connection, 
known  as  the  promontory  of  the  sacrum,  formed  by 
the  upper  portion  of  the.  sacrum,  which  projects  into 
the  true  pelvis,  lessening  its  diameter  from  before 
backward.  Upon  the  greater  or  less  prominence  of 
this  promontory  depends,  to  a  great  degree,  the  ease 
or  difficulty  with  which  child-birth  may  take  place. 
Attention  should  also  be  called  to  the  arch  formed 
beneath  the  symphysis  pubis  by  the  divergence  of  the 
lower  portions  of  the  ossa  innominata,  which  support 
the  weight  of  the  body  in  sitting.  This  arch,  with 
the  space  between  the  lower  part  of  the  symphysis 
pubis  and  the  coccyx,  forms  the  outlet  of  the  pelvis. 
Differences  between  the  Male  and  Female  Pel- 
vis.— There  are  several  important  differences  between 
the  pelvis  in  males  and  females  which  should  here  re- 
ceive attention,  which  will  be  best  understood  by  re- 
ferring to  Figs.  1  and  2,  Plate    II. 

These  may  be  enumerated  as  follows  : — 

1.  The  bones  of  the  female  pelvis  are  more  slen- 


der  than  those  of  males,  and  present  smoother  sur- 

» 2.  The  female  pelvis  is  much  wider  than  that  of 
the  male,  the  distance  between  the  extreme  points  of 
the  ossa  innominata  being  proportionately  much 
greater  than  in  the  male  pelvis. 

3.  The  true  pelvis  is  very  much  larger  than  in  the 
male;  and  the  distance  between  the  brim  and  the 
outlet  proportionately  less,  which  is  due  to  the  fact 
that  the  sacrum  is  shorter  and  the  arch  beneath  the 
pubis  much  wider  than  in  the  male. 

4.  The  sacrum  in  the  female  pelvis  is  much  less 
curved  than  in  the  male  pelvis,  so  that  the  canal  of 
the  pelvis  in  much  straighter  in  the  female  than  in 
the  male  pelvis. 

Some  of  the  differences  above  noted  are  made 
more  apparent  by  the  comparative  views  of  the  male 
and  female  pelvis  given  in  Figs.  1  and  2,  Plate  II. 
It  will  also  be  observable  that  the  prominent  points 
on  the- interior  surface  of  the  pelvis  project  into  its 
cavity  to  a  much  greater  distance  in  the  male  pelvis 
than  in  the  female. 

Some  of  the  above  mentioned  peculiarities  of  the 
female  pelvis,  particularly  the  greater  divergence  of 
the  large  bones  of  the  pelvis,  give  to  the  female  figure 
its  chief  characteristics.  The  ancient  Greeks,  in  their 
models  of  female  beauty,  made  the  measurement 
across  the  hips  one-third  greater  than  across  the  shoul- 
ders, reversing  these  measurements  in  their  represen- 
tation of  male  beauty  in  Apollo.  It  is  this  great 
breadth  across  the  hips  which  occasions  the  swinging 



gait  in  females  in  whom  the  size  of  the  pelvis  is  unus- 
ually prominent.  The  greater  the  width,  the  more 
marked  will  be  the  peculiarity  of  the  gait. 

Canal  of  the  Pelvis. — The  space  between  the 
brim  of  the  pelvis  and  its  outlet  constitutes  what  is 
known  as  the  cavity  or  canal  of  the  pelvis.  The 
outlet  is  very  irregular  and  incomplete  in  its  bony 
outline,  but  is  rounded  and  completed  by  the  soft 
parts.  When  thus  completed,  its  proportionate  length 
and  direction  is  about  as  represented  in  Fig.  3,  Plate 
II.  The  strongly  curved  character  of  the  canal  will 
be  at  once  noticed;  also  the  fact  that  the  symphysis 
pubis,  located  at  the  point  marked  S  in  the  figure,  is 
almost  directly  under  the  promontory  of  the  sacrum, 
P.  It  will  thus  be  seen  that  the  brim  or  inlet  of  the 
pelvic  cavity  looks  almost  directly  backward  when 
the  person  is  standing  erect,  while  the  outlet  of  the 
pelvis  looks  forward.  This  peculiar  arrangement  is 
characteristic  of  the  human  pelvis,  and  is  designed  to 
give  to  the  contents  of  the  abdominal  cavity  the 
proper  support  while  the  body  is  in  the  erect  posture 
peculiar  to  human  beings.  In  the  lower  animals  the 
canal  of  the  pelvis  is  almost  straight;  which  is  wholly 
compatible  with  the  prone  position  natural  to  all  the 
lower  orders  of  animals. 

Measurements  of  the  Pelvis. — The  principal 
measurements  of  the  pelvis  are  as  follows :  from  the 
upper  edge  of  the  symphysis  pubis  to  the  promontory 
of  the  sacrum,  four  and  one-half  inches ;  transversely 
across  from  T  to  T,  as  shown  in  Fig.  2,  Plate  II,  five 
and  one-fourth  inches;  obliquely  across  from  O  lo  L 
or  0  to  R,  five  inches.     These  dimensions  are  those 

50  .         THE  LADIES  GUIDE. 

obtained  by  measuring  the  cavity  at  the  brim.  It  is 
found  that  measurements  vary  considerably  at  differ- 
ent portions  of  the  canal.  At  the  middle  portion  of 
the  pelvic  cavity  the  oblique  diameter  is  more  than 
five  and  one-fourth  inches,  while  the  transverse  meas- 
urement is  only  five  inches,  or  one-fourth  inch  less 
than  at  the  brim.  At  the  outlet,  the  transverse 
measurement  is  only  "four  and  one-fourth  inches,  or 
one-fourth  inch  less  than  at  the  brim  of  the  pelvis, 
and  the  oblique  four  and  three-fourths  inches,  or  one- 
fourth  inch  less  than  at  the  brim,  and  one-half  inch 
less  than  at  the  middle  of  the  cavity ;  while  the  an- 
teroposterior diameter  is  five  inches,  or  six  when  the 
coccyx  is  forced  back,  as  it  is  during  the  last  stage  of 
child-birth.  It  thus  appears  that  at  the  brim  the 
transverse  diameter  is  the  greatest,  at  the  middle  of 
the  cavity  the  oblique  diameter,  and  at  the  outlet  the 
antero-posterior.  This  relation  of  the  different  meas- 
urements of  the  pelvis  gives  rise  to  the  change  in  the 
position  of  the  head  of  the  child  during  child-birth, 
known  as  rotation,  which  will  be  more  fully  explained 

The  remarkable  curve  of  the  pelvic  cavity  and  the 
peculiar  relation  of  its  several  diameters  make  the  act 
of  child-birth  in  the  human  female  much  more  compli- 
cated and  difficult  than  in  the  females  of  the  lower 
animals,  in  whom  the  canal  is  usually  straight,  al- 
though in  somo  instances,  as  in  the  cow  and  the 
guinea-pig,  it  is  much  too  narrow  to  admit  of  the  pas- 
sage of  the  young  animal.  In  these  cases,  however, 
a  remarkable  change  takes  place  during  the  few  weeks 
prior  to  the  termination  of  pregnancy.     In  the  guinea- 


pig,  the  ligaments  which  unite  the  ossa  innominata 
at  the  symphysis  pubis  become  greatly  relaxed,  so 
that  the  cavity  can  be  greatly  enlarged  during  partu- 
rition by  the  separation  of  the  ends  of  the  bones. 
This  is  well  shown  in  Figs.  4  and  5,  Plate  II.  In 
the  cow  the  same  thing  takes  place  at  the  junctions 
of  the  ossa  innominata  with  the  sacrum,  allowing  the 
bones  to  be  separated  at  these  points  to  such  a  degree 
as  to  greatly  enlarge  the  pelvic  cavity.  After  partu- 
rition, the  ligaments  in  both  animals  very  quickly 
shorten  again,  so  that  the  bones  return  to  their  nor- 
mal relation  with  each  other. 

A  change  somewhat  similar  to  that  described  above 
takes  place  in  the  human  female  prior  to  child-birth. 
Numerous  observations  have  shown  that  the  change 
which  occurs  is  almost  identical  with  that  which  takes 
place  in  the  pelvis  of  the  cow,  and  occasional  in- 
stances are  known  in  which  the  change  noted  as  tak- 
ing place  in  the  guinea-pig  has  occurred  in  the  human 
female.  A  few  years  ago,  a  case  of  this  sort  came 
under  our  observation,  in  which  the  separation  of  the 
ossa  innominata  at  the  pubis  was  so  great  that  the 
bones  did  not  return  to  their  normal  position  again, 
but  remained  movable,  giving  rise  to  a  considerable 
degree  of  motion,  which  was  accompanied  by  a  grat- 
ing sound  whenever  the  patient  exercised  upon  her 

Another  interesting  fact  which  should  be  men- 
tioned in  this  connection  as  having  an  important  bear- 
ing on  the  size  of  the  pelvic  cavity  is  the  fact  that 
the  several  parts  of  the  pelvis  sustain  different  rela- 
tions to  each  other  in  different  positions  of  the  body. 


When  the  body  is  in  a  standing,  sitting,  or  lying  po- 
sition, the  promontory  of  the  sacrum  recedes  some- 
what, making  the  brim  or  inlet  of  the  true  pelvis 
larger  than  when  the  body  is  in  other  positions. 
When  the  body  is  bent  forward  upon  the  thighs, 
the  symphysis  is  tilted  forward  by  the  contrac- 
tion of  the  abdominal  muscles,  thus  diminishing  the 
size  of  the  brim  and  enlarging  the  outlet.  This  ac- 
counts for  the  positions  naturally  taken  by  women 
during  the  different  stages  of  child-birth.  At  the  be- 
ginning a  sitting,  standing,  or  lying  position  is  pre- 
ferred, while  during  the  later  stages,  the  body  is  bent 
forward,  or  the  limbs  drawn  up. 

The  Breasts  or  Mammary  Glands. — These  or- 
gans are  so  closely  associated  with  the  organs  of  gen- 
eration in  the  female  that  a  description  of  the  latter 
would  not  be  complete  without  it  includes  at  least  a 
general  account  of  the  former.  The  breast  is  situated 
between  the  third  and  sixth  or  seventh  ribs,  and  ex- 
tends from  the  sternum  to  the  axilla.  The  left 
breast  is  usually  a  little  larger  than  the  right.  In 
the  center  of  the  breast  is  located  the  nipple,  which 
is  of  a  rose-pink  color  in  a  woman  who  has  not  borne 
children,  and  is  surrounded  by  a  ring  of  tissue  some- 
what different  from  the  surrounding  skin,  and  of  the 
same  color  as  the  nipple.  Upon  the  surface  of  this 
ring  several  little  tubercular  projections  may  be  seen, 
at  the  top  of  which  may  be  observed,  upon  close  in- 
spection, a  number  of  little  openings,  which  are  the 
orifices  of  small  glands  producing  an  oily  secretion 
which  protects  the  nipple.  These  minute  structures 
are  mentioned  on  account  of  the   peculiar  changes 

Fig.  f. 

I : " :  ! 



Fig.  2. 





which  occur  in  them  during  pregnancy.  The  nipple 
is  very  liberally  supplied  with  blood-vessels  and  in- 
voluntary muscular  fibres,  and  is  exceedingly  sensi- 
tive. Upon  being  irritated,  the  nipple  becomes 
charged  with  blood,  undergoing  erection,  and  a  slightly 
pleasurable  sensation  is  produced.  The  great  bulk 
of  the  breast  consists  of*  fatty  or  adipose  tissue,  un- 
derneath which  is  placed  the  glandular  and  essential 
portion  of  the  breast,  which  consists  of  a  large 
number  of  lobes  and  lobules,  as  shown  in  the  lower 
part  of  Fig.  1,  Plate  VIII.  Each  lobule  is  divided  into 
still  smaller  lobules,  in  the  interior  of  which  are 
found  a  large  number  of  cells,  by  which  the  milk  se- 
cretion is  produced.  Each  lobule  communicates  with 
a  small  duct,  which  joins  with  other  ducts,  and  thus 
forms  a  larger  canal,  which  in  turn  unites  witty  other 
canals  of  the  same  character,  forming  still  larger 
ducts,  some  fifteen  or  twenty  in  number ;  all  of  these 
converge  toward  the  nipple,  near  which  they  become 
considerably  dilated,  forming  reservoirs,  in  which  the 
milk  collects.  At  the  base  of  the  nipple,  the  ducts 
are  reduced  to  a  small  size  again,  and  are  continued 
up  through  the  nipple  without  uniting  together,  each 
opening  at  the  surface  by  a  separate  orifice.  The 
milk-ducts  and  reservoirs  contain  a  large  number  of 
muscular  fibres  in  their  walls,  which  are  capable  of 
contracting  and  thus  diminishing  the  size  of  the  tubes. 
Irritation  of  the  nipple,  either  by  the  mouth  of  the 
child  or  otherwise,  causes  dilation  of  the  openings 
of  the  ducts,  and  at  the  same  time  a  contraction  of 
the  walls  of  the  ducts  within  the  glands,  by  which 



double  action  the  milk  is  made  to  flow  freely.  This 
action  is  sometimes  reproduced  by  emotional  excite- 
ment of  any  kind,  so  that  the  milk  is  expelled  invol- 
untarily and  lost.  It  sometimes  happens  that  irrita- 
tion of  one  gland  will  cause  expulsion  of  milk  from 
the  other,  so  that  nursing  the  child  at  one  breast 
will  occasion  a  loss  of  the  secretion  at  the  other. 

Lymphatic  vessels  are  very  abundant  in  the 
breast,  by  which  the  watery  portion  of  the  milk  may 
be  absorbed.  The  action  of  the  lymphatics  may  be 
increased  by  friction,  which  furnishes  an  excellent 
means  of  lessening  the  milk  secretion  when  necessary. 

The  mammary  gland  is  a  peculiar  modification  of 
the  sebaceous  or  oil  glands,  which  are  very  abundant 
in  the  skin.  It  is  present  in  all  animals  which  have 
warm  blood  and  bring  forth  their  young  alive.  These 
animals  are  known  as  mammals  in  consequence  of  their 
possession  of  mammce.  A  very  interesting  study  in 
natural  history  is  the  peculiar  arrangement  and  loca- 
tion of  the  mammary  glands  in  different  animals.  In 
one  animal  known  as  the  "duck-bill,"  a  native  of 
Australia,  the  mammary  gland  consists  simply  of  a 
flat  surface  not  covered  by  hair,  which  presents 
numerous  little  openings  for  the  milk-ducts.  In  some 
animals  the  breast  is  a  cavity  or  depression  in  the 
surface  rather  than  a  prominence.  In  one  very 
curious  class  of  animals  known  as  marsupials,  to 
which  belong  the  kangaroo  and  opossum,  the  breasts 
consist  simply  of  nipples,  which  are  inclosed  in  a 
pouch,  into  which  the  young  are  placed  after  their 
birth,  each  young  one  becoming  attached  to  a  nipple, 


to  which  it  clings  until  it  is  developed ;  when  it  un- 
dergoes a  sort  of  second  birth.  The  young  of  these 
animals  are  very  imperfectly  developed  when  first 
born.  In  bats,  the  breasts  consist  of  a  single  pair, 
which  are  placed  upon  the  chest  in  the  same  position 
as  in  human  beings.  In  whales,  the  breasts  are  lo- 
cated very  close  to  the  vulva.  In  dogs  and  pigs,  the 
breasts  are  arranged  in  a  double  row  extending  nearly 
the  whole  length  of  the  body. 

Certain  anomalies  and  irregularities  sometimes  oc- 
cur in  the  formation  of  the  breasts,  which  are  not  un- 
interesting. Cases  are  sometimes  met  in  which  there 
are  two  or  three  nipples  on  one  gland.  In  some  in- 
stances, there  are  more  than  two  breasts.  Usually 
the  extra  breast  or  breasts  are  located  near  the  ordin- 
ary position,  but  sometimes  they  are  found  on  distant 
parts  of  the  body,  as  the  back  or  thigh,  or  in  the 

In  the  male,  the  breast  is  usually  only  rudiment- 
ary, but  cases  are  on  record  in  which  the  gland  has 
been  abnormally  developed  in  the  male  to  such  an  ex- 
tent as  to  produce  an  abundant  supply  of  milk.  A 
case  is  reported  in  which  a  colored  man  acted  as  wet- 
nurse  in  the  family  of  his  master  for  many  years. 

The  secretion  of  milk  in  the  female  breast  is 
not  usually  formed  until  toward  the  termination  of 
pregnancy,  but  by  a  long  continued  process  of  manip- 
ulation and  stimulation,  the  gland  may  be  made  to 
produce  milk  freely  in  virgins.  In  some  couutries, 
wet-nurses  are  systematically  produced  in  this  way. 
The  curious  fact  has  been  observed  that  milk  is  some- 


times  secreted  by  the  mammary  gland  in  very  young 
infants,  the  secretion  usually  commencing  at  birth  or 
two  or  three  days  afterward,  and  continuing  for  two 
or  three  weeks.  Usually  only  two  or  three  drops 
can  be  pressed  out  of  the  nipple  at  one  time,  but  oc- 
casionally the  amount  of  fluid  is  increased  to  one  or 
two  drachms.  This  anomalous  secretion  of  milk  is 
observed  with  equal  frequency  in  both  sexes. 

Before  pregnancy,  the  breast,  when  fully  devel- 
oped, is  hemispherical  in  form,  and  possessed  of  con- 
siderable firmness,  but  after  nursing,  during  which 
time  the  breast  is  considerably  enlarged,  the  tissues 
become  somewhat  softer  and  flabby  or  pendulous. 


Wonderful  as  they  are  in  their  anatomical  struct- 
ure, the  reproductive  organs  are  still  more  remark- 
able in  the  functions  which  they  are  designed  to 
perform.  To  them  is  allotted  the  important  work  of 
producing  new  individuals,  and  thus  perpetuating 
the  race.  They  enable  man  to  become  in  a  certain 
sense  a  creator.  Their  function  may  be  regarded 
as  the  highest  of  that  of  any  of  the  organs  of  the 
body,  if  we  except  the  brain,  the  organ  of  thought 
and  feeling.  Although  their  office  relates  particularly 
to  new  beings,  rather  than  to  the  individual,  their  as- 
sociation with  the  other  organs  of  the  body  is  so  inti- 
mate that  any  derangement  of  function  is  quickly  fol- 
lowed by  disease  of  other  parts,  as  we  shall  have  oc- 
casion to  show  more  fully  hereafter.     Their  functions 


are  also  largely  controlled  by  the  varying  conditions 
of  the  body  which  affect  the  functions  of  other  or- 
gans, sometimes  being  suspended,  sometimes  exag- 
gerated by  influences  which  may  similarly  affect 
other  organs. 

A  fact  of  importance  which  it  is  well  to  understand, 
is  that  the  sexual  function,  being  the  least  concerned  in 
the  maintenance  of  individual  life,  is  more  likely  to  be 
suspended  than  other  functions,  when  through  lack  of 
nutrition,  wasting  disease,  or  any  other  depressing 
cause,  the  vital  forces  of  the  body  are  impaired.  This 
fact  accounts  for  the  cessation  of  menstruation  in 
connection  with  tubercular  disease,  anaemic  conditions 
of  the  body  resulting  from  hemorrhage  or  otherwise, 
and  other  morbid  states  in  which  the  vitality  is  at  a 
low  ebb,  instances  of  which  are  frequently  observed. 
We  have  mentioned  this  fact  in  this  connection  for 
the  purpose  of  correcting  the  popular  notion  that  the 
suspension  of  menstruation,  one  of  the  leading  sexual 
functions  in  woman,  is  in  these  cases  the  cause  of  the 
other  morbid  conditions  with  which  the  disease  is 
associated ;  whereas,  as  just  explained,  it  is  simply  a 
result,  and  is  of  no  greater  significance  than  other 
symptoms  growing  out  of  the  fundamental  morbid 
condition  under  which  the  system  may  be  suffering. 

Notwithstanding  the  immense  amount  of  study 
and  research  which  has  been  bestowed  on  the  sexual 
function  in  man  as  well  as  animals,  there  is  still  much 
mystery  connected  with  the  subject.  Nature  has  not 
yet  allowed  inquisitive  man,  even  when  aided  by  the 
most  powerful  microscope  and  other  instruments  of 


investigation  which  he  has  invented,  to  fathom  all  the 
secrets  connected  with  the  marvelous  process  by 
which  new  beings  are  created.  Nevertheless  a  suffi- 
cient amount  of  knowledge  has  been  developed  to 
render  this  subject  exceedingly  interesting,  and  to 
disperse  to  a  large  extent,  the  mists  of  ignorance  by 
which  it  has  been  surrounded  from  the  earliest  times 
down  to  the  present.  We  shall  not  attempt  to  pre- 
sent in  the  brief  space  devoted  to  this  part  of  the  sub- 
ject, all  that  is  known  respecting  the  functions  of  the 
reproductive  organs,  but  only  some  of  the  more  sali- 
ent points,  and  such  as  have  some  relation  to  the 
practical  information  to  which  the  greater  portion  of 
this  work  is  devoted. 

In  order  to  make  more  clear  and  comprehensible 
the  nature  of  the  function  in  human  beings,  we  have 
introduced  a  few  illustrative  facts  respecting  the 
function  in  the  various  lower  orders  of  animals.  By 
these  and  other  means,  we  have  endeavored  to  so 
simplify  this  intricate  subject  as  to  bring  it  within 
the  understanding  of  all  who  are  sufficiently  mature 
in  mind  to  be  capable  of  comprehending  it  and  prof- 
iting by  the  instruction  given  in  this  work. 

Ovulation. — A  microscopical  examination  of  the 
fully  developed  ovary  shows  that  its  interior  is  chiefly 
made  up  of  an  almost  infinite  number  of  little  sacs, 
each  one  of  which  contains  a  small  cell  as  shown  in 
Fig.  3,  Plate  IX.  This  is  true  of  the  ovaries  of  all  spe- 
cies of  higher  animals.  When  the  female  of  any  spe- 
cies of  animal  attains  a  certain  stage  of  development, 
these  cells  begin  to  work  toward  the  surface  of  the 


»  .  ■ 

ovary.  One  by  one  they  approach  the  outer  surface 
of  the  organ,  together  with  the  little  sac  in  which  each 
is  contained,  which  increases  gradually  in  size  during 
its  approach  toward  the  surface,  and  finally,  when  the 
surface  of  the  ovary  is  reached,  becomes  distended  to 
many  times  its  former  size,  by  the  accumulation  of 
serum  within  its  cavity.  The  little  cell  in  the  mean- 
time becomes  attached  to  that  portion  of  the  sac 
nearest  the  surface  of  the  ovary. 

By  and  by  the  distension  of  the  sac  becomes  so 
great  that  it  can  no  longer  retain  its  contents,  when 
it  ruptures  with  considerable  violence,  thus  allowing 
the  escape  of  its  fluid  contents,  which  sweep  along  with 
them  the  little  cell  for  the  development  of  which  this 
curious  arrangement  was  designed.  The  final  act  in  the 
process  which  we  have  just  described,  has  been  well 
shown  by  the  artist  in  Fig.  4,  Plate  IX.  The  little 
cell  which  is  thus  forcibly  ejected  from  the  ovary  by 
the  process  just  described,  is  really  an  egg,  composed 
of  a  delicate  membrane  inclosing  a  yolk. 

Viviparous  and  Oviparous  Animals. —  Up  to 
very  nearly  the  present  time  it  has  been  supposed 
that  a  radical  diiference  existed  in  the  mode  of  devel- 
opment of  viviparous  and  oviparous  animals,  or  those 
which  bring  forth  their  young  alive,  and  those  which 
produce  eggs  to  be  afterward  hatched  outside  the 
body.  Modern  researches,  however,  have  shown 
that  no  such  radical  difference  exists,  but  that  the 
young  of  all  higher  animals,  including  those  which 
bring  forth  their  young  alive,  are  really  produced  from 
eggs,  the  only  difference  being  in  the  manner  in  which 
these  eggs  are  developed. 


Procreation  a  Budding  Process. — The  affinity 
between  man  and  the  lower  orders  extends  still  fur- 
ther down  the  scale  of  animate  existence.  Tho  stu- 
dent of  biology  is  familiar  with  the  fact  that  in  certain 
low  orders  of  animals,  as,  for  instance,  the  kydroids, 
the  multiplication  of  the  species  takes  place  by  a  kind 
of  budding.  The  hydroid  is  a  sort  of  animated  shrub 
of  jelly-like  consistence.  It  is  usually  found  growing 
attached  to  rocks  and  various  solid  or  stationary  bod- 
ies, in  little  communities.  From  the  parent  stems  lit- 
tle buds  grow  out,  some  of  which  after  a  time  break 
off  and  swim  away  as  independent  little  jelly-fishes. 
These,  in  turn,  become  attached  to  a  submerged  rock 
or  an  aquatic  plant,  and  after  becoming  fully  devel- 
oped, give  rise  to  other  buds,  thus  perpetuating  the 
species.  This  is  a  process  of  external  budding,  but 
in  other  species  of  lower  animals  the  same  process 
takes  place  on  the  interior  of  the  parent  animal. 
This  is  the  case,  for  example,  with  the  distoma  or 
"fluJce"  a  parasitic  creature  one  species  of  which 
makes  its  home  in  the  human  liver.  In  one  stage  of 
its  existence,  this  little  animal  consists  of  a  long  yel- 
low sac,  looking  like  a  yellow  worm.  From  the  in- 
terior of  this  sac  little  buds  arise,  which  become  de- 
veloped into  new  beings,  and  these,  in  time,  come  to 
resemble  their  parent,  and  perpetuate  the  same  curi- 
ous process. 

This  same  budding  process  actually  takes  place  in 
human  beings,  the  little  cell  or  egg  ejected  from  the 
ovary  being  in  fact  nothing  more  nor  less  than  an  in- 
terior bud  produced  in  that  organ  and  separated  by  a 


process  not  very  different  from  that  by  which  the  lit- 
tle buds  of  the  polyp  or  the  distoma  are  separated 
from  the  parent.  The  chief  difference  between  the 
budding  process  in  human  beings  and  in  the  lower  or- 
ders referred  to,  is  that  in  the  case  of  the  former 
the  little  bud  separated  from  one  parent  cannot  de- 
velop into  a  perfect  human  being  without  uniting  with 
a  similar  bud  from  another  individual  of  the  opposite 

Ovulation  Periodic. — The  above  described  bud- 
ding process  or  casting  off  of  an  egg  or  ovum  does 
not  take  place  continually,  but  occurs  periodically. 
This  is  true  of  all  classes  of  higher  animals  as  well  as 
of  the  human  female.  The  length  of  the  interval  be- 
tween the  periodical  repetitions  of  this  process  varies 
in  different  individuals  and  different  classes  of  ani- 
mals. In  the  human  female  the  ovum  is  matured 
once  every  four  weeks  or  in  twenty-eight  to  thirty 
days,  a  period  corresponding  very  nearly  to  the  lunar 
month.  In  the  horse,  cow,  rabbit,  and  numerous  other 
animals,  the  period  is  very  much  shorter.  Completion 
of  the  development  of  the  ovum  and  rupture  of  the 
vesicle  containing  it,  is  hastened  by  sexual  congress. 

Menstruation. — In  connection  with  the  matura- 
tion and  casting  off  of  the  ovum,  various  other  changes 
take  place  in  the  sexual  organs  which  are  accompanied 
by  a  greater  or  less  disturbance  of  the  whole  system. 
In  the  lower  animals  this  is  termed  the  "oestrus," 
"heat,"  or  "rut."  At  this  period  in  lower  animals 
.there  is  usually  a  considerable  degree  of  congestion 
of  the  whole  generative  apparatus ;  the  secretions  of 


the  vagina  and  the  neighboring  parts  are  greatly  in- 
creased in  quantity  and  somewhat  changed  in  quality. 
In  the  female  dog  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  vagina 
becomes  very  red  and  somewhat  swollen,  and  produces 
an  abundant  secretion  slightly  tinged  with  blood.  This 
secretion  also  produces  at  this  time  a  peculiar  odor, 
which  attracts  the  attention  and  appears  to  stimulate 
the  passions  of  the  male  animal.  The  same  condition  is 
observed  in  the  rabbit,  and  in  certain  species  of  apes 
the  congestion  involves  not  only  the  sexual  organs 
themselves,  but  extends  to  the  neighboring  parts,  in- 
volving the  skin  of  the  buttocks  and  thighs  and  the 
under  part  of  the  tail.  The  general  system  of  the 
animal  is  also  affected  very  considerably.  For  exam- 
ple, the  cow,  on  the  near  approach  of  the  oestrual 
period  usually  loses  her  appetite  and  becomes  very 
restless.  If  feeding  in  a  field,  she  will  frequently  sud- 
denly stop  grazing,  and  run  rapidly  from  one  side  of 
the  field  to  the  other,  looking  about  in  a  startled  un- 
easy manner,  and  presenting  every  evidence  of  pecul- 
iar excitement.  This  condition  continues  for  two  or 
three  days,  when  the  animal  returns  to  her  natural 
condition  again. 

A  fact  of  significance  which  may  be  mentioned 
here  is  that  the  female  of  these  animals  will  not  allow 
the  approach  of  the  male  except  during  or  just  after 
the  oestrual  period,  which  careful  observation  has 
shown  to  be  the  only  time  when  sexual  contact  is 
likely  to  be  fruitful.  The  bearing  of  this  important 
fact  will  be  referred  to  elsewhere. 

In  the  human  female,  ovulation  is  accompanied  by 


changes  very  similar  to  those  which  occur  in  lower 
animals  as  just  described.  The  following  is  a  descrip- 
tion of  the  changes  which  occur  as  given  by  Dalton : — 

"  The  menstrual  discharge  consists  of  mucus 
mingled  with  blood.  When  the  period  is  about  to 
come  on,  the  female  is  affected  with  a  certain  degree 
of  discomfort  and  lassitude,  a  sense  of  weight 
in  the  pelvis,  and  more  or  less  disinclination  to 
society.  These  symptoms  in  some  instances  are 
slightly  pronounced,  in  others  more  troublesome. 
An  unusual  discharge  of  vaginal  mucus  then  begins  to 
take  place,  soon  becoming  yellowish  or  rusty-brown 
in  color,  from  the  admixture  of  a  certain  proportion  of 
blood ;  and  by  the  second  or  third  day,  the  discharge 
has  the  appearance  of  nearly  pure  blood.  The  un- 
pleasant sensations,  at  first  manifest,  then  usually  sub- 
side ;  and  the  discharge,  after  continuing  for  two  or 
three  days  longer,  grows  more  scanty,  its  color  chang- 
ing from  red  to  a  rusty  or  brownish  tinge  until  it 
finally  disappears,  and  the  period  comes  to  an  end. 

"  The  menstrual  epochs  of  the  human  female  cor- 
respond with  the  periods  of  oestruation  in  the  lower 
animals.  Their  general  resemblance  to  these  periods 
is  very  evident.  Like  them,  they  are  absent  in  the 
immature  female,  and  begin  to  take  place  only  at  the 
period  of  puberty,  when  the  aptitude  for  impregna- 
tion commences.  Like  them,  they  recur  during  the 
child-bearing  period  at  regular  intervals,  and  are  lia 
ble  to  the  same  interruption  by  pregnancy.  Finally, 
their  disappearance  corresponds  with  the  cessation  of 


"The  period  of  oestruation  in  many  of  the  lower  ani- 
mals is  accompanied  with  an  unusual  discharge  from 
the  generative  passages,  frequently  more  or  less 
tinged  with  blood.  In  the  human  female,  the  bloody 
discharge,  though  more  abundant  than  in  other  in- 
stances, differs  only  in  degree  from  that  in  many 
species  of  animals." 

During  menstruation,  the  uterus  and  ovaries  are 
considerably  increased  in  size  by  the  physiological 
congestion  to  which  they  are  subjected.  This  natur- 
ally gives  rise,  in  most  cases,  to  an  increased  activity 
of  the  reproductive  instinct,  as  in  lower  animals.  The 
nature  of  the  menstrual  flow  has  been  the  subject  of 
much  speculation.  As  before  stated,  it  consists  of 
the  natural  secretions  of  the  vagina  and  uterus,  which 
are  greatly  augmented  in  quantity,  mingled  with  more 
or  less  blood,  in  many  cases  consisting  chiefly  of 
blood.  When  present  only  in  a  normal  quantity,  it 
has  been  observed  that  menstrual  blood  does  not  coag- 
ulate. This  fact  has  led  to  the  supposition  that  the 
blood  of  the  menstrual  discharge  is  different  from  that 
of  the  body  in  general ;  but  very  careful  investigation 
of  the  matter  shows  that  this  peculiarity  of  menstrual 
blood  is  the  result  of  its  mixture  with  the  acid  secre- 
tions of  the  vagina,  by  which  its  coagulation  is  pre- 
vented. This  view  is  sustained  by  the  fact  that  when 
the  blood  is  present  in  large  quantity  it  does  coagu- 
late, just  as  when^  discharged  from  any  other  part  of 
the  body. 

Whether  or  not  the  menstrual  discharge  is  to  any 
degree  an  excretion,  is  a  question  not  yet  well  settled ; 


but  it  is  perhaps  probable  that  the  secretion  of  the 
utricular  glands,  which  are  found  very  abundant  in 
the  lining  of  the  cavity  of  the  uterus,  is  to  some  ox- 
tent,  at  least,  an  excretory  product.  The  serious  dis- 
turbances of  the  general  system  which  are  occasioned 
by  a  sudden  suppression  of  the  menstrual  flow,  sup- 
port this  idea.  Further  support  of  the  same  notion 
is  given  by  the  fact  that  the  secretion  of  urea  by  the 
kidneys  is  diminished  fully  one-fifth  during  menstrua- 
tion. It  is  not  to  be  supposed,  however,  that  the 
menstrual  discharge  possesses  anything  of  the  ex- 
tremely noxious  character  attributed  to  it  by  the 
ancients,  who  supposed  it  to  possess  the  power  to  blight 
everything  with  which  it  came  in  contact,  even  vege- 
tation being  said  to  wither  and  droop  within  a  few 
hours  after  being  exposed  to  its  influence. 

The  length  of  time  that  the  flow  continues  varies 
considerably  in  different  individuals.  In  some  wo- 
men the  flow  is  present  only  one  or  two  days,  while 
in  others  it  continues  from  five  to  eight  days  without 
any  apparent  injury  to  health.  The  average  is 
probably  about  four  days.  The  amount  of  the  dis- 
charge has  been  variously  estimated,  some  placing  it 
at  three  or  four  ounces,  and  others  as  high  as  seven- 
teen ounces,  or  more.  It  is  probable  that  the  smaller 
estimate  is  about  the  average  amount  in  healthy  fe- 
males. It  has  been  observed  that  the  flow  is  more 
abundant  in  women  of  indolent  or  sedentary  habits 
than  in  those  accustomed  to  active  labor ;  also  in  per- 
sons of  feeble  constitutions  than  those  of  robust  health. 
It  is  also  stated  that  the  average  amount  of  the  dis- 


charge  is  greater  in  women  residing  in  cities  than  in 
those  who  reside  in  the  country  or  in  country  vil- 

The  origin  of  the  blood  is  the  interior  of  the 
uterus,  from  the  walls  of  which  it  exudes  very  much 
like  perspiration  from  the  surface  of  the  body.  For 
several  days  previous  to  the  occurrence  of  the  dis- 
charge, the  mucous  membrane  of  the  uterus  has  been 
found  to  undergo  peculiar  changes,  increasing  to  sev- 
eral times  its  usual  thickness,  and  undergoing  a  sort 
of  fatty  degeneration,  by  which  the  walls  of  the  cap- 
illaries are  weakened  to  such  an  extent  as  to  allow 
the  passage  of  the  blood  through  them.  This  change 
in  the  character  of  the  mucous  membrane  of  the 
uterus  is  undoubtedly  a  sort  of  preparation  for  the  re- 
ception of  the  ovum,  which  is  becoming  matured  at 
the  same  time,  preparatory  to  its  passage  into  the 

A  considerable  portion  of  the  menstrual  discharge 
consists  of  epithelium  which  has  been  softened  and 
exfoliated.  Sometimes  the  epithelium  is  thrown  ojF 
in  the  form  of  large  patches,  which  frequently  have 
the  appearance  and  consistency  of  membrane,  an<J 
which  is  occasionally  so  extensive  as  to  present  a 
cast  of  the  inside  of  the  uterus.  This  has  led  to  the 
erroneous  belief  that  the  mucous  membrane  of  the 
uterus  is  actually  thrown  off  at  each  menstrual  pe- 
riod. 'This  is  not  so,  however,  even  in  cases  of  what 
is  known  as  membranous  di/smenorrhoea,  in  which  what 
appears  to  be  the  mucous  lining  of  the  uterus  is  sim- 
ply a  false  membrane  somewhat  similar  to  the  mem- 
branous formation  in  croup. 


The  ancients  held  many  very  singular  notions 
respecting  the  function  of  menstruation,  among 
which  was  the  idea  that  the  moon  exerted  a  powerful 
influence  over  this  function.  This  notion  has  retained 
its  hold  on  the  popular  mind  more  or  less  even  to  the 
present  time.  It  has  in  fact  been  so  firmly  held  by 
some,  that  an  eminent  French  astronomer  a  few  years 
ago  thought  it  worth  his  while  to  devote  several 
years  to  a  careful  study  of  the  subject.  After  mak- 
ing several  thousand  observations,  he  stated  as  the 
result  of  his  study  that  no  relation  whatever  could  be 
traced  between  the  menstrual  function  in  women  and 
the  phases  of  the  moon. 

Vicarious  Menstruation. — In  some  cases  in 
which  the  regular  menstrual  flow  is  suppressed  or  ab- 
sent, the  discharge  of  blood  takes  place  from  some 
other  part  of  the  body,  as  from  the  nose  and  lungs  or 
stomach  and  bowels,  or  even  from  the  surface.  This 
discharge  has  been  termed  vicarious  menstruation. 
The  flow  of  blood  which  occurs  in  these  cases  cannot 
"he  considered  as  a  natural  menstrual  discharge.  The 
condition  is  one  of  disease,  and  will  be  considered 

Fecundation. — The  process  by  which  the  male 
and  female  elements  of  generation  are  united  to  form 
the  embryo  of  the  new  individual,  is  termed  fecun- 
dation. This  is  a  process  of  so  great  interest  from  a 
physiological  stand-point  that  it  will  be  well  worth 
while  to  consider  it  at  some  length,  studying  the 
mode  in  which  it  takes  place  in  lower  forms  of  life, 
and  lower  animals,  as  well  as  in  human  beings •    At 


the  lower  limit  of  the  scale  of  life,  are  found  numer- 
ous species  of  plants  and  animals  which  consist  of  a 
single  cell.  Although,  in  some  of  the  simpler  forms, 
the  different  individuals  of  the  same  species  are  to  all 
appearance  exactly  alike,  there  being  no  physical 
characteristics  by  which  to  distinguish  the  sexes, 
there  is  evidence  for  believing  that  the  property  of 
sex  is  possessed  by  these  minute  creatures,  since  it 
has  been  observed  that  reproduction  does  not  take 
place  without  the  occurrence  of  a  process  essentially 
the  same  as  that  of  fecundation  in  higher  animals. 
In  the  case  of  these  lower  forms,  however,  the  process 
of  fecundation  involves  the  whole  individual,  rather 
than  a  minute  element  produced  by  either  sex.  In 
studying  this  process,  a  male  and  a  female  cell,  both 
so  nearly  alike  that  no  distinguishing  features  can  be 
discovered  by  the  most  powerful  microscope,  may  be 
seen  to  approach  each  other,  and  soon  after  coming 
in  contact,  to  become  so  completely  united  as  to  form 
one  homogeneous  cell.  Soon  after  this  takes  place, 
the  one  individual  thus  formed  begins  to  subdivide, 
first  separating  into  two  halves,  each  half  again  sub- 
dividing in  the  same  manner  until  a  large  number  of 
individuals  are  formed  from  the  original  two,  or  from 
the  one  individual  formed  by  the  union  of  the  first 
two.  In  this  class  of  creatures,  fecundation  involves 
the  loss  of  the  identity  of  the  parents.  This  form  of 
fecundation  or  reproduction  is  illustrated  on  Plate  I, 
Fig.  3.  The  rapidity  with  which  the  process  above 
described  may  occur  is  truly  astonishing.  In  a  spe- 
cies of  the  protococcus  which  sometimes  appears  in  win- 


ter,  covering  in  some  instances  large  tracts  of  coun- 
try, producing  the  remarkable  phenomenon  of  green 
snow,  the  multiplication  is  so  rapid  that  more  than 
60,000  individuals  may  be  produced  from  a  single 
pair  in  one  hour,  and  in  thirty  minutes  more  time  a 
number  exceeding  that  of  the  inhabitants  of  the 

In  the  higher  orders  of  plants  we  observe  a  pro- 
cess of  fecundation  of  a  much  higher  type.  The  male 
and  female  elements  of  generation  are  produced  by 
flowers,  which  are  the  sexual  organs  of  plants.  In 
many  cases,  the  two  elements  are  produced  by  dis- 
tinct flowers,  either  from  the  same  plant  or  from  sepa- 
rate plants,  although  in  some  cases  the  two  elements 
are  produced. by  differ^ ft  parts  the  same  flower. 
The  male  element  is  knovr  to  the  botanist  as  the 
pollen,  which  is  produced  by  the  anthers,  usually  borne 
at  the  top  of  long  filaments  termed  stamens.  By  va- 
rious means,  chiefly  through  the  agency  of  the  wind 
and  the  visits  of  insects  from  flower  to  flower,  the 
pollen  is  carried  from  the  male  flower  or  the  male 
parts  of  flowers  to  the  end  of  the  pistil  or  pistils  of 
the  female  flowers,  on  which  the  little  pollen  grains 
are  lodged  when  the  process  of  fecundation  begins. 
A  little  sprout  is  sent  out  from  the  pollen  grain  and 
down  through  the  pistil  of  the  flower  to  the  ovary  at 
the  base  of  the  pistil,  in  which  is  secreted  a  little  cell 
or  a  number  of  minute  cells,  corresponding  to  the 
ovum  of  female  animals.  When  the  ovum  is  reached 
by  the  little  filament  from  the  pollen  grain,  the 
process    of  fecundation  is  completed,  and  the  pro- 


cess  of  development  begins,  and  in  due  time  results  in 
the  production  of  a  perfect  seed,  from  which  another 
plant  may  be  produced.  The  reproductive  organs  of 
plants  and  the  process  of  fertilization  are  well  rep- 
resented on  Plate  IIL 

The  devices  of  nature  for  accomplishing  the  act 
of  fecundation  in  plants  are  so  marvelous  as  to  be  al- 
most incredible.  The  following  graphic  description 
of  the  process  we  quote  as  a  concise  statement  of  the 
results  of  the  most  recent  scientific  investigations  : — 

"  Deep  hidden  within  the  flower's  heart  lies  the 
little  nursery  where  the  seeds  are  born ;  most  cun- 
ningly the  pistil  and  the  stamens  watch  each  other 
like  true  lovers  for  a  greeting;  tenderly  the  petals 
close  around  them  in  the  cool,  and  open  through  fit 
hours  of  sunlight.  And  when  the  stamens  and  the 
pistil  cannot  meet  directly,  but  the  message  must  be 
borne  by  insect  rovers,  then  the  complication  of  con- 
trivance to  secure  the  transport  of  the  message  al- 
most exceeds  belief.  The  pollen  must  be  brought 
from  a  certain  spot  in  one  flower  and  left  on  a  certain 
spot  within  another.  Says  one,  speaking  of  Darwin's 
investigation  of  the  orchids  :  '  Moth-traps  and  spring- 
guns  set  on  these  grounds,  might  be  the  motto  of 
these  flowers.  There  are  channels  of  approach,  along 
which  the  nectar-loving  insects  are  surely  guided,  so 
as  to  compel  them  to  pass  the  given  spots ;  there  are 
adhesive  plasters  nicely  adjusted  to  fit  their  proboscides 
or  to  catch  their  brows,  and  so  unload  their  pollen- 
burden  ;  sometimes,  where  they  enter  for  the  honey, 
there  are  hair-triggers  carefully  set  in  their  necessary 



path,  communicating  with  explosive  shells  that  pro- 
ject the  pollen-stalks  with  unerring  aim  upon  their 

In  all  except  the  very  lowest  forms  of  animal  life, 
reproduction  is  performed  by  the  union  of  a  male  and 
female  element  produced  by  separate  individuals  or 
by  separate  parts  of  the  same  individual,  as  in  the 
case  of  the  higher  plants.  This  is  true  even  of  the 
minute  infusoria,  which  have  been  demonstrated  to 
reproduce  their  species  by  means  of  eggs. 

In  some  classes  of  animals,  as  the  tape-worm,  earth- 
worm, snail,  leach,  and  slug,  the  male  and  female  ele- 
ments are  produced  by  the  same  individual,  as  is  the 
case  with  many  flowers  ;  but  with  the  single  exception 
of  the  tape-worm,  the  species  mentioned  require  the 
union  of  two  individuals  to  secure  the  fecundation  of 
the  female  element. 

The  curious  manner  in  which  fecundation  takes 
place  in  the  tape-worm  is  shown  in  Plate  IX,  Fig.  2. 
The  spermatozoa  are  discharged  from  the  testicle  by 
an  opening  close  beside  the  opening  of  the  canal  which 
receives  the  numerous  eggs  from  the  ovary,  which 
constitutes  the  greater  portion  of  each  segment  of  the 
body  of  this  curious  creature,  and  readily  find  their 
way  back  into  the  interior  of  the  segment,  where  the 
process  of  fecundation  takes  place. 

Animals  of  this  class  are  known  as  hermaphrodites, 
possessing,  as  they  do,  both  male  and  female  organs 
of  generation.  As  before  remarked,  however,  the 
earth-worm,  leach,  slug,  and  snail,  which  are  also  her- 
maphrodites, require  for  fecundation  the  union  of  two 


individuals.  This  is  true  of  most  of  the  true  her- 
maphrodites, and  is  probably  also  true  of  many  her- 
maphrodite flowers,  the  sexual  organs  of  such  flow- 
ers being  often  so  placed  that  self-fecundation  is  much 
more  difficult  than  fecundation  by  means  of  pollen 
brought  by  the  wind  or  insects  from  other  flowers. 

Some  curious  instances  of  true  hermaphrodism  or 
double  sex  have  been  observed  in  human  beings. 
Most  cases  of  hermaphrodism,  so-called,  are  really 
cases  in  which  there  is  deformity  of  the  sexual  or- 
gans producing  a  resemblance  to  the  opposite  sex, 
the  cause  of  which  will  be  explained  presently. 
There  are  a  few  cases  on  record,  however,  in  which 
individuals  have  possessed  in  a  degree  of  develop- 
ment more  or  less  complete,  both  male  and  female 
organs  of  generation.  This  anomalous  condition 
would  be  very  difficult  of  explanation  if  it  were  true,, 
as  was  formerly  supposed,  that  the  testicles  in  the 
male  are  the  analogues  of  the  ovaries  in  the  female. 
Some  of  our  most  eminent  modern  biologists,  how- 
ever, have  disputed  this  view,  which  has  been  so  long 
held  and  considered  thoroughly  established,  and  some 
observations  have  been  made  in  the  development  of 
the  lower  animals  which  have  led  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  ovaries  and  testicles,  while  in  a  certain  sense 
analogues,  are  not  really  so  in  the  same  sense  as  are 
the  clitoris  in  the  female  and  the  corresponding  organ 
in  the  male.  Among  the  most  interesting  of  these 
observations  were  those  made  by  Van  Beneden,  who 
studied  with  great  care  the  development  of  polyps. 
He  found  that  the  testicle  in  these  animals  is  devel- 


oped  from  the  outer  portion  of  the  embryo,  while  the 
ovaries  are  developed  from  the  inner  portion.  This 
is  not  true  of  organs  which  are  morphologically  iden- 
tical. It  is  very  probable  that  what  is  true  in  the 
development  of  polyps  is  true  also  in  the  development 
of  higher  animals  and  human  beings.  This  accounts 
for  the  existence  of  both  sets  of  organs  in  human  be- 
ings, and  throws  some  light  on  the  nature  of  the  fe- 
cundating process,  by  suggesting  the  idea  that  the 
male  element  of  generation  represents  more  specific- 
ally one  portion  of  the  human  organism,  while  the 
female  element  represents  more  particularly  another 
portion,  the  union  of  the  two  making  the  complete 

Peculiar  Modes  of  Fecundation. — In  all  of  the 
instances  thus  far  mentioned,  fecundation  takes  place 
within  the  body  of  the  individual.  In  some  classes 
of  animals,  however,  fecundation  takes  place  outside 
of  the  body.  This  is  true  of  most  fishes.  At  certain 
seasons  of  the  year,  as  is  well  known,  the  female  fish, 
loaded  with  ova,  termed  "  spawn,"  visits  certain  local- 
ities for  the  purpose  of  depositing  her  eggs.  The 
waters  of  certain  rivers  which  empty  into  the  sea  are 
sometimes  densely  crowded  with  fish  seeking  their 
spawning  grounds.  Impelled  by  an  imperious  instinct, 
they  force  their  way  against  the  most  rapid  currents, 
leaping  over  obstacles,  rushing  through  foaming 
Tapids,  never  pausing  even  for  a  moment  until  their 
destination  has  been  reached.  At  the  same  time  the 
male  fish,  led  by  the  same  strong  instinct,  follows 
closely  in  the  wake  of  the  female,  and  when  she  has 


reached  her  destination,  and  deposited  her  eggs  along 
the  gravelly  bottom  of  some  shallow  stream,  he  de- 
posits in  the  same  spot  the  fecundating  fluid  or  "milt.'* 

In  a  few  of  the  osseous  fishes,  fecundation  takes 
place  by  the  union  of  the  two  sexes,  as  in  higher 

Jn  reptiles,  the  ova  are  usually  fecundated  out- 
side of  the  body  of  the  female,  as  in  fishes.  In  cer- 
tain species  of  frogs,  the  male,  instead  of  following 
the  female  in  order  to  deposite  the  fecundating  fluid 
at  the  same  spot  with  the  ova,  as  is  done  by  most 
fishes,  mounts  upon  her  back,  and  rides  about  until 
she  has  deposited  her  eggs,  at  the  same  time  deposit- 
ing the  fluid  by  which  they  are  fecundated. 

In  all  the  animals  known  as  "  air-breathing  ver- 
tebrates," fecundation  is  performed  by  means  of  a 
union  of  both  sexes,  the  male  element  being  deposited 
in  the  generative  passages  of  the  female  through  the 
means  of  the  accessory  generative  organs  of  the  male. 
This  stage  of  the  process,  known  as  copulation  or 
sexual  congress,  is  usually  accompanied  in  the  female, 
as  in  the  male,  by  a  discharge  of  fluid,  the  source  of 
which  is  the  two  glands  situated  near  the  mouth  of 
the  vagina.  This  fluid  was  formerly  supposed  to 
play  an  important  part  in  the  process  of  fecundation, 
and  was  termed  by  Hippocrates,  "  female  semen." 
The  act  is  also  attended  by  an  intense  degree  of  con- 
gestion of  the  whole  sexual  apparatus  and  intense 
nervous  action.  The  exact  manner  in  which  the 
spermatozoa  of  the  male  find  their  way  to  the  ovum 
which  is  usually  located  high  up  in  the  generative 


passages  of  the  female,  is  not  thoroughly  understood. 
Some  observations  have  been  made  which  lead  to  the 
belief  that  the  uterus,  during  the  sexual  act,  is  in  a 
state  of  unusual  activity. 

Some  observers  have  described  a  peculiar  suction 
action  on  the  part  of  the  uterus  by  means  of  which 
the  seminal  fluid  might  be  drawn  up  into  its  cavity. 
Something  closely  allied  to  this  has  been  observed  in 
lower  animals  killed  directly  after  the  performance  of 
the  sexual  act.  In  some  of  these  cases  an  active  per- 
istaltic movement  has  been  noticed  in  the  fallopian 
tubes,  the  movement  being  in  the  downward  direc- 
tion, evidently  for  the  purpose  of  facilitating  the  pas- 
sage of  the  ovum  to  the  cavity  of  the  uterus.  It  is 
quite  possible  that  a  movement  of  the  uterus  designed 
to  facilitate  the  entrance  of  the  seminal  fluid  into  its 
cavity  may  take  place,  although  it  cannot  be  said  that 
such  an  action  is  thoroughly  demonstrated.  Indeed, 
it  is  known  that  fecundation  may  take  place  when 
there  can  be  no  such  action  on  the  part  of  the  uterus, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  the  female  is  entirely  passive 
during  the  sexual  act.  This  is  undoubtedly  true 
in  most  of  the  occasional  cases  of  rape  which  have 
been  followed  by  pregnancy.  Pregnancy  has  been 
known  to  occur  also  as  the  result  of  sexual  union  in 
which  the  female  was  unconscious,  in  deep  sleep,  or 
under  the  influence  of  chloroform  or  a  narcotic. 

The  fact  that  the  action  of  the  cilia  of  the  epithe- 
lial lining  of  the  greater  portion  of  the  uterus  and  of 
the  fallopian  tubes  is  in  the  downward  direction,  proT 
ducing  a  more  or  less  constant   current  toward  the 


mouth  of  the  womb,  leads  to  the  conclusion  that  there 
is  some  such  action  on  the  part  of  the  uterus.  It 
may  be  considered  possible,  however,  that  the  sperm- 
atozoa find  their  way  to  the  cavity  of  the  uterus  and 
even  higher  up  in  the  generative  passages,  by  their 
own  efforts.  It  is  well  known  that  when  capable  of 
fecundating  the  ovum,  the  spermatozoa  are  very  act- 
ive, and  capable  of  propelling  themselves  in  a  suita- 
ble fluid  by  means  of  their  filamentous  appendages. 
The  form  and  structure  of  the  spermatozoon,  or  male 
element  of  generation,  in  man  and  some  lower  animals, 
is  shown  on  Plate  IV,  together  with  human  and  other 
ova  in  various  stages  of  development. 

The  spermatozoa  may  come  in  contact  with  the 
ovum  either  in  the  uterus,  in  some  portion  of  the 
fallopian  tubes,  or  even  at  the  surface  of  the  ovary, 
fecundated  ova  having  been  found  in  all  these  locali- 
ties. After  contact,  a  union  of  the  spermatozoa  and 
the  ovum  seems  to  take  place.  In  some  lower  ani- 
mals a  distinct  opening  in  the  membrane  surround- 
ing the  yolk  has  been  observed,  and  spermatozoa  have 
been  seen  crowding  their  way  through  this  opening  to 
the  interior  of  the  ovum.  No  similar  opening  has 
been  seen  in  the  ovum  of  the  human  female,  but 
there  is  evidence  for  believing  that  such  an  opening 
exists,  for  it  is  well  known  that  spermatozoa  pene- 
trate the  wall  of  the  ovum,  or  at  least  make  their 
way  into  the  interior.  It  is  possible,  however,  that 
this  may  occur  without  an  opening,  as  it  is  a  well  at- 
tested fact  that  the  embryos  of  trichina  pass  readily 
through  the  mucous  membrane  of  the  intestines  with- 


&;>    .  ;■ 


the  L  ijriw  <!l  WE, 

■p  .itij  of    I,o  wonli,  l.'.ulr  to  f  ■»  <  oitcli  -ion  that  tln-re 

>   -*oi..  *  Mich  »ift ••»"»  <-ii   '!>'*    p.  it  of  ;hf    titeru^.      It 

HK'V  l-i-  i  »';,-i  V.vd  jMX-sih!-  ,  how^  01.  'hat  tin-  ^pc  i.t- 

i*.<»/o;«   !'•   •;   tin  Lr  wa\   1     th-*  -;n  ity  i>1*  the  utenH  ami 

•**  **.»   liiu!  -I    ui»  in   '!"  •*  m-rative  passage;-,  1-y  their 

*.v  :•  •  ti-.rts.      it  i>  we  1  kii'»^n   t * iii  1  when  eapablo  of 

''  -  •*"■   •  *;,<Lr  t!>t*  o\«  ,ii,  tl  e  spern  alozoa  ;uv  very  aet- 

I  * ;  pa-  1c  -a'  m\>p»*-HiiPjr  fhem-elve^  in  a  suitn- 

'I   i.v  I'»".hh    >f  U.  lr  fi!  nm-ntous   appembti».>. 

*.    •*    t : i <  1  sn'iii^iii*:  -if  »h*'  s|"  rni;uozo(»n,  or  male 

:*  v*  U'Tniio'i.  in  ■!:•",  t)>.<!  some  lower  animals, 

■   «  a  Piat'*lV,  t«cj  fL   r  v>ith  human  and  other 

ur.\<  Maue^  oi  *h  \ ■  ';  iunc  nt. 

'•  -p'   may  ft-itu*  in  e<  ntaet  with  the 

i!iiT  in  thf    'i*.- -ms.  ii.   s^an      portion  of  the 

n   tuh^-.  or  "\»n    ihr  surfar*   of  the  o\th*\  , 

.    '■  ■  •*!   ..\;»   Lav;^   :  <*fi.  found  in  I'll  tlmse  loeali- 

V*   r  iMV.H't.  a  UMioi    if  the  spermatozoa  and 

.    '     -  op,,  to   take   p!av.\      In  some  lower  ani- 

:    *  at   <••  i    ion   ;n  the  m*-n  hiaue   surroiuui- 

•    '■     ,,-i-i. "-ii  oi»N^r\o.:  arv!  ^p  rmatozoa  have 

*•*■.  muji'  th-ur  way  through  -Jus  opening  to 

•  •  '     he  ti.:;'ii.     ^No    similar    oponlhir  has 

i      o.ina   of   *"■:    human    female,  but 

*  I'M*  lh  lieu-  x  thai  sm-h  ;m  opening 

v. *  "'   ki.owo    il.tu     j:*  naalozoa  pene- 

•'  '!■  •  (v  an.  *••  j- 1  bve-t  make  their 

:      *:m\      It  i.-    ji  *  - ibu%   however,  that 

*  ■   ■■  rY-nf   jMl   ..jwiiimr,-  >s  it  's  a  well  at- 

,n>}.<\<-  of  fi*!  hi  mi   pa<s   readily 
'  -   liunih;  •  ,-.'    )f  the  intestines  with- 



out  the  aid  of  openings.  Each  ovum  is  penetrated  by 
a  number  of  spermatozoa,  though  how  many  are  re- 
quired for  fecundation  is  not  known.  Experiments 
with  the  eggs  of  frogs  have  shown  that  so  small  a 
quantity  as  three  grains  of  the  male  fecundating  ele- 
ment is  sufficient  for  the  fertilization  of  many  thou- 
sands of  ova. 

The  Nature  of  Fecundation. — The  process  of 
fecundation  seems  to  be  an  actual  molecular  union  of 
the  male  and  female  elements  exactly  similar  to  what 
we  find  in  some  of  the  lowest  orders,  in  which  the 
male  and  female  individual  are  wholly  lost  in  the  in- 
dividual which  they  unite  to  form,  and  which  after- 
ward divides  into  a  large  number  of  progeny.  Some 
have  supposed  fecundation  to  be  a  sort  of  electrical 
process,  the  male  being  the  positive  element,  and  the 
female  the  negative.  This  theory  is  undoubtedly 
visionary,  but  it  is  evident  that  the  male  element 
supplies  something  which  is  necessary  to  enable  the 
ovum  to  undergo  development,  since  complete  devel- 
opment cannot  take  place  without  fecundation,  al- 
though cases  are  on  record  in  which  the  ovum  has 
developed  to  a  considerable  degree  without  the  influ- 
ence of  the  male  element.  It  has  also  been  suggested 
that  the  male  element  supplies  a  sort  of  necessary 
nutriment  to  the  ovum,  by  which  its  development 
becomes  possible.  The  suggestion  first  made  is 
probably  the  correct  one;  viz,  that  the  ovum  and 
spermatozoa  each  contain  certain  germinal  elements 
necessary  for  the  formation  of  the  new  individual, 
neither  being  complete  in  itself.     The  only  objection 


to  this  theory  is  the  fact  that  a  large  number  of  sperm- 
atozoa are  apparently  required  for  the  fecundation  of 
a  single  ovum.  At  any  rate,  it  is  well  known  that  in 
the  case  of  some  of  the  lower  animals,  as,  for  ex- 
ample, the  frog,  a  very  large  number  of  spermatozoa 
enter  each  ovum  and  disappear  in  its  interior,  be- 
coming amalgamated  with  its  elements. 

It  has  been  suggested  that  the  sex  of  progeny 
may  depend  to  a  considerable  degree  upon  the  number 
of  spermatozoa  which  unite  with  the  ovum,  a  certain 
number  being  sufficient  to  produce  males  and  a 
smaller  number  females.  The  resemblance  of  children 
to  their  father  or  mother  has  also  been  accounted  for 
in  the  same  way ;  a  large  number  of  spermatozoa 
uniting  with  the  ovum  producing  a  preponderance  of 
the  male  characteristics  of  the  sex,  and  a  lesser  num- 
ber the  contrary. 

It  is  useless  to  devote  space  to  a  discussion  of  the 
relative  importance  of  the  male  and  female  reproduc- 
tive elements,  since  neither  is  capable  of  independent 

Conception. — There  is  considerable  evidence  for 
believing  that  the  union  of  the  spermatozoa  with  the 
ovum  takes  place  in  some  portion  of  the  fallopian 
tubes.  After  this  has  been  effected,  the  ovum  usu- 
ally soon  passes  down  to  the  cavity  of  the  uterus. 
Sometimes,  when  fecundation  occurs  at  the  surface  of 
the  ovary,  the  ovum  loses  its  way,  and  remains  in  the 
abdominal  cavity.  Its  progress  down  the  fallopian 
tube  is  also  occasionally  stopped  before  it  reaches  the 
uterus.     The  result  of  its  arrest  in  these  abnormal 


positions  will  be  referred  to  elsewhere.  When  the 
ovum  reaches  the  uterus,  it  soon  becomes  attached  to 
some  portion  of  its  wall,  the  mucous  membrane  hav- 
ing been  previously  prepared  for  its  reception  by  a 
process  of  thickening  and  the  formation  of  little 
pockets,  one  of  which  receives  the  ovum,  and  to 
which  it  becomes  attached.  The  adhesion  of  the 
ovum  to  the  lining  membrane  of  the  uterus  is  known 
as  conception.  This  usually  takes  place  without  the 
knowledge  of  the  individual,  but  some  women  claim 
to  be  able  to  detect  the  moment  at  which  conception 
takes  place  by  peculiar  sensations,  usually  a  slight 
dizziness  or  faintness.  From  this  time  on,  however, 
in  most  cases,  the  ovum  gives  no  indication  of  its 
presence  for  some  time,  although  very  great  changes 
in  both  the  uterus  and  the  ovum  are  taking  place. 
These  will  be  described  presently. 

It  has  been  determined  that  conception  is  much 
more  liable  to  occur  at  certain  times  than  at  others. 
In  order  that  fecundation  shall  take  place,  it  is  of 
course  necessary  that  the  ovum  should  be  present  in 
the  generative  passage  of  the  female  either  at  the 
time  of  sexual  congress,  or  soon  afterward.  Just  how 
long  the  spermatozoa  may  remain  active  in  the  gener- 
ative passages  of  the  female,  and  capable  of  impreg- 
nating the  ovum,  is  not  known,  but  it  is  certain  that 
they  retain  their  vitality  and  efficiency  for  a  number 
of  days  after  copulation.  The  ovum  is  also  usually 
retained  for  some  days  in  some  portion  of  the  genera- 
tive canal  of  the  female,  not  usually  passing  off  with 
the  menstrual  discharge,  but  some  days  later.     It  is 


probably  retained  from  four  to  ten  days  after  the  ces- 
sation of  the  menstrual  flow.  From  these  facts  it  is 
evident  that  conception  will  be  most  likely  to  occur 
a  few  days  before  or  four  to  ten  days  after  the  men- 
strual period.  Many  observations  have  shown  that 
with  the  majority  of  females,  at  least,  conception  is 
not  likely  to  occur  during  the  interval  between  the 
•  periods  named.  This  is  known  to  be  the  case  with 
lower  animals,  and  while  it  is  not  universally  true  of 
human  females,  it  holds  good  in  a  sufficient  number 
of  cases  to  constitute  a  general  law. 

Usually  but  one  ovum  is  produced  at  a  time  in 
the  human  female.  The  same  is  true  of  the  females 
of  many  other  classes  of  animals,  as  the  elephant, 
horse,  and  cow.  In  exceptional  cases  two  or  more 
ova  are  matured  at  once,  and  under  favorable  circum- 
stances may  be  fecundated,  giving  rise  to  multiple 
conception.  Cases  are  on  record  also  which  demon- 
strate the  fact  that  two  conceptions  may  take  place 
with  a  longer  or  shorter  interval  between,  both  ova 
undergoing  development  at  the  same  time.  This  is 
known  as  superfecundation.  In  one  case  observed  by 
a  surgeon  in  the  late  war,  a  mulatto  woman  gave  birth 
to  twins,  one  of  which  was  nearly  white,  the  other 
much  blacker  than  the  mother.  At  the  time  of  con- 
ception the  woman  was  employed  as  a  domestic  in 
the  house  of  a  white  man,  while  sleeping  at  night  with 
a  negro  husband.  The  latter  was  so  thoroughly  con- 
vinced of  her  unfaithfulness  by  the  sight  of  the  white 
child  that  he  turned  her  out  of  doors,  notwithstanding 
her  constant  assertion  of  her  innocence.     Cases  have 


also  occurred  in  which  a  woman  has  had  two  confine- 
ments with  an  interval  of  several  weeks,  a  period  not 
Jong  enough  to  allow  a  new  pregnancy  to  occur,  but 
long  enough  to  show  that  the  second  pregnancy  must 
have  taken  place  several  weeks  after  the  first.  That 
such  a  circumstance  might  occur  is  evidenced  by  the 
fact  that  in  some  females  menstruation  continues  sev- 
eral months  after  conception  occurs.  As  the  mouth 
of  the  womb  remains  open  for  some  time,  there  is  no 
obstacle  in  the  way  of  a  second  conception  in  such 

Conception  cannot  of  course  occur  before  the  pe- 
riod of  puberty,  previous  to  which  time  the  cells  of 
the  ovaries  from  which  the  ova  are  developed,  exist 
only  in  a  rudimentary  condition,  as  shown  by  Plate 
IV.  The  change  known  as  puberty  occurs  at  or  near 
the  age  of  fifteen  years,  and  conception  may  occur  at 
any  time  from  this  period  until  the  menopause,  or 
change  of  life,  which  usually  occurs  sometime  between 
the  ages  of  forty-five  and  fifty.  Cases  are  on  record 
in  which  the  ability  to  conceive  has  been  acquired 
much  earlier  or  retained  until  a  much  later  period 
than  the  ages  mentioned.  In  one  observed  case,  a 
girl  became  a  mother  at  eight,  and  an  instance  is 
given,  which  seems  to  be  well  authenticated,  of  the 
occurrence  of  conception  after  sixty. 

A  large  number  of  observations  have  shown  that 
conception  is  less  likely  to  occur  between  the  ages  of 
fifteen  and  twenty  than  between  twenty  and  twenty- 
four,  so  that  women  marrying  young  are  less  likely 
to  be  fruitful  than  those  marrying  when  more  mature. 


No  point  in  biology  is  better  settled  than  that  the 
mental,  moral,  and  physical  condition  of  the  parents 
at  the  time  of  conception  may  be  impressed  on  the 
offspring,  and  usually  has  an  important  influence  on 
the  character  of  the  progeny.  The  influence  of  the 
male  parent  is  particularly  strong  at  this  time,  proba- 
bly more  so  than  that  of  the  female,  whose  influence 
over  the  offspring  is  fully  as  great  ultimately,  how- 
ever, on  account  of  the  much  longer  time  through 
which  it  is  exerted  during  gestation. 

Heredity. — How  mental,  moral,  and  physical  traits 
of  character  are  transmitted  from  the  parents  to  the 
offspring  is  a  problem  which  has  not  yet  been  fully 
solved,  but  there  is  no  doubt  as  to  the  fact.  Stock- 
breeders well  recognize  the  truth  of  this  principle, 
and  frequently  take  advantage  of  it.  Strong  im- 
pressions made  on  the  mother  soon  after  conception 
has  occurred,  are  likely  to  exert  a  strong  influence 
on  the  child.  The  patriarch  Jacob  seems  to  have  un- 
derstood this  physiological  fact,  and  to  have  made  use 
of  it  to  his  own  advantage  while  caring  for  the  flocks 
of  Laban,  as  we  learn  from  the  following  passage  : — 

"  And  Jacob  took  him  rods  of  green  poplar,  and  of 
the  hazel  and  chestnut  tree,  and  piled  white  streaks 
in  them,  and  made  the  white  appear  which  was  in  the 
rods.  And  he  set  the  rods  which  he  had  piled  before 
the  flocks  in  the  gutters  in  the  watering  troughs  when 
the  flocks  came  to  drink,  that  they  should  conceive 
when  they  came  to  drink.  And  the  flx>cks  conceived 
before  the  rods,  and  brought  forth  cattle,  ringstreaked, 
speckled,  and  spotted." 


Another  interesting  fact  which  has  been  observed 
is,  that  an  impression  more  or  less  permanent  seems 
to  be  made  on  the  female  by  the  first  pregnancy, 
so  that  the  offspring  of  subsequent  conceptions  are 
made  to  partake  of  the  characters  of  the  male  by 
whom  the  first  conception  occurred.  On  this  account, 
breeders  of  blooded  animals  are  very  careful  to  avoid 
employing  an  inferior  male,  especially  for  the  first  time 
that  the  animal  is  made  to  become  pregnant,  since  all 
subsequent  offspring  would  be  likely  to  partake  of  the 
characters  of  the  inferior  male  first  employed.  The 
same  thing  is  often  observed  in  human  beings :  a  wo- 
man marries  the  second  time  after  the  death  of  her 
first  husband,  and  her  children  by  her  second  hus- 
band are  very  likely  to  resemble  her  first  husband  as 
much  as  the  second.  The  resemblance  in  the  color  of 
the  hair  and  eyes  is  often  particularly  noticeable.  In 
case  a  white  woman  has  had  children  by  a  negro,  but 
afterward  bears  children  to  a  white  man,  the  latter 
will  be  very  sure  to  exhibit  some  of  the  characteris- 
tics of  the  negro  race  in  a  marked  degree. 

Cause  of  Sex. — It  was  long  supposed  that  the 
right  ovary  in  females  and  the  right  testicle  in  males 
produced  elements  which  when  united  in  fecundation 
would  develop  into  males,  while  the  elements  pro- 
duced by  the  left  ovary  and  the  left  testicle  would  de- 
velop into  females.  The  erroneous  character  of  this 
theory  has  been  amply  shown  by  repeated  instances,  in 
which  the  right  testicle  in  man  or  the  right  ovary  in 
woman  have  been  removed  on  account  of  disease, 
without  affecting  the  ability  of  either  parent  to  pro- 


create  males  as  well  as  females.  A  corresponding 
fact  has  been  observed  in  cases  in  which  the  left 
ovary  has  been  removed.  It  is  probable  that  the  re- 
lation of  the  ages  of  the  parents  to  each  other  has 
something  to  do  with  the  determination  of  sex.  For 
example,  when  a  young  and  vigorous  man  marries  a 
woman  considerably  older  and  less  vigorous  than  him- 
self, the  offspring  will  be  very  likely  to  be  males. 
When  the  contrary  is  the  case,  that  is,  when  a  man 
somewhat  advanced  in  years  and  not  in  vigorous 
health  marries  a  young  and  vigorous  female,  the  off- 
spring are  very  likely  to  be  females. 

Careful  observations  have  been  made  which  seem 
to  show  that  the  chief  circumstance  in  the  determina- 
tion of  the  sex  is  the  time  in  relation  to  ovulation 
when  fecundation  takes  place.  The  evidence  is  pretty 
strong  that  when  fecundation  of  the  ovum  occurs  very 
soon  after  menstruation,  the  offspring  will  be  of  the 
female  sex ;  while  fecundation  occurring  several  days 
later,  just  before  the  ovum  would  naturally  leave  the 
generative  passages  of  the  female  if  not  fecundated,  is 
pretty  certain  to  result  in  male  offspring.  It  is  thus 
possible  to  predict  with  some  degree  of  certainty 
whether  the  result  of  conception  will  be  a  male  or  fe- 
male, by  noting  the  time  with  reference  to  menstrua- 
tion when  conception  occurs. 

The  idea  has  been  advanced  that  the  sex  of  a  child 
is  determined  by  influences  brought  to  bear  on  the 
embryo  after  fecundation,  but  many  facts  in  natural 
history  go  to  show  that  the  sex  of  the  progeny  is  de- 
termined at  fecundation,  and  there  is  great  probability 


that  the  theory  stated  in  the  preceding  paragraph  is 
the  correct  one.  There  must  be  also  some  reason  for 
the  theory,  since  it  essentially  agrees  with  the  obser- 
vation previously  mentioned  with  reference  to  the  in- 
fluence of  the  relation  of  the  ages  and  physical  con- 
dition of  the  parents  on  the  offspring.  The  ovum 
just  ready  to  be  cast  off,  might  well  be  compared 
to  the  female  advanced  in  years,  and  fresh  spermato- 
zoa to  the  young  and  healthy  male  married  to  such  a 

It  is  perhaps  possible  also  that  the  number  of 
spermatozoa  which  penetrate  the  ovum  has  some- 
thing to  do  with  the  determination  of  sex,  as  well  as 
other  physical  characteristics. 

The  Beginning  of  Life. — The  moment  fecunda- 
tion is  completed — the  process  seems  to  be  instan- 
taneous— the  life  of  the  new  individual  is  begun. 
Within  a  very  few  hours  great  changes  take  place  in 
the  ovum,  which  wrill  be  described  presently.  What 
was  formerly  a  mere  speck  of  fat  and  albumen  sur- 
rounded by  a  delicate  film,  is  now  destined  to  become, 
under  favorable  circumstances,  a  fully  developed  hu- 
man being.  This  little  speck  contains  all  the  possibil- 
ities of  the  future  of  the  individual  man  or  woman  to» 
be  developed  from  it.  From  being  a  mere  cell,  it  has 
now  come  to  be  a  human  being,  of  very  small  dimen- 
sions, it  is  true,  but  possessed  of  as  indubitable  rights, 
as  much  worthy  of  respect,  as  though  it  were  a  ma- 
tured man  or  woman. 

The  idea  held  by  the  ancients  that  individual  life 
did  not  begin  until  the  change  known  as  "quickening" 



occurred,  has  no  basis  whatever  in  fact.  No  especial 
change  takes  place  in  the  embryo  at  the  period 
known  as  quickening.  Whatever  individuality  the 
human  being  possesses  exists  in  rudimentary  form  in 
the  ovum,  immediately  after  fecundation  hits  taken 
place.  From  this  time  no  radical  change  occurs.  We 
have  simply  a  process  of  unfolding  and  development, 
which  continues  until  the  man  or  woman  has  reached 
full  maturity.  The  immediate  bearing  of  this  fact  in 
relation  to  the  means  adopted  to  avoid  pregnancy  and 
the  crime  of  abortion,  will  be  considered  elsewhere. 


After  fecundation,  and  during  the  subsequent 
process  of  its  development,  the  ovum  is  treated 
in  various  ways  by  different  classes  of  animals. 
Many  animals,  as  is  the  case  with  many  reptiles, 
deposite  the  fecundated  eggs  in  the  sand  or  in 
some  secluded  location,  and  give  them  no  further  at- 
tention. Fishes  usually  deposit  their  eggs,  and  then 
allow  their  young  to  shift  for  themselves  when 
hatched.  There  are,  however,  some  very  notable  and 
interesting  exceptions  to  this  method  of  treating  the 
young  among  fishes  and  reptiles.  For  example,  Prof. 
Wyman  gives  an  account  of  a  South  American  fish 
which  carries  its  eggs  in  its  mouth  until  long  after  the 
young  are  hatched.  In  one  instance,  he  found  a 
young  fish  nearly  three  inches  long  in  the  mouth  of 
its  parent.  This  office  seems  to  be  usually  performed 
by  the  male,  who  plays  the  part  of  nurse  for  the 


young  of  its  mate.  The  number  of  eggs  usually  found 
in  the  mouth  of  these  fish  during  the  breeding  season 
is  twenty  to  thirty.  The  question  would  naturally 
arise,  how  can  the  fish  eat  when  its  mouth  is  thus 
employed  as  a  nursery,  without  swallowing  its  prog- 
eny? Prof.  Wyman  answers  this  question  by  stat- 
ing the  fact  that  he  has  frequently  found  among  the 
eggs  filling  the  mouth  of  the  fish  those  of  other  vari- 
eties of  fish — rarely,  however,  more  than  one  or  two 
of  other  species — which  leads  him  to  the  conclusion 
that  the  eggs  are  allowed  to  escape  from  the  mouth 
for  a  short  time  while  the  fish  is  feeding,  being  after- 
ward gathered  up  again. 

A  curious  fish  known  as  the  hippocampus,  or  "sea- 
horse," affords  a  similar  instance  of  the  male  acting 
as  a  nurse  for  its  young.  The  males  of  these  fishes  are 
furnished  with  a  pouch  upon  the  lower  surface  of  the 
body  behind  the  anal  opening,  in  which  the  eggs  of 
the  female  are  carefully  placed  and  cared  for  until 

The  continent  of  Europe  is  the  home  of  a  curious 
species  of  reptile  known  as  the  "  obstetric  toad,"  the 
male  of  which  attaches  the  eggs  of  the  female  to  his 
legs,  carrying  them  about  with  him  until  they  are 

Naturalists  give  numerous  illustrations  of  care  for 
their  young  on  the  part  of  fishes  and  reptiles.  For 
example,  Prof.  Wyman  describes  a  female  fish  which 
carries  her  eggs  carefully  arranged  along  the  lower 
surface  of  her  body,  each  one  attached  to  a  cup  at  the 
end   of  a  cylindrical  thread.     The   same   naturalist 


mentions  a  somewhat  similar  peculiarity  observed  in 
the  "  swamp  toad."  After  the  eggs  are  laid  by  the 
female  and  fecundated  by  the  male,  the  latter  ar- 
ranges them  one  by  one  at  regular  intervals  on  the 
back  of  the  former.  In  due  time,  a  thin  wall  of  skin 
grows  up  around  them  by  which  they  are  inclosed 
and  protected. 

A  species  of  tree-frog  carries  about  iW  young  ones 
on  its  back;  the  little  fellows  hanging  on  by  their 
mouths . 

Another  species  of  tree-frog  has  a  little  pouch  on 
its  back  in  which  the  male  carefully  stows  away  the 
eggs,  which  are  thus  cared  for  until  hatched. 

Fishes  and  reptiles  usually  "lay  eggs"  either 
before  or  after  fecundation ;  but  in  a  few  cases,  the 
young  are  brought  forth  alive,  and  a  single  case  has 
been  observed  in  which  a  snake  has  laid  eggs  -end 
brought  forth  living  young  at  the  same  time. 

In  the  human  female,  as  in  the  females  of  all  the 
mammalia,  the  fecundated  ovum  is  retained  during  its 
development.  This  process  usually  takes  place  in 
the  uterus,  though,  as  we  shall  presently  see,  it  may 
occur  elsewhere. 

As  before  stated,  while  the  ovum  is  becoming 
matured  anil  ready  to  be  cast  off  from  the  avary,  the 
mucous  membrane  of  the  uterus  is  undergoing  a  change 
preparatory  to  receiving  the  ovum  in  case  it  shall 
become  fecundated.  After  fecundation  takes  place, 
the  ovum  attaches  itself  to  the  wall  of  the  uterus,  and 
*  changes  at  once  begin  in  both  the  ovum  and  the 
womb  to  which  it  is  attached.  We  will  describe  first 
the  changes  which  take  place  in  the  latter. 


Changes  in  the  Uterus. — After  conception,  the 
uterus  at  once  begins  to  increase  in  size.  The  physi- 
ological congestion  which  occurs  periodically  at  men- 
struation &nd  momentarily  during  the  sexual  act,  be- 
comes now  a  permanent  condition  to  be  continued  for 
several  months.  The  enormous  increase  in  size  of 
the  uterus  is  the  result  of  this  increase  of  the  blood 
supply.  The  muscular  fibres  of  the  uterus,  which 
are  of  the  unstriated  variety  and  very  small  in  the  un- 
impregnated  state,  become  enormously  developed. 
I.  The  blood  channels,,  which  are  also  small,  become 

<lilated,  in  the  case  of  the  veins,  to  an  enormous  ex- 
tent, so  as  to  form  sinuses. 

Changes  also  take  place  in  the  nerve  centers  from 
which  the  uterus  derives  its  nerve  supply,  especially 
those  of  the  organic  system,  which  likewise  partici- 
pate in  the  development  which  occurs  in*  the  other 
parts  of  the  generative  apparatus. 

The  most  remarkably  changes  of  all,  however, 
take  place  in  the  mucous  membrane  lining  Ihe  interior 
^A  of  the  uterus.  Something  of  the  character  of  these 
H  changes  is  shown  in  Figs.  1  to  5,  Plate  VI.  In  the  un- 
W  impregnated  state,  the  npeous  lining  of  the  uterus  is 
f  very  thin  and  scantily  supplied  with   blood-vessels. 

After  conception  occurs,  the  membrane  becomes 
greatly  thickened,  and  its  blood-vessels  enlarjge  and 
increase  in  number  with  great  rapidity.  These 
changes  soon  give  to  the  membrane  a  velvety  appear- 
^  ance.    The  activity  in  the  development  of  the  mem- 

l  brane  is  particularly  great  in  the  immediate  vicinity 

<rf  the  ovum,  around  which  folds  of  membrane  soon 


begin  to  project  forward,  and  very  shortly  meet  over 
the  free  surface  of  the  ovum,  grow  together,  and  thus 
completely  inclose  it.  The  ovum  is  now  shut  up  in 
a  cavity  by  itself,  distinct  from  the  general  cavity  of 
the  uterus. 

The  remaining  changes  of  the  greatest  importance 
which  occur  are  in  the  ovum  itself  together  with  its 
inclosing  membrane,  which  has  been  formed  from  the 
uterine  mucous  membrane,  and  which  may  be  now 
considered  as  a  part  of  the  developing  ovum. 

Development  of  the  Ovum  During  Gestation. — 
Immediately  after  fecundation,  the  ovum  begins  to 
grow,  and  subdivisions  take  place  in  its  interior. 
This  process  is  known  as  segmentation.  The  nature 
of  the  change  will  be  readily  understood  by  reference 
to  Figs.  1  to  6,  Plate  IV.  After  this  process  has  gone 
on  for  some  time,  a  large  number  of  cells  have  been 
formed  within  the  ovum.  These  cells  unite  together 
at  the  surface  of  the  yolk,  forming  a  sort  of  membrane, 
on  which  presently  appears  a  straight  line  which  is 
termed  the  Primitive  Trace.  It  is,  in  fact,  a  sort  of 
furrow,  the  sides  of  which  gradually  grow  up  and 
close  above  it,  subsequently  forming  the  spinal  canal 
of  the  embryo.  The  appearance  of  the  primitive 
trace,  as  shown  by  the  microscope,  may  be  seen  in 
Fig.  2,  Plate  VII.  Some  cases  have  been  observed  in 
the  examination  of  lower  animals  in  which  the  primi- 
tive trace  has  been  double  or  divided  at  one  of  the 
extremities.  This  is  supposed  to  be  an  explanation 
of  the  manner  in  which  double  monsters  are  formed. 
Subdivision  of  the  trace  in  the  end  destined  to  form 

Fig.  t—S/ames*  Tw'nt* 

Fig.  4. 



the  head,  as  shown  in  Fig.  3,  Plate  VII,  would  give 
rise  to  a  monster  with  one  pair  of  legs  and  one  trunk, 
but  with  two  heads.  If  the  division  extended  to 
near  the  middle  of  the  primitive  trace,  the  succeed- 
ing development  would  result  in  the  formation  of  a 
monster  with  one  pair  of  legs  but  two  trunks  more  or 
less  completely  separated.  A  trace  forked  at  the  end 
destined  to  form  the  inferior  portion  of  the  body 
would  result  in  a  monster  having  one  head  and  trunk 
with  two  pairs  of  legs.  Two  complete  primitive 
traces  united  at  the  center  by  a  band  as  shown  in 
Fig.  4,  Plate  VII,  would  result  in  embryos,  joined  to- 
gether like  the  Siamese  Twins.  The  manner  in 
which  the  internal  structures  of  these  curious  individ- 
uals were  united  is  shown  in  Fig.  1,  Plate  VII. 

The  membrane  of  which  the  primitive  trace  is 
formed  divides  into  an  inner  and  an  outer  layer,  be- 
tween which  is  formed  another  layer  which  again  sub- 
divides into  two,  making  four  layers  in  all.  From 
these  different  layers  all  of  the  different  parts  of  the 
individual  are  developed,  the  outer  nyers  going  to 
form  the  skin,  muscles,  bones,  and  nerves ;  while  the 
inner  layers  form  the  walls  of  the  alimentary  canal 
and  other  internal  parts  of  the  body.  Thus  certain 
groups  of  cells  are  set  apart  for  one  kind  of  work, 
while  to  other  groups  are  allotted  other  functions. 
One  group  forms  the  liver,  another  the  kidneys,  an- 
other the  spleen,  another  the  pancreas.  Each  group, 
when  its  development  is  completed,  performs  a  func- 
tion peculiar  to  itself.  Still  other  groups  form  the 
brain,  and  when  their  development  is  complete,  per- 

92  THE  LADIES'   Gt/IDE. 

form  the  various  offices  required  for  the  production  of 
thought,  the  reception  of  impressions,  and  the  control 
of  the  operations  of  the  body.  The  various  foldings, 
ingro wings,  projection  of  various  parts  and  absorption 
of  other  parts,  subdivisions,  and  other  complicated 
processes  by  which  the  development  of  the  individual 
is  completed,  we  shall  not  attempt  to  trace,  as  infor- 
mation of  this  kind  is  too  technical  to  be  interesting  to 
the  general  reader.  Some  points  of  special  interest 
will  be  noted,  however.  One  of  the  most  remarkable 
of  these  is  the  fact  that  a  human  being  in  the  process 
of  development  passes  through  various  stages,  each 
of  which  represents  the  permanent  condition  of  some 
class  of  lower  animals. 

The  alimentary  canal,  as  first  produced,  is  simply 
a  straight  tube,  a  form  in  which  it  permanently  exists 
in  such  animals  as  the  eel.  After  a  time,  dilations 
occur  in  the  upper  and  the  lower  portion,  which  ulti- 
mately form  the  stomach  and  the  large  intestine.  The 
convolutions  of  the  small  intestine  are  formed  by 
lengthening  the  canal.  The  upper  dilation — the  stom- 
ach— is  usually  on  the  left  side  of  the  body ;  while  the 
most  dilated  part  of  the  expanded  portion,  which  ulti- 
mately forms  the  ccecum,  is  placed  at  the  right  and 
lower  portion  of  the  abdominal  cavity.  Cases  some- 
times occur  in  which  this  arrangement  is  reversed. 
When  this  happens,  a  corresponding  reversion  occurs 
in  the  position  of  all  the  other  organs  contained 
within  the  trunk  of  the  body,  the  liver  being  upon 
the  left  side  instead  of  the  right,  the  heart  transposed 
to  the  right  side,  and  other  corresponding  changes  oc- 


curring.  We  met  a  case  of  this  kind  a  few  years  ago 
in  a  young  girl  whom  we  were  treating  for  scrofulous 
disease,  whose  heart  we  were  led  to  examine  by  com- 
plaint of  the  occurrence  of  palpitation.  After  seeking 
in  vain  for  the  presence  of  the  heart  in  its  usual  loca- 
tion, we  were  astonished  to  find  it  beating  vigorously 
and  without  any  evidence  of  disease,  on  the  right  side, 
several  inches  from  its  normal  position.  The  idea 
has  been  suggested  that  this  peculiarity  is  more  likely 
to  be  present  in  left-handed  people  than  in  others,  the 
disposition  to  use  the  left  hand  rather  than  the  right 
growing  out  of  the  abnormal  position  of  the  internal 

The  heart,  like  the  alimentary  canal,  is  at  first  a 
straight  tube,  which,  by  twisting  around  itself  and 
undergoing  various  other  changes  by  which  it  is  di- 
vided by  longitudinal  and  transverse  partitions  into 
four  chambers,  finally  becomes  developed  into  the 
heart  as  found  in  adults. 

The  arms  and  legs  are  at  first  simply  little  buds 
projecting  from  the  sides  of  the  embryo.  As  they 
grow  out,  their  tips  are  subdivided  into  rudimentary 
fingers  and  toes.  Still  further  development  results 
in  the  formation  of  joints  and  the  various  segments 
of  the  arms  and  legs.  In  different  classes  of  lower 
animals,  the  developmental  process  seems  to  stop 
short  at  different  stages.  In  the  seal,  the  feet  of 
which  are  webbed,  development  ceases  when  the  sub- 
division of  the  original  bud  has  occurred  only  in  part. 
The  same  thing  is  observed  sometimes  in  human  be- 
ings, in  which  the  fingers  and  toes  are  often  found 


more  or  less  united,  in  some  cases  being  joined  to 
their  tips.  In  the  walrus,  the  limbs  consist  of  little 
more  than  a  wrist  and  ankle,  with  fingers  and  toes  at- 
tached. With  animals  a  little  higher  in  the  scale, 
the  limbs  are  a  little  more  fully  developed.  Most 
quadrupeds  possess  knee  and  elbow  joints.  The 
lion,  panther,  and  other  members  of  the  feline  species 
have  still  more  perfectly  developed  limbs,  while  in 
the  highest  apes  the  limbs  are  nearly  as  free  in  their 
movements  as  in  human  beings. 

As  before  remarked,  we  have  in  the  process  of  de- 
velopment of  the  human  embryo  types  of  all  these  pe- 
culiarities of  structure  observed  as  permanent  condi- 
tions in  the  lower  animals.  The  human  embryo,  dur- 
ing the  earlier  stages  of  its  development,  cannot  be 
easily  distinguished  from  the  embryo  of  various 
lower  animals.  This  is  readily  shown  by  the  figures 
on  Plate  E,  which  show  the  resemblance  between 
the  embryo  of  the  dog  at  four  and  six  weeks  and  the 
human  embryo  at  four  and  eight  weeks,  respectively,, 
to  be  so  close  that  a  casual  observer  would  pronounce 
them  to  be  identical.  It  will  be  observed  that  at 
this  early  period  of  their  existence  human  beings  are 

furnished  with  caudal  appendages,  as  well  as  lower 
animals.  In  later  stages  of  development,  this  por- 
tion of  the  body  gradually  disappears  until  in  the 
mature  human  form  it  is  represented  by  a  mere  ves* 
tige  termed  the  coccyx.  + 

The  formation  of  the  face  in  the  embryo  is  a  very 
interesting  process.  Like  the  abdominal  and  thoracic 
cavities,  the  cavities  of  the  nose  and  mouth  are  formed 


by  the  closing  together  of  folds  or  plates  of  tis- 
sue which  project  from  the  side  and  gradually  ap- 
proach each  other.  When  the  process  of  closing  to- 
gether is  not  quite  complete,  a  deformity  known  as 
harelip  results.  If  the  deficiency  affects  the  bony 
cells  and  soft  tissues,  an  opening  is  left  through  the 
roof  of  the  mouth,  which  is  termed  cleft-palate. 

Arrest  of  development  may  occur  at  any  of  the 
various  stages  of  the  process  just  described.  This 
may  involve  the  embryo  as  a  whole  or  one  or 
more  parts  only,  while  other  parts  are  allowed  to  go 
on  to  full  development.  It  is  in  this  way  that  con- 
genital deformities  arise.  The  causes  of  arrest  of  de- 
velopment are  not  very  well  understood. 

It  should  be  mentioned  in  this  connection  that  arrest 
of  development  or  abnormal  development,  which  also 
sometimes  occurs,  are  the  leading  causes  of  those 
hideous  creatures  to  which  women  sometimes  give 
birth,  known  as  monsters.  The  stories  of  females 
becoming  pregnant  by  dogs  and  other  animals,  and 
giving  birth  to  offspring  resembling  the  supposed 
fathers,  undoubtedly  originated  in  the  birth  of  mon- 
sters, which  were  like  other  human  embryos  during 
the  first  stages  of  development,  but  by  an  arrest  of 
development  are  born  with  a  resemblance  to  some 
lower  animal.  It  is  impossible  for  a  human  ovum  to 
be  fecundated  by  other  than  human  spermatozoa. 

Hermaphrodites^  or  persons  supposed  to  possess 
the  sexual  organs  of  both  sexes,  are,  as  a  rule,  simply 
cases  of  arrested  or  exaggerated  development.  In- 
stances are  very  rare  in  human  beings  in  which  both 


ovaries  and  testicles  are  found  in  the  same  individual, 
but  numerous  cases  have  been  observed  in  which  cer- 
tain parts  of  the  sexual  organs  of  the  female  were  so 
abnormally  developed  as  to  produce  a  striking  resem- 
blance to  the  organs  of  the  male,  and  the  reverse. 

Nourishment  of  the  Embryo. — Soon  after  the 
segmentation  of  the  ovum  and  the  formation  of  layers 
of  cells  or  membranes  at  its  surface,  that  portion  of  it 
lying  next  to  the  uterine  wall  undergoes  a  peculiar 
development.  Little  vascular  loops  are  formed  which 
interlace  with  similar  loops  formed  on  the  surface  of 
the  lining  of  the  uterus.  These  loops  become  so 
closely  united  with  each  other  that  the  blood-vessels 
of  the  ovum,  which  begin  to  form  at  a  very  early 
stage,  and  those  of  the  uterus  have  only  a  very  thin 
partition  between  their  walls.  Through  this  delicate 
membrane  the  nutritive  fluids  of  the  mother's  blood 
pass  readily  into  the  ovum.  After  the  circulation  of 
the  ovum  is  fully  developed,  the  blood  corpuscles  of 
the  mother  and  those  of  the  embryo  are  by  this  ar- 
rangement allowed  to  come  very  close  to  each  other 
without  coming  in  actual  contact.  The  blood  corpus- 
cles of  the  mother  never  pass  into  the  veins  of  the 
child,  nor  vice  versa.  If  any  such  change  did  occur,  it 
could  be  readily  detected,  as  the  blood  corpuscles  of 
the  embryon  are  of  a  different  size  from  those  of  the 
mother.  The  interchange  of  fluids  between  the  em- 
bryo and  the  mother  takes  place  very  readily,  how- 
ever, by  means  of  the  arrangement  briefly  described 
above,  which  is  known  as  the  placenta. 

As  the  embryo  advances  in  development,  it  be- 


comes  separated  from  the  placenta,  but  retains  con- 
nection with  it  by  means  of  the  umbilical  cord,  which 
contains  two  arteries  and  a  vein.  The  arteries  con- 
vey blood  from  the  embryon,  or  foetus,  to  the  placenta 
from  which  it  is  returned  by  means  of  the  veins. 
During  the  passage  of  the  foetal  blood  through  the 
placenta,  it  undergoes  a  double  change,  receiving 
from  the  blood  of  the  mother  nutritive  elements  by 
which  the  process  of  development  may  be  maintained, 
and  giving  back  to  the  mother's  blood  in  exchange 
the  impurities  and  excrementitious  elements  which 
have  been  derived  from  the  foetus.  This  intimate 
association  between  the  foetus  and  the  mother  through 
the  blood  explains  the  mysterious  influence  of  the 
former  upon  the  latter  which  has  been  before  referred 
to.  It  is  undoubtedly  in  this  way  that  the  impres- 
sions are  made  which  give  rise  to  the  curious  circum- 
stance previously  mentioned,  that  the  children  by 
a  second  husband  frequently  resemble  the  former  hus- 
band in  both  character  and  features.  Experiments 
upon  animals  show  that  the  mother  may  be  affected 
even  fatally  by  poisonous  substances  introduced  into 
the  body  of  the  foetus.  Cases  are  also  frequent  in 
which  the  mother  contracts  constitutional  disease  from 
a  foetu*  which  has  inherited  the  same  from  its  father. 
This  is  particularly  true  of  syphilis.  This  relation  of 
the  circulation  of  the  foetus  with  that  of  the  mother 
also  explains  to  some  degree  at  least,  the  remarkable 
influence  which  is  exerted  upon  the  foetus  by  the 
physical  and  mental  condition  of  the  mother. 


Respiration  of  the  Foetus. — How  the  process  of 
respiration  could  be  carried  on  in  the  unborn  infant 
was  for  a  long  time  a  matter  of  deep  mystery,  but  it 
is  now  very  well  understood  that  the  placenta  is  for 
the  foetus  an  organ  of  respiration  as  well  as  of  nutri- 
tion. The  blood  of  the  foetus  is  carried  to  the  pla- 
centa through  the  umbilical  arteries,  charged  with  car- 
bonic acid  gas,  and  coming  into  close  proximity,  in 
the  placenta,  with  the  blood  of  the  mother, — which, 
through  exposure  to  the  air  in  the  mother's  lungs, 
has  become  charged  with  oxygen, — an  interchange 
takes  place,  the  carbonic  acid  gas  being  absorbed  by 
the  blood  of  the  mother,  and  the  oxygen  by  that  of 
the  foetus,  so  that  the  foetal  blood  returns  in  the  um- 
bilical vein  purified  and  oxygenated,  just  as  the  blood 
returns  from  the  lungs  to  the  heart  in  the  adult  indi- 
vidual. With  this  fact  in  view,  it  is  unnecessary  to 
suggest  the  importance  of  securing  to  the  mother  an 
abundant  supply  of  fresh  air,  since  she  has  to  breathe 
for  the  foetus  as  well  as  for  herself.  This  point  will 
be  dwelt  upon  more  at  length  elsewhere. 

The  Foetal  Pulse. — The  action  of  the  foetal  heart 
can  be  distinctly  heard  through  the  abdominal  walls 
of  the  mother,  after  the  fourth  or  fifth  month.  In 
some  cases  the  beating  of  the  foetal  heart  has  been 
traced  as  early  as  the  end  of  the  eleventh  week.  In 
order  to  observe  the  feeble  sounds  which  are  produced 
by  the  yet  imperfectly  developed  heart  of  the  foetus, 
the  ear  must  be  placed  upon  that  portion  of  the  ab- 
dominal wall  directly  over  the  heart.  The  point  at 
which  the  sounds  may  be  most  easily  distinguished 


in  the  majority  of  cases  is  a  little  to  the  left  of  the 
median  line,  about  half  way  between  the  umbilicus 
and  the  symphysis  pubis.  The  rate  of  the  foetal 
pulse  varies  from  130  to  160  a  minute. 

A  large  number  of  observations  have  shown  that 
the  pulse  of  female  infants  is  more  rapid  than  that  of 
males,  so  that  this  may  be  a  means  of  distinguishing 
between  male  and  female  children  before  they  are 
born.  The  average  rate  in  females  is  about  144  per 
minute;  in  males,  131. 

Position  and  Condition  of  the  Child  in  the 
Womb. — During  the  early  months  of  gestation,  the 
condition  of  the  child  varies  considerably.  As  the 
end  of  pregnancy  approaches,  however,  the  position 
becomes  more  and  more  constant,  and  near  the  end 
of  gestation,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  the  position  of 
the  child  in  the  womb  is  with  the  head  downward, 
and  the  back  forward  and  to  the  left,  with  the  limbs 
in  a  state  of  flexion,  as  shown  by  reference  to  Fig.  1, 
Plate  IX. 

Amniotic  Fluid. — In  order  to  protect  the  delicate 
structures  of  the  foetus  from  the  unpleasant  effect  of 
sudden  jars  to  which  the  mother  is  liable  to  be  sub- 
jected, and  for  various  other  apparent  reasons,  it  is  not 
made  fast  to  the  interior  of  the  uterus,  but  floats,  or 
rather  is  suspended,  in  a  sac  filled  with  fluid,  which  fills 
the  whole  of  the  interior  of  the  distended  womb  not  oc- 
cupied by  the  foetus.  This  fluid,  known  as  the  amni- 
otic fluid,  or  the  "waters"  varies  considerably  in  quan- 
tity, sometimes  being  so  abundant  as  to  amount  to 
dropsy,   at  other  times  being   barely  sufficient  to 


answer  the  purpose  for  which  it  was  designed.  This 
fluid  is  very  complex  in  its  composition,  at  first  resem- 
bling very  closely  the  serum  of  the  blood,  but  as 
pregnancy  advances  becoming  more  and  more  charged 
with  excretory  matters  thrown  off  by  the  skin  and 
kidneys  of  the  foetus. 

Summary  of  Development — TheB  following  is  a 
concise  summary  of  the  process  of  development  at 
different  stages  as  given  by  Flint : — 

"  At  the  third  week  the  embryon  is  from  two  to 
three  lines  in  length.  This  is  about  the  earliest  pe- 
riod at  which  measurements  have  been  taken  in  the 
normal  state. 

"At  the  seventh  week,  the  embryon  measures 
about  nine  lines ;  points  of  ossification  have  appeared 
in  the  clavicle  and  lower  jaw;  the  wolffian  bodies 
are  large ;  the  pedicle  of  the  umbilical  vesicle  is  very 
much  reduced  in  size ;  the  internal  organs  of  genera- 
tion have  just  appeared ;  the  liver  is  of  large  size ; 
the  lungs  present  several  lobules. 

"  At  the  eighth  week,  the  embryon  is  from  ten  to 
fifteen  lines  in  length.  The  lungs  begin  to  receive  a 
small  quantity  of  blood  from  the  pulmonary  arteries ; 
the  external  organs  of  generation  have  appeared,  but 
it  is  difficult  to  determine  the  sex ;  the  abdominal 
Avails  have  closed  over  in  front. 

"  At  the  third  month,  the  embryon  is  from  two  to 
two  and  a  half  inches  long  and  weighs  about  one 
ounce.  The  amniotic  fluid  is  then  more  abundant  in 
proportion  to  the  size  of  the  embryon  than  at  any 
other    period.      The    umbilical    cord    begins   to   be 


twisted;  the  various  glandular  organs  of  the  abdo- 
men appear ;  the  pupillary  membrane  is  formed ;  the 
limitation  of  the  placenta  has  become  distinct.  At 
this  time,  the  upper  portion  of  the  embryon  is  rela- 
tively much  larger  than  the  lower  portion. 

"  At  the  end  of  the  fourth  month,  the  embryon  be- 
comes the  foetus.  It  is  then  from  four  to  five  inches 
long  and  weighs  about  five  ounces.  The  muscles  be- 
gin to  manifest  contractility;  the  eyes,  mouth,  and 
nose  are  closed ;  the  gall-bladder  is  just  developed ; 
the  fontanelles  and  sutures  are  wide. 

"At  the  fifth  month,  the  foetus  is  from  nine  to 
twelve  inches  long  and  weighs  from  five  to  nine 
ounces.  The  hair  begins  to  appear  on  the  head ;  the 
liver  begins  to  secrete  bile,  and  the  meconium  appears 
in  the  intestinal  canal ;  the  amnion  is  in  contact  with 
the  chorion. 

"  At  the  sixth  month,  the  foetus  is  from  eleven  to 
fourteen  inches  long  and  weighs  from  one  and  a  half 
to  two  pounds.  If  the  foetus  be  delivered  at  this 
time,  life  may  continue  for  a  few  moments ;  the  bones 
of  the  head  are  ossified,  but  the  fontanelles  and  sut- 
ures are  still  wide;  the  prepuce  has  appeared;  the 
testicles  have  not  descended. 

"  At  the  seventh  month,  the  foetus  is  from  four- 
teen to  fifteen  inches  long  and  weighs  from  two  to 
three  pounds ;  the  hairs  are  longer  and  darker ;  the 
pupillary  membrane  disappears,  undergoing  atrophy 
from  the  center  to  the  periphery ;  the  relative  quan- 
tity of  the  amniotic  fluid  is  diminished,  and  the  foetus 
is  not  so  free  in  the  cavity  of  the  uterus.  The  foetus 
is  now  viable. 


"  At  the  eighth  month,  the  foetus  is  from  fifteen 
to  sixteen  inches  long  and  weighs  from  three  to  four 
pounds.  The  eyelids  are  opened,  and  the  cornea  is 
transparent ;  the  umbilicus  is  at  about  the  middle  of 
the  body,  the  relative  size  of  the  lower  extremities 
having  increased. 

"  At  the  ninth  month,  the  foetus  is  about  seven- 
teen inches  long  and  weighs  from  five  to  six  pounds. 
Both  testicles  have  usually  descended,  but  the  tunica 
vaginalis  still  communicates  with  the  peritoneal  cav- 

"  At  birth,  the  infant  weighs  a  little  more  than 
seven  pounds,  the  usual  range  being  from  four  to  ten 
pounds,  though  these  limits  are  sometimes  exceeded." 

We  have  known  instances  in  which  infants  have 
weighed  scarcely  more  than  three  pounds  at  birth, 
and  yet  have  attained  normal  development  afterward, 
though  requiring  great  care  during  the  first  few  weeks 
of  life.  Prof.  Carpenter,  of  London,  in  his  human 
physiology  refers  to  a  case  in  which  the  weight  at 
birth  was  but  one  pound.  At  three  and  a  half  years 
the  weight  had  increased  to  about  30  pounds. 

Length  of  Gestation. — The  length  of  time  re- 
quired for  the  development  of  the  young  sufficiently 
to  enable  them  to  exist  outside  the  body  of  the 
mother  differs  greatly  in  different  classes  of  animals. 
In  the  horse,  the  period  of  gestation  is  335  days, 
while  the  rabbit  matures  its  young  in  the  brief  period 
of  30  days.  In  the  cow,  about  280  days  are  required. 
In  the  human  female,  the  period  intervening  be- 
tween conception  and  birth  is  about  forty  weeks  or 


ten  lunar  months.  The  exact  length  of  the  period  in 
an  individual  case  cannot  always  be  determined  on 
account  of  the  difficulty  of  fixing  the  exact  date  of 
conception ;  but  in  those  instances  in  which  the  cir- 
cumstances have  been  such  as  to  render  the  fixing  of 
the  date  of  conception  accurately,  it  has  been  found 
to  vary  little  from  275  to  280  days. 

The  period  of  gestation  is  frequently  somewhat 
shorter  than  this,  many  children  being  born  from  four 
to  six  weeks  before  the  usual  time.  If  the  period  of 
gestation  is  shorter  than  seven  months,  the  foetus 
will  not  be  sufficiently  developed  to  live.  Infants 
born  before  the  full  term  of  gestation  require  especial 
care  and  the  most  careful  nursing,  and  those  born  be- 
fore the  completion  of  the  seventh  month  very  sel- 
dom survive  birth  more  than  a  few  days.  The  period 
of  gestation  is  sometimes  extended  two  or  three 
weeks  beyond  the  end  of  the  tenth  month.  Cases 
have  been  reported  in  which  the  period  has  been 
much  longer  than  this,  but  they  are  not  considered 

Quickening. — The  term  quickening  is  applied  to 
the  time  when  the  mother  for  the  first  time  becomes 
conscious  of  the  movements  of  the  foetus  within  the 
womb.  This  was  formerly  believed  to  be  caused  by 
the  sudden  descent  of  the  foetus  from  the  uterus  into 
the  pelvic  cavity,  but  it  is  now  well  known  to  be 
produced  by  the  movements  of  the  limbs  of  the  child 
when  they  come  in  contact  with  the  walls  of  the 

This  is  generally  felt  about  the  beginning  of  the 


fifth  calendar  month  from  the  beginning  of  pregnancy, 
or  about  the  middle  of  gestation.  There  is  no  doubt 
but  that  the  limbs  of  the  foetus  move  often  and  quite 
vigorously  before  this  period,  but  they  are  not  felt 
by  the  mother  on  account  of  the  fact  that  not  until 
about  this  time  does  the  uterus  become  sufficiently 
enlarged  to  bring  its  walls  in  direct  contact  with  the 
walls  of  the  abdomen.  The  body  of  the  uterus  con- 
tains very  few  sensory  nerve  fibres,  those  being  dis- 
tributed in  its  neck,  and  it  is  only  after  the  uterus 
comes  in  contact  with  the  abdominal  wall  so  that  the 
shock  of  the  foetal  movements  is  communicated  to 
the  latter  tissue,  which  abounds  in  sensory  fibres,  that 
the  mother  becomes  conscious  of  the  activity  of  the 
developing  embryo.  These  movements  sometimes  be- 
come so  vigorous  as  to  give  the  mother  absolute  pain 
so  as  to  cause  her  to  cry  out  in  agony  They  are  the 
result  of  a  vigorous  kicking  action  on  the  part  of  the 

The  period  of  quickening  was  formerly  considered 
one  of  great  importance,  but  is  now  looked  upon  as  of 
very  little  significance  except  as  forming  positive  evi- 
dence of  the  existence  of  pregnancy.  The  idea  that 
at  this  time  the  foetus  first  becomes  possessed  of  indi- 
vidual life  was  long  since  exploded,  and  the  laws  re- 
lating to  criminal  abortion  which  were  based  on  this 
ancient  notion  ought  to  have  been  repealed  at  least 
half  a  century  ago.  As  we  have  before  shown,  indi- 
vidual life  begins  at  the  moment  of  fecundation,  and 
whatever  rights  the  developing  being  may  possess  af- 
ter the  period  of  quickening,  it  certainly  possesses  be- 


Changes  in  the  System  of  the  Mother  During 
Gestation. — While  the  remarkable  changes  previously 
described  are  occurring  within  the  body  of  the  mother, 
it  would  certainly  be  very  remarkable  if  some  change 
did  not  occur  in  the  system  at  large  in  some  small 
degree,  at  least,  commensurate  in  character.  As  a 
general  rule,  the  mother's  attention  is  first  called  to 
her  condition  by  the  fact  that  the  usual  monthly 
sickness  does  not  occur  at  the  proper  time,  or,  if  it 
does  occur  at  all,  the  discharge  is  so  slight  as  to  be 
hardly  appreciable.  There  are  cases,  however,  in 
which  menstruation  occurs  several  times  after  con- 
ception takes  place,  and  in  occasional  instances,  the 
periodical  discharge  goes  on  during  the  whole  period 
of  gestation.  After  a  few  weeks,  in  many  instances, 
general  symptoms,  affecting  the  nervous  system 
chiefly,  make  their  appearance.  After  a  short  time, 
the  increase  in  size  of  the  lower  portion  of  the  ab- 
domen becomes  apparent.  The  latter  symptom  of 
course  increases  rapidly  as  pregnancy  advances. 

During  pregnancy,  a  change  more  or  less  marked 
takes  place  in  the  organic  nervous  system,  the  nerve 
centers  having  charge  of  the  function  of  nutrition  tak- 
ing on  unusual  activity,  so  that  the  blood-making  and 
tissue-building  processes  are  carried  on  much  more 
vigorously  than  usual.  It  is  owing  to  this  fact  that 
many  women  enjoy  better  health  during  pregnancy 
than  at  any  other  time. 

The  development  of  the  muscular  tissue  of  the 
uterus  as  it  increases  in  size  has  been  already  referred 
to,  as  well  as  the  great  increase  in  number  and  size 


of  the  uterine  blood-vessels.  The  veins  of  the  uterus 
sometimes  become  so  enormously  distended  that  the 
blood  in.  passing  through-  them  produces  a  sound 
somewhat  similar  to  that  produced  by  the  passage  of 
blood  through  an  aneurism.  This  is  known  as  the 
uterine  souffle  or  bruit,  which  is  one  of  the  signs  by 
which  a  pregnant  condition  is  distinguished. 

During  the  period  of  development  of  the  foetus, 
preparatory  to  its  exit  into  the  external  world,  cer- 
tain parts  of  the  reproductive  system  of  the  mother 
are  also  undergoing  preparation  for  this  same  event. 
In  the  normal  condition  of  the  vagina  and  the  ex- 
ternal organs  of  generation,  child-birth  would  be  im- 
possible, as  the  soft  parts  would  not  admit  of  the 
enormous  distension  required  for  the  passage  of  the 
head  and  pelvis  of  the  child.  During  the  later 
months  of  pregnancy,  these  parts  undergo  certain  de- 
velopmental changes  by  which  they  are  prepared  for 
the  ordeal  to  which  they  are  to  be  subjected.  The 
walls  of  the  vagina  become  relaxed  and  thickened  and 
the  canal  shortened.  The  external  parts  also  undergo 
a  similar  relaxation.  The  secretions  are  greatly  in- 
creased in  quantity,  and  the  tissues  formerly  firm  and 
rigid  become  soft  and  distensible. 

In  addition  to  the  changes  above  noted,  which 
usually  occur,  marked  mental  and  nervous  disturb- 
ances are  sometimes  present  during  pregnancy. 
These  cannot  be  considered  perfectly  normal,  how- 
ever, and  hence  will  more  properly  receive  attention 
elsewhere  in  this  work. 


Extra- Uterine  Pregnancy. — As  previously  inti- 
mated, the  ovum  is  sometimes  fecundated  at  the  surface 
of  the  ovary,  and  for  some  reason  does  not  reach  its 
proper  position  in  the  uterus  before  becoming  fixed  and 
beginning  development.  It  is  well  known  that  full  de- 
velopment may  take  place  in  other  situations  than  the 
uterine  cavity.  This  is  known  as  extra-uterine  preg- 
nancy. When  the  ovum  after  fecundation  falls  into  the 
cavity  of  the  abdomen  and  becomes  attached  to  some 
portion  of  its  lining  membrane,  there  undergoing  devel- 
opment, the  case  is  known  as  one  of  abdominal  preg- 
nancy. If  the  ovum  lodges  in  the  fallopian  tubes  and 
there  undergoes  development,  which  is  sometimes  the 
case,  we  have  what  is  termed  tubal  pregnancy.  Re- 
cent investigations  have  also  shown  that  in  occasional 
instances  the  ovum  when  fecundated  at  the  ovary  may 
never  leave  its  original  situation,  but  may  undergo 
fecundation  there,  constituting  ovarian  pregnancy. 
The  course  of  pregnancy  in  these  cases  is  very  simi- 
lar to  that  when  the  ovum  is  lodged  in  its  normal 
position.  The  subsequent  dangers  to  the  life  of  the 
foetus  aud  of  the  mother  which  necessarily  arise  be- 
fore the  termination  of  gestation  will  be  considered 
elsewhere,  together  with  the  symptoms  by  which 
these  abnormal  varieties  of  pregnancy  may  be  known. 

Parturition. — At  the  end  of  gestation,  certain 
causes,  the  exact  nature  of  which  is  not  fully  under- 
stood, give  rise  to  the  beginning  of  a  process  by  which 
the  foetus  is  expelled  from  the  womb  where  it  has 
been  protected  during  the  process  of  development. 
It  is  probable  that  the  occasion  of  this  action  on  the 


part  of  the  womb  is  some  change  in  the  foetus  or  its 
connections  with  the  uterus  by  which  the  latter  is  led 
to  treat  its  contents,  which  it  has  heretofore  tolerated 
Avith  the  greatest  impunity,  as  a  foreign  body  which 
must  be  expelled.  The  contractions  of  the  uterus 
cause  a  slight  separation  of  the  placenta  from  its 
Avails,  which  greatly  increases  as  the  contractions  con- 
tinue. The  membranes,  pressing  upon  the  lower 
portion  of  the  uterine  cavity  cause  gradual  dilation 
of  the  cervix.  After  a  time,  the  membranes  rup- 
ture, and  the  amniotic  fluid  is  discharged,  allow- 
ing the  head  to  come  in  contact  with  the  neck  of 
the  womb.  With  each  pain,  the  head  of  the  child, 
in  normal  child-birth,  is  pressed  down  more  and  more 
vigorously  until  it  is  finally  expelled  from  the  uterus 
and  shortly  afterward  from  the  vagina,  making  its 
exit  into  the  world.  The  separation  of  the  pla- 
centa of  course  causes  a  laceration  of  the  blood- 
vessels by  which  it  is  connected  with  the  uterus. 
This  would  occasion  profuse  hemorrhage,  which  might 
prove  fatal  in  a  few  moments,  were  it  not  for  the  fact 
(hat  the  same  contraction  which  occasions  separation 
of  the  placenta  also  closes  the  mouths  of  the  lacerated 
vessels.  It  sometimes  happens  that  the  uterus  fails 
to  contract,  particularly  after  the  placenta  is  separated, 
allowing  the  greatly  dilated  blood-vessels  to  remain 
fully  distended,  thus  giving  rise  to  a  most  alarming 
hemorrhage,  which  not  infrequently  occasions  death 
in  a  very  short  time  if  the  proper  measures  are  not 
promptly  applied. 


Involution. — Directly  after  the  child  is  born,  the 
placenta  and  the  membranes  by  which  the  foetus  was 
invested  in  the  uterus,  known  as  the  after-birth,  are 
also  expelled,  and  the  act  of  parturition  is  complete. 
In  four  to  six  days,  seldom  later  than  a  week,  after 
child-birth,  an  examination  of  the  uterus  will  show 
that  it  has  undergone  a  very  great  reduction  in  size. 
This  process,  known  as  involution,  continues  until  it 
is  reduced  to  very  nearly  its  size  when  in  a  non-im- 
pregnated state,  although  it  never  becomes  quite  as 
small  as  before.  The  muscular  fibres,  which  have 
been  enormously  hypertrophied,  undergo  fatty  degen- 
eration, and  are  absorbed.  A  new  membrane  is  soon 
formed  to  take  the  place  of  the  old  one  which  was 
thrown  off  at  child-birth  with  the  placenta,  and  by 
the  end  of  the  second  month,  the  process  is  complete. 
A  discharge  usually  follows  child-birth,  and  continues 
from  one  to  three  weeks,  which  is  composed  of  bloody 
serum  mixed  with  disintegrated  portions  of  membranes 
and  blood-clots  from  the  cavity  of  the  uterus,  and  is 
termed  the  lochia. 

Changes  in  the  Child  at  Birth. — At  the  moment 
of  birth,  a  remarkable  change  takes  place  in  the  sys- 
tem of  the  new-born  infant.  Previous  to  this  time, 
its  lungs  have  been  wholly  inactive,  the  process  of 
respiration  being  performed  by  the  placenta.  In  or- 
der to  carry  on  the  processes  of  respiration,  purifica- 
tion, and  nutrition,  all  of  which  functions  have  been 
performed  by  the  aid  of  the  placenta,  a  pecul- 
iar arrangement  of  the  circulatory  system  has 
been    necessary,    two    arteries    and    a    large    vein 


passing  between  the  body  of  the  foetus  and  the  pla- 
centa. When  the  placenta  is  separated  from  the  uter- 
ine walls,  the  circulation  in  the  blood-vessels  of  the 
cord  at  once  ceases.  Instantly,  an  accumulation  of  car- 
bonic acid  begins,  and  if  some  other  means  for  the  pu- 
rification of  the  blood  from  this  poison  were  not  pro- 
vided, death  would  occur  within  a  few  moments. 
Just  at  this  critical  epoch,  the  lungs  are  brought  into 
action.  Stimulated  by  the  impending  danger  to  the 
system  of  the  infant,  or  by  contact  of  the  body  with 
the  external  air,  or  by  some  other  means  not  under- 
stood, the  lungs  begin  their  important  function.  This 
is  not  of  course  fully  performed  at  once ;  time  is  re- 
quired for  the  lungs  to  become  fully  expanded  and 
able  to  do  their  whole  duty  in  the  elimination  of  car- 
bonic acid  gas  and  the  absorption  of  oxygen.  Fortu- 
nately, the  delicate  skin  of  the  infant,  which  is  abun- 
dantly supplied  with  blood-vessels,  possesses  the  abil- 
ity to  transmit  oxygen  and  carbonic  acid  gas,  and  is 
able  to  supplement  the  excretory  action  of  the  lungs 
to  a  very  considerable  degree.  It  is  on  this  account, 
as  well  as  for  other  reasons,  that  it  is  of  the  highest 
importance  that  the  young  infant  should  be  kept  for 
some  time  at  as  nearly  as  possible  the  same  tempera- 
ture as  that  to  which  it  has  previous  to  its  birth  been 
accustomed,  or  about  100°  F.,  since  the  effect  of  cold 
on  the  skin  will  be  to  cause  contraction  of  the  blood- 
vessels and  so  prevent  it  from  doing  its  part  in  the 
breathing  process.  It  is  not  necessary  that  the  tem- 
perature of  the  room  should  be  100°  provided  the  in- 
fant is  properly  clothed ;  but  the  room  should  be  15° 


to  20°  higher  than  is  necessary  for  adults,  for  the 
first  few  days  after  birth. 

In  the  adult,  the  blood  is  obliged  to  pass  through 
a  double  circuit  in  order  to  complete  its  tour  of  the 
body.  Starting  from  the  left  side  of  the  heart,  it  is 
distributed  through  the  arteries,  gathered  up  by  the 
veins,  and  returned  to  the  right  side  of  the  heart, 
completing  the  first  circle  or  first  half  of  its  double 
circuit.  From  the  right  side  of  the  heart, — or,  in  some 
of  the  lower  animals,  the  right  heart,  the  two  halves 
being  distinct  organs, — it  is  sent  to  the  lungs,  and 
thence  through  the  pulmonary  veins  to  the  left  side, 
its  starting  point.  In  the  foetal  condition,  as  the 
lungs  are  not  distended  with  air,  little  blood  passes 
through  them  from  the  right  side  of  the  heart  to 
the  left  side,  so  that  some  other  provision  is  necessary 
to  enable  the  blood  to  complete  its  round.  The  in- 
genious arrangement  which  nature  has  made  for  this 
purpose  is  a  valve-like  opening  in  the  partition  be- 
tween the  right  and  left  sides  of  the  heart  which 
allows  the  blood  to  pass  from  the  right  side  into 
the  left  side,  but  does  not  allow  a  movement  in 
the  opposite  direction.  This  is  known  as  the  fora- 
men ovale.  This  opening  is  placed  in  such  a  position 
that  the  current  of  nearly  pure  blood  that  is  brought 
into  the  right  auricle  from  the  ascending  vena  cava 
passes  directly  from  it  without  mingling  to  any  great 
extent  with  the  impure  blood  which  is  present  in  the 
right  auricle,  and  enters  the  left  auricle,  from  which  it 
passes  to  the  left  ventricle,  and  is  thence  carried  to 
the  head,  arms,  and  upper  part  of  the   body.     An- 


other  peculiar  arrangement  in  the  circulation  of  the 
foetus  is  the  connection  between  the  pulmonary  artery 
and  the  aorta  by  which  the  greater  portion  of  the 
blood  which  would  pass  through  the  lungs  if  they 
were  in  action,  takes  a  short  cut  through  the  duct 
provided  for  the  purpose  to  the  aorta,  which  it  enters 
below  the  openings  of  the  arteries  which  supply  blood 
to  the  upper  part  of  the  body.  This  blood  con- 
sists chiefly  of  the  venous  blood  returned  from  the 
upper  part  of  the  trunk.  It  thus  appears  that  the 
upper  part  of  the  body  of  the  foetus  is  provided  with 
pure  blood  or  that  which  is  nearly  pure,  containing 
but  a  slight  admixture  of  venous  blood,  while  that 
supplied  to  the  lower  portion  of  the  body  is  much  less 
pure  in  character,  being  almost  wholly  venous  blood. 
This  fact  is  given  as  an  explanation  of  the  inferior 
development  of  the  lower  portion  of  the  body  at  birth, 
the  legs  and  feet  being  much  less  perfectly  devel- 
oped than  the  arms  and  hands  in  the  newly  born  child. 
At  birth,  or  soon  after,  this  peculiar  course  in  the 
circulation  of  the  child  is  interrupted  by  the  closure 
of  the  foramen  ovale  and  the  duct  communicating  be- 
tween the  pulmonary  artery  and  the  aorta.  It  occa- 
sionally happens,  however,  that  these  openings  re- 
main unclosed,  in  consequence  of  which  arterial  and 
venous  blood  continue  to  mingle  as  before  birth, 
giving  the  child  a  bluish  appearance,  a  condition 
termed  cyanosis,  or  blue  disease. 

Development  of  the  Body  after  Birth. — At  birth, 
the  infantile  human  being  has  by  no  means  arrived 
at  a  state   of  complete  development.      The   organs 


of  special  sense,  sight,  hearing,  and  taste,  as  well 
as  the  olfactory  sense  and  the  sense  of  touch,  are 
dull,  and  the  degree  of  intelligence  is  small,  much 
less  than  in  the  young  of  many  of  the  lower  animals. 
The  development  of  the  lower  extremities  is  very 
much  inferior  to  that  of  the  rest  of  the  body,  while 
the  head  is  very  large  in  proportion.  The  following 
table,  showing  the  difference  in  proportion  of  the  va- 
rious parts  of  the  body  to  the  whole,  in  the  foetus  and 
the  adult,  is  interesting : — 

Fotus  at  Term. 


E  the  entire  body, 

-       1000.00 


"       brain, 

-     148.00 


"       liver,    - 



"       heart, 

-       7.77 


"       kidneys, 



"       thyroid  gland, 



"       thymus  gland, 



The  arms  and  legs  are  curved  upward  and  for- 
ward ;  the  chest,  abdomen,  and  all  the  joints  are  in  a 
semi-flexed  position.  The  curve  of  the  lower  extrem- 
ities causes  the  soles  of  the  feet  to  look  toward  each 
other  instead  of  as  in  adults. 

During  the  first  few  weeks  of  its  existence,  the 
little  creature  does  little  more  than  eat  and  sleep. 
Its  actions  are  almost  wholly  if  not  entirely,  auto- 
matic or  reflex  in  character.  The  movements  of  the 
hands  and  feet  as  well  as  the  act  of  suckling,  and  un- 
doubtedly also  the  contortions  of  the  face  and  its  fre- 
quent cries,  are  in  no  sense  volitionary. 

The  remains  of  the  umbilical  cord  begin  to  wither 


within  twenty-four  hours  after  birth,  and  by  the 
third  day  are  usually  completely  dried,  after  which 
ulceration  takes  place  at  the  point  of  connection  with 
the  body  by  which  it  is  separated  and  thrown  off  by 
the  end  of  the  first  week.  In  ten  or  twelve  days  the 
raw  surface  left  by  the  separation  of  the  cord  should 
be  entirely  healed. 

A  short  time  after  birth,  the  hair  is  shed  and  re- 
placed by  a  new  growth.  This  change  involves  the 
eye-lashes  and  minute  hairs  of  the  body  as  well  as 
the  head  of  the  infant.  In  fact,  according  to  Kol- 
liker,  a  very  acute  observer,  the  entire  cuticle  of  the 
new-born  infant  is  shed  and  replaced  by  a  new  epi- 
dermic covering.  The  fontanelles,  or  soft  spaces  be- 
tween the  unossified  portions  of  the  cranial  bones, 
gradually  diminish  in  size,  and  at  the  age  of  four 
years  are  almost  completely  closed. 

The  teeth  of  the  infant  are  at  birth  very  imper- 
fectly developed,  and  wholly  concealed  in  little 
pockets  beneath  the  gums.  They  are  twenty  in 
number,  consisting  of  two  incisors,  one  canine  tooth, 
and  two  molars,  on  each  side  of  each  jaw.  The  fully 
formed  teeth  make  their  eruption  from  the  gums  in 
the  following  order :  The  two  central  incisors,  or  cut- 
ting teeth,  in  the  seventh  month  after  birth;  the 
other  two  incisors  in  the  eighth  month;  the  first 
molars  at  the  end  of  the  year;  the  cuspid  teeth, 
commonly  known  as  the  eye-teeth  in  the  upper  jaw 
and  the  stomach-teeth  in  the  lower  jaw,  at  a  year  and 
a  half,  the  second  molars  which  complete  the  set,  not 
making  their  appearance  until  the  end  of  the  second 


This  set  of  teeth  is  commonly  known  as  the  tem- 
porary or  "  rnilk"  teeth.  They  are  retained  until  the 
seventh  year,  during  which  a  change  begins  to  take 
place  by  which  they  are  thrown  off  and  replaced  by  a 
permanent  set,  which  differ  considerably  in  shape  and 
size  as  well  as  in  number  from  the  first  set.  The 
first  permanent  tooth  which  makes  its  appearance  is 
the  anterior  molar  tooth,  which  emerges  from  the 
gum  just  behind  the  second  temporary  molar.  This 
fact  should  be  born  in  mind,  as  this  tooth  is  some- 
times mistaken  as  belonging  to  the  first  or  the  tem- 
porary'set,  since  it  usually  makes  its  appearance  be- 
fore any  of  the  other  teeth  are  shed,  or  at  the  age  of 
about  six  and  one-half  years.  At  the  end  of  the 
seventh  year,  the  temporary  teeth  begin  to  give  way 
to  the  permanent  teeth  in  nearly  the  same  order  in 
which  they  made  their  appearance  in  the  jaw.  First 
the  two  middle  incisors  are  shed ;  next  the  lateral  in- 
cisors about  one  year  later.  Within  the  next  two 
years,  the  two  molars  are  replaced  by  the  two  bicus- 
pids of  the  permanent  set.  One  year  later,  the  sec- 
ond permanent  molars  make  their  appearance,  and 
between  the  seventeenth  and  twenty-first  years  the 
wisdQm-teeth  appear  at  the  extreme  end  of  the  gum, 
making  thirty-two  teeth  in  all  in  the  adult. 

At  the  age  of  about  fifteen  years,  a  change  known 
as  puberty  occurs  in  both  sexes,  the  nature  of  which 
is  more  fully  considered  elsewhere. 

After  the  attainment  of  puberty,  the  physical  de- 
velopment continues,  not  being  perfected  until  near 
the  twenty-fifth   year,  when  the   ossification   of  the 


bones  is  completed.  The  development  of  the  brain 
continues  for  some  years  later,  not  being  completed 
until  near  the  fortieth  year. 

With  the  cessation  of  growth  and  the  attainment 
of  maturity,  the  vital  forces  of  the  system  are  no  lon- 
ger expended  in  the  processes  of  development,  and 
hence  the  various  organs  of  the  body  are  able  to  mani- 
fest their  functions  more  energetically  and  continu- 
ously than  during  early  life.  At  this  period  the  pro- 
cesses of  assimilation  and  disintegration  are  just  in 
proportion  to  the  amount  of  work  done. 

After  a  period,  the  length  of  which  largely  de- 
pends upon  the  habits  and  inherited  tendencies  of  the 
individual,  the  period  of  decline  begins.  This  may  be 
either  lengthened  or  abbreviated  in  a  very  large  de- 
gree by  each  individual.  A  person  who  "  lives  too 
fast,"  will  certainly  reach  the  time  when  the  various 
vital  functions  begin  to  fail  much  sooner  than  one 
who  by  temperate  living  and  careful  conformance  to 
the  laws  of  nature  conserves  and  economizes  his  vital 
energies.  The  average  length  of  human  life  is  less 
than  forty  years,  although  many  facts  and  considera- 
tions go  to  show  very  conclusively  that  human  life 
would  be  prolonged  to  one  hundred  years,  or  even 
greater  age,  if  human  beings  would  strictly  adhere  to 
the  natural  order  of  life. 

The  Little  Girl. 

S  infants,  little  girls  and  little  boys  begin 
life  very  much  alike.  Aside  from  the 
physical  differences  between  the  two,  the 
distinguishing  characteristics  are  not  marked 
at  first,  but  the  period  of  earliest  infancy 
is  scarcely  passed  before  marked  points  of 
difference  begin  to  make  their  appearance. 
These  are  in  part  due  to  inherited  pecul- 
iarities of  disposition;  but  we  are  led 
to  believe  from  considerable  observation 
that  many  of  these  differences  are  more  largely 
the  result  of  education  than  of  inheritance.  The  toys 
presented  to  the  girl-baby  for  her  amusement  differ 
radically  from  those  furnished  the  little  boy.  She 
learns  to  love  dolls  and  tiny  cradles,  miniature  china 
sets,  and  similar  toys,  simply  because  they  are  first 
presented  to  her  in  such  a  way  as  to  attract  her  at- 
tention. Not  only  in  the  selection  of  toys,  but  in  al- 
most every  other  particular  the  little  girl  is  treated 
differently  from  the  little  boy.  The  latter  is  expected 
to  become  a  strong,  vigorous  man,  able  to  hold  his 
own  in  the  battle  of  life,  and  is  treated  with  a  sort  of 
respect  which  is  inspired  by  the  anticipation  of  what 
he  is  to  become.     The  little  girl,  on  the  other  hand, 

9  [1171 


is  looked  upon  as  destined  to  fill  an  inferior  place, — 
she  is  to  be  "  only  a  woman,"  and  is  treated  as  a  toy. 
petted,  kissed,  admired  as  a  pretty  thing,  talked  to  in 
a  simpering  manner,  and  every  way  treated  quite  dif- 
ferently from  her  little  brother.  The  result  of  these 
different  modes  of  treatment  is  to  cause  the  little  boy 
and  little  girl  to  become  more  and  more  unlike  during 
the  whole  period  of  development. 

Under  such  circumstances,  it  is  not  surprising 
that  the  tastes  of  boys  and  girls  are  so  totally  different, 
and  that  a  casual  observer  in  comparing  mature  or 
half  developed  human  beings  of  the  two  sexes  should 
be  led  to  believe  that  the  differences  between  the  two 
sexes  are  radical  and  fundamental, — that  woman  is 
"  the  weaker  vessel,"  and  by  nature  destined  to  fill  a 
very  subordinate  place  in  the  social  scheme.  We  do 
not  deny  that  there  are  mental  as  well  as  physical 
differences  between  the  sexes,  neither  do  we  dispute 
the  position  that  the  work  for  which  the  average 
woman  is  naturally  fitted  differs  from  that  for  which 
the  average  man  is  best  adapted ;  but  we  thoroughly 
believe  that  the  great  differences  in  adaptation  which 
are  observed  between  man  and  woman,  are  largely  the 
result  of  perverting  influences  acting  upon  woman 
from  earliest  infancy,  the  effect  of  which  is  to  make 
her  mentally  and  physically  the  inferior  of  man. 
Against  these  perverting  influences  we  protest.  There 
is  no  reason  why  little  girls  should  not  be  treated 
during  the  first  years  of  infancy  exactly  the  same  as 
little  boys ;  their  physical  demands  are  precisely  the 
same ;  until  near  the  period  of  puberty  the  physical 
development  of  the  two  sexes  runs  parallel. 


We  regarjj  the  popular  method  of  treating  little 
girls  as  not  only  senseless  but  criminal.  In  case  a 
girl  is  born  of  healthy  parents,  who  are  well  developed 
mentally,  morally,  and  physically,  she  loses  a  large 
portion  of  her  precious  inheritance  by  the  depraving 
processes  to  which,  in  obedience  to  the  dictates  of 
fashion,  she  is  subjected  almost  from  the  moment  her 
sex  is  ascertained.  Now  and  then  it  happens  that 
a  girl-baby's  parents  are  poor  and  outside  the  pale  of 
fashionable  influence,' by  which  fortunate  circumstance 
she  grows  up  under  more  favorable  influences ;  and  in 
a  large  share  of  these  cases  it  may  be  noticed  that  the 
girl  differs  far  less  from  the  boy  than  when  brought 
up  under  the  usual  influences. 

The  little  girl  of  fashionable  parents  is  kept  in  the 
house,  dressed  up  like  a  little  doll,  and  is  taught  that 
she  must  keep  still  like  a  little  lady,  that  she  must 
keep  out  of  the  sun,  never  run  out  of  doors  bare- 
footed, and  must  try  to  ape  her  fashionable  mother  in 
every  possible  manner.  Her  clothes  are  so  fine  that 
she  must  never  venture  near  the  dirt,  and  must 
devote  her  whole  time  to  playing  mother  with  her 
ttolls,  or  sitting  bolt  upright  in  a  high  chair  with  her 
hands  folded  while  her  mother  receives  company. 
Starting  out  in  life  under  such  a  regimen,  while  the 
mind  is  plastic  and  just  beginning  its  development, 
and  the  whole  organization  is  in  the  highest  degree 
susceptible  to  impressions,  is  it  any  wonder  that  the 
delicate,  rosy  tint  of  health  soon  gives  way  to  sallow- 
ness,  or  that  the  blooming  cheeks  become  pale  and 
faded,  and  that  the  mind  becomes  dwarfed  and  shal- 


Early  Training. — As  just  intimated,  the  influences 
to  which  the  little  girl  is  subjected  in  early  childhood, 
often  in  earliest  infancy,  are  of  the  greatest  conse- 
quence. The  mind  is  at  this  period  in  the  highest 
degree  impressible.  The  infantile  brain  is  soft  and 
almost  semi-fluid  in  its  texture.  The  skull  and 
coverings  of  the  brain  have  acquired  little  of  that 
density  and  firmness  which  they  exhibit  in  later  years. 
The  brain  may  be  molded  into  almost  any  shape. 
Deficient  organs  may  be  developed,  exaggerated  ones 
may  be  repressed  by  proper  training ;  and  it  is  equally 
possible  by  improper  training  to  destroy  utterly  its 
symmetry  by  dwarfing  well-developed  and  valuable 
faculties,  and  obliterating  desirable  traits  of  character, 
while  developing  those  which  are  in  the  highest 
degree  undesirable. 

Education  should  begin  with  the  earliest  dawn  of 
reason.  The  first  evidences  of  mental  activity  on  the 
part  of  the  child  should  be  watched  for  and  met  in 
such  a  manner  as  to  insure  a  healthy  development. 
It  is  possible,  by  giving  careful  attention  to  all  the 
surroundings  of  the  infant,  and  bestowing  care  upon 
every  act  in  relation  to  it,  on  the  part  of  the  mother, 
to  give  direction  to  the  development  of  its  dawning 
mind,  and  thus  to  do  much  toward  forming  the 

One  of  the  most  reprehensible  of  all  perverting 
processes  to  which  the  minds  of  children  are  exposed, 
is  the  practice  of  talking  "baby-talk"  to  them. 
Sometimes  it  requires  years  for  individuals  to  unlearn 
the  bad  habits  of  pronunciation  which  they  acquired 


by  this  abArd  practice,  which  also  leads  children 
to  form  bad  habits  of  thought  and  expression. 
Those  who  have  the  care  of  children  ought  ever  to 
bear  in  mind  the  fact  that  the  perceptive  faculties  of 
small  children  are  very  active.  As  a  rule,  these  little 
ones  are  in  the  highest  degree  imitative ;  every  look, 
gesture,  action  of  the  nurse  or  mother,  is  followed 
with  the  closest  scrutiny.  Whatever  is  brought  be- 
fore the  attention  of  the  little  one  makes  an  image 
upon  its  soft  and  forming  brain  which  is  pretty  sure 
to  be  reproduced,  more  or  less  modified,  sometime  in 
its  future  history.  The  nursery  ought  to  be  consid- 
ered a  sacred  place;  nothing  perverting  in  its  ten- 
dency should  ever  be  allowed  to  enter  its  doors.  The 
building  of  a  brain,  the  formation  of  a  character,  is  a 
work  with  which  that  of  the  most  skillful  sculptor 
cannot  for  a  moment  compare ;  yet  how  little  atten- 
tion is  given  to  this  important  work.  Children — 
little  boys  as  well  as  little  girls — are  allowed  to  come 
mp  without  any  attempt  to  give  proper  or  natural  di- 
rection to  their  development. 

A  matter  of  great  importance  to  little  girls  and 
little  boys  alike  is  that  they  should  be  early  taught 
to  think.  Women  as  a  class  are  dependent.  The  ma- 
jority of  women  want  some  one  to  do  their  thinking 
for  them.  Little  girls  should  be  taught  to  think  by 
bringing  objects  calculated  to  stimulate  thought  to 
their  attention,  and  by  stimulating  inquiry  by  care- 
fully and  patiently  answering  all  their  questions,  and 
putting  to  them  such  questions  as  will  call  out  thought 
and  encourage  further  inquiry.      This  work,  properly 

122  THE  LADIES'  &UIDE. 

done,  will  accomplish  more  toward  thef*  molding  of 
character  and  the  developing  of  valuable  mental  quali- 
ties in  the  first  four  or  five  years  of  life,  than  can  be 
accomplished  by  the  most  skillful  training  during  any 
subsequent  period.  The  kinder-garten  is  a  most  ad- 
mirable institution  which  may  be  made  the  means  of 
imparting  most  valuable  instruction.  A  large  amount 
of  useful  knowledge  may  be  impressed  upon  the  mind 
in  such  a  manner  that  it  cannot  be  forgotten,  by  the 
methods  employed  in  the  kinder-garten.  Moral  as 
well  as  mental  culture  may  be  imparted  in  this  way. 
We  have  been  greatly  pleased  with  the  recent  effort 
to  employ  the  kinder-garten  as  a  means  of  impressing 
on  the  young  mind  the  truths  of  temperance.  We 
believe  that  here  is  a  wide  field  of  usefulness  for  this 
new  educational  system,  and  have  no  doubt  that  un- 
der the  wise  and  inspiring  influence  of  such  talented 
and  enthusiastic  workers  in  the  temperance  cause  as 
Miss  Willard,  Mrs.  Foster,  Mrs.'  Hunt,  and  others 
whom  we  might  name,  this  agency  will  be  made  a 
means  of  incalculable  good  to  the  rising  generation, 
especially  in  our  large  cities. 

School  Education. — When  the  little  girl  reaches 
an  age  at  which  it  is  thought  proper  to  send  her  to 
school,  other  depraving  influences  are  brought  to  bear 
upon  her.  While  there  has  been  great  improve- 
ment in  methods  of  education  within  the  last  quarter 
of  a  century,  it  is  still  an  unfortunate  fact  that  the 
school-life  of  the  young,  boys  as  well  as  girls,  is  to  a 
large  degree  perverting  in  its  character.  Little  ones 
are  made  to  learn  by  rote.     Instruction  is  imparted 


in  such  a  way  that  they  are  led  to  acquire  knowledge 
very  much  like  little  parrots,  and  without  much 
greater  appreciation  of  what  they  learn.  Little  at- 
tention is  given  to  the  natural  order  in  which  the 
mental  faculties  should  be  developed,  or  the  natural 
means  by  which  young  children  acquire  knowledge. 
A  routine  method  is  followed,  the  effect  of  which  is 
to  extinguish,  to  a  large  extent,  the  naturalness  of 
those  who  are  subjected  to  it.  Reforms  are  in  prog- 
ress, however,  and  we  trust  the  day  is  not  far  distant 
when  school  instruction  will  be  made  much  more  in 
conformity  to  the  healthy  development  of  the  mind 
than  at  present. 

Moral  Culture  of  Children. — The  cultivation  of 
the  moral  faculties  of  the  child  cannot  be  begun  too 
early.  Depraving  influences  are  so  abundant  and  so 
certain  to  be  brought  in  contact  with  the  little  one  at 
a  very  early  period  in  its  existence,  that  the  attempt 
to  fortify  the  mind  against  such  influences  cannot  be 
begun  at  too  early  a  date.  It  is  of  the  greatest  im- 
portance that  while  the  minds  of  children  are  yet  im- 
pressible, such  images  of  truth  and  purity  should  be 
formed  upon  them  as  cannot  be  easily  effaced.  Chil- 
dren ought  early  to  be  taught  to  love  the  right  be- 
cause it  is  right.  The  instinct  of  fear  should  seldom 
be  appealed  to,  and  never  when  such  an  appeal  can  be 
avoided.  The  dignity  of  truth,  the  nobility  of  purity, 
and  reverence  for  nature  and  the  God  of  nature, 
should  be  held  up  before  the  young  mind  as  the  high- 
est possible  incentives  for  right  doing.  A  moral 
character  founded  upon  such  a  basis  will  not  be  dis- 


turbed  by  the  "  winds  of  doctrine "  or  the  waves  of 
unbelief;  it  is  founded  upon  a  rock  which  cannot  be 

Senile  Manners. — A  most  alarming,  and,  we  may 
almost  say,  disgusting  feature  of  the  modern  fash- 
ionable mode  of  bringing  up  children,  is  the  encour- 
agement which  is  given  to  the  formation  of  senile 
manners.  The  question  has  been  very  pertinently 
asked,  "  What  has  become  of  all  the  little  girls?"  It 
certainly  is  not  often  now-a-days  that  we  see  a  genuine 
little  girl.  There  are  plenty  of  little  creatures  dressed 
in  such  a  marvelous  manner  that  even  a  zoologist 
might  be  puzzled  to  determine  the  species  to  which 
they  belong,  but  there  is  very  little  in  these  fanci- 
fully dressed  specimens,  these  human  dolls,  which 
should  characterize  the  ideal  little  girl.  A  talented 
and  observing  lady  has  in  the  following  words  drawn 
a  true  picture  of  the  contrast  between  the  real  and 
the  artificial  little  girl : — 

"  In  former  times,  a  pretty  muslin  bonnet,  or  a 
simple,  close-fitting  cottage  straw,  was  thought  the 
most  appropriate  covering  for  a  little  head,  protecting 
the  bright  eyes  from  too  intense  light,  and  shielding 
the  rosy  cheeks  from  the  sun's  too  fervid  kisses. 
But  now  we  see  something  placed  on  the  sunny 
curls,  leaving  eyes  and  cheeks  entirely  unprotected, 
which  is  elaborately  trimmed  with  bows,  feathers,  a 
flower-garden,  or  perhaps  a  mingling  of  both ;  for,  al- 
though it  is  too  small  for  even  a  good-sized  doll,  the 
milliner,  with  an  ingenuity  which  would  have  been 
praise-worthy  if  exercised  in  a  more  sensible  manner, 


has  contrived  to  pile  up  trimming  enough  to  hide 
even  the  faintest  suspicion  of  a  bonnet.  But  what  is 
sadder  than  the  lack  of  true  taste  and  good  common 
sense  in  this  stylish  affair,  we  see  no  semblance  of 
child-like  simplicity  in  the  wearer.  And  the  bonnet 
is  but  the  beginning  of  this  unfortunate  change  which 
we  mourn.  The  pretty  " baby  waist"  the  plain  white 
dress,  the  neat  muslin  or  merino,  so  appropriate, 
which  little  girls  used  to  wear,  are  supplanted  by  in- 
comprehensible garments,  the  fac-simile  of  the  grand- 
dame's  attire,  flounces,  fringes,  bows,  and  double- 
skirts  looped  and  festooned  in  an  astounding  manner, 
the  child's — no,  we  mean  the  young  lady's  height, 
there  are  no  children  in  these  days — is  less  than  her 
circumference,  and  the  "  mite  "  who  is  made  to  carry 
such  an  incongruous  burden,  totters  about  on  high- 
heeled  boots.  This  tiny  specimen  of  womanhood, 
hardly  weaned  from  her  mother's  breast,  or  more  prob- 
ably, a  wet-nurse's,  shakes  out  tier  redundant  robes, 
bending  and  twisting  her  small  body  in  grotesque  imi- 
tation of  the  woman  spoken  of  by  the  prophet  Isaiah 
"  with  haughty  mien ;  walking  and  mincing  as  they 
go"  See  how  the  little  ape  looks  over  her  shoulders, 
as  she  tottles  about,  to  be  sure  that  her  skirts  give 
her  dress  and  figure  the  corret  wiggle  her  sharp  eyes 
have  observed  in  the  stylish  mother  and  her  fashion- 
able friends.  It  is  lamentable  that  all  the  simplicity 
and  beauty  of  babyhood  and  childhood  should  be  de- 
stroyed by  fashion. 

"  Added  to  the  absurdity  of  the  dress,  these  little 
women    attempt  to  discourse  on  the    '  latest  style.' 


With  their  companions  or  dolls  you  will  hear  them 
imitating  the  discussions  on  this  subject  that  they 
daily  hear  in  the  parlor  or  nursery  from  their  mother ; 
or  still  imitating  with  contemptuous  toss  of  their  lit- 
tle heads,  they  will  inform  their  listeners  that  they 
'  could  n't  think  of  'sociating  with  those  girls,  because 
they  are  not  stylish ! ' 

"  A  few  days  since,  as  we  passed  out  of  a  store  on 
Broadway,  our  attention  was  arrested  by  the  conver- 
sation of  two  little  figures  seated  in  a  fine  carriage, 
waiting,  doubtless,  for  mamma  to  finish  her  shopping. 
They  were  dressed  in  a  style  positively  overwhelm- 
ing. Their  hats  were  wonders  of  skill,  their  gloves 
had  the  orthodox  number  of  buttons  with  bracelets 
over  them,  a  dainty  handkerchief  suspended  from  a 
ring  attached  by  a  chain  to  another  ring  on  the  little 
doll-like  fingers.  The  dress  was  simply  indescribable. 
The  elder  was  speaking  to  the  younger,  who,  scarcely 
more  than  a  baby,  sat  demurely  by  her  side.  '  Oh, 
mercy !  just  look  at  that  horrid  little  girl  who  is 
crossing  the  street !  She  has  no  hoops  on,  and  not  a 
single  flounce — no  trimming  at  all  on  her  dress !  And, 
oh  !  see  her  gloves  ! — why,  she  has  only  one  button  ! 
Pshaw  !  she's  nobody — not  a  bit  of  style  ! ' 

"  The  youngest  lisped  a  reply,  which  we  lost  as 
we  passed  on;  but  it  was  painful  to  think  of  the 
training  they  must  have  received  which  enabled  them 
at  that  early  age  to  judge  a  child  of  their  own  years 
so  quickly  by  the  rules  of  fashionable  dress,  and  be- 
cause her  attire  was  not  in  exact  accordance  with 
that  week's  style,  turn  from  her  with  contempt  as 
something  too  low  for  their  notice." 


The  above  description  of  the  fashionable  little  girl 
of  to-day  is  not  overdrawn ;  yet  how  few  parents  re- 
alize the  dangers  into  which  they  are  themselves  lead- 
ing their  little  daughters  in  fostering  and  stimulating 
this  sad  and  unnatural  inclination  ! 

This  terribly  pernicious  tendency  is  wholly  the 
fault  of  the  parents,  who  little  realize  the  mischievous 
work  they  are  doing,  the  sad  harvest  they  are  pre- 
paring to  reap  in  later  years.  They  are  rearing  their 
children  like  house-plants,  forcing  them  to  an  unnat- 
ural .growth,  the  result  of  which  must  be  an^  early  de- 
cay. As  soon  as  exposed  to  the  storms  of  adversity 
they  must  quickly  wither  and  fall. 

Juvenile  Parties. — Nothing  could  be  more  pain- 
ful than  the  descriptions  which  we  sometimes  read  in 
the  papers,  of  children's  parties.  Some  of  them 
would  be  appropriate  objects  of  ridicule,  were  it  not 
for  the  painful  disclosures  they  make  of  weakness 
and  wickedness  on  the  part  of  the  parents  and  de- 
pravity on  the  part  of  their  children.  Some  time  ago 
a  New  York  paper  gave  a  graphic  description  of  a 
children's  party  in  Brooklyn.  The  writer  told  "  of 
ravishing  costumes  of  silks  and  satins  and  laces  in 
most  delicate  and  fashionable  shades,  all  in  the  high- 
est style  of  the  modiste's  art;  of  flashing  diamonds 
and  milky  pearls  in  tiny  ears  and  on  slender  necks ; 
of  six-buttoned  white  kid  gloves  on  lilliputian  hands, 
barred  with  massive  bracelets  of '  the  real  stuff,'  as 
one  midget  of  nine  years  proudly  asserted ;  of  twink- 
ling feet  encased  in  French  boots  matching  the 
dresses  in  color ;  of  dazzling  lights  and  fragrant  flow- 
ers ;    of  bewitching  music  and   circling  dances ;    of 


flirtations  and  a  midnight  supper  with  its  indigesti- 
bles,  its  ices,  and  its  wines." 

Such  parties  are  not  confined  to  Brooklyn  nor  to 
the  large  cities ;  we  hear  of  them  in  all  parts  of  the 
country,  and  their  legitimate  result  is  seen  in  the 
petty  insubordination  of  children  not  yet  in  their 
teens,  in  juvenile  flirtations  which  result  in  elope- 
ments of  boys  and  girls,  and  in  all  sorts  of  social 

The  natural  simplicity  and  sincerity  of  childhood 
is  a  precious  trait  which  should  be  fostered  and  pre- 
served. Hypocrisy  and  sham,  notwithstanding  their 
prevalence  in  the  fashionable  society  of  the  day,  are 
always  distasteful  to  a  person  of  pure  mind  and  un- 
perverted  instincts,  but  never  so  much  so  as  when 
exhibited  in  children.  Genuineness  of  character  has 
come  to  be  a  rare  trait  in  both  old  and  young.  The  lit- 
tle girl  does  not  reach  her  teens,  scarcely,  in  fact,  learns 
to  talk,  before  she  begins  to  acquire  the  art  of  trying 
to  appear  somewhat  different  than  she  is,  imitating 
the  example  of  her  elders,  who  possibly  imagine  that 
their  shoddy  gentility  passes  for  the  genuine  article, 
when  in  fact  they  are  the  laughing-stock  of  all  their 

The  Clothing  of  Little  Girls. — As  a  rule,  moth- 
ers exercise  excellent  sense  in  the  clothing  of  their 
little  boys  :  their  limbs  are  warmly  clad,  their  feet 
protected  from  the  cold,  and  their  garments  are  so 
constructed  as  to  allow  freedom  of  motion  to  their 
limbs.  Thus  protected,  they  are  usually  allowed  to 
romp  and  play  in  the  open  air,  gathering  health  and 
strength,  and  laying  the  foundation  of  a  constitution 


which  will  be  able  to  bear  the  wear  and  tear  of  later 
years.  Why  should  not  little  girls  be  as  comfortably 
and  sensibly  clothed  as  little  boys?  Why  should 
fashion  insist  that  the  "  weaker  vessel/'  even  in  her 
tenderest  years,  should  be  clothed  in  such  a  manner 
as  would  be  considered  culpable  neglect  on  the  part 
of  the  mother  if  the  child  were  a  boy  instead  of  a 
girl  ?  How  often  have  we  seen  fashionable  mothers 
leading  along  the  street  shivering  little  girls  whose 
lower  extremities  were  so  thinly  clad  as  to  be  scarcely 
protected  from  the  gaze  of  the  passers-by,  to  say 
nothing  of  the  piercing  winds  against  which  the 
mother  was  protected,  at  least  in  part,  by  her  long 
skirts,  thick  boots,  woolen  stockings,  warm  drawers, 
and  leggins.  The  upper  portion  of  the  body  is  usu- 
ally protected  by  furs,  warm  cloaks,  and  mittens  or 
muff,  but  not  infrequently  we  have  seen  little  ones 
trotting  along  beside  their  mothers  with  their  little 
limbs  plainly  in  sight,  blue  and  pinched  by  the  cold, 
— their  short  skirts  no  protection  to  the  portion  of 
the  leg  below  the  knee,  and  the  thin  drawers  that 
scarcely  met  the  top  of  the  stocking  no  adequate 
protection  for  the  limbs.  The  stockings,  too,  are 
often  of  the  thinnest  material  to  allow  the  wearing  of 
as  small  a  shoe  as  possible. 

Is  it  any  wonder  that  these  little  ones  so  often 
sicken  and  die?  Who  knows  who  many  consump- 
tions originate  in  colds  contracted  by  these  exposures 
in  early  childhood  ?  This  style  of  dressing  is  without 
doubt  responsible  for  the  great  share  of  croups,  diph- 
therias, and  other  throat  and  bronchial  troubles  to 
which  children  are  subject  in  early  life.     Diseases  of 


_ _^ _ i 

the  lungs  and  air-passages  are  vastly  more  frequent 
in  young  children  than  in  older  persons ;  and  we 
doubt  not  that  the  culpable  carelessness  and  senseless 
obedience  to  fashion  in  the  manner  of  clothing  them 
is  in  a  large  degree  responsible.  In  more  than  one  in- 
stance we  have  known  mothers  called  to  mourn  the 
death  of  their  beloved  little  ones  when  we  very  well 
knew  that  the  responsibility  was  their  own.  The 
minister  offered  consolation  in  the  thought  that  the 
ways  of  Providence  were  mysterious,  and  that  perhaps 
the  good  Father  had  taken  the  little  one  to  himself 
for  some  wise  purpose  which  eternity  might  reveal. 
Possibly  the  mother  accepted  the  consolation  with  the 
thought  that  the  little  one  was  really  better  off,  being 
delivered  from  all  the  trials  and  hardships  of  life  and 
safe  with  reference  to  the  future.  We  confess  to  have 
felt  our  indignation  roused  when  hearing  such  senti- 
ments as  these  expressed.  Providence  has  nothing 
to  do  with  the  killing  of  little  children.  Fashion  is 
the  modern  Herod  that  slaughters  the  brightest,  fair- 
est, and  most  promising  of  our  little  ones  without 
compunction.  Little  girls  seem  to  be  her  favorite 
victims.  Children  have  a  right  to  live,  to  develop, 
to  enjoy  this  life  as  well  as  the  next.  In  fact  we  can 
scarcely  understand  how  the  true  fullness  of  joy  can 
be  reached  in  the  next  world  in  any  other  way  than 
through  the  experience  afforded  in  this.  There  are  joys 
and  legitimate  pleasures  and  happiness  in  this  world 
which  make  the  present  life  well  worth  living.  We  in- 
sist that  girls  as  well  as  boys  have  an  inalienable  right 
to  live,  and  the  mother  who  sacrifices  the  life  of  her 
child  by  bending  her  knee  to  the  goddess  of  fashion 


is  as  culpable  as  she  who  commits  her  little  one  to 
the  merciless  waves  of  the  Ganges,  or  dashes  it  be- 
neath the  cruel  wheels  of  Juggernaut. 

The  little  girl  should  be  so  clad  that  every  portion 
of  her  body  will  be  thoroughly  protected.  The  arms 
and  limbs  should  be  as  well  protected  as  the  trunk. 
In  order  to  secure  this  equable  protection  of  the  bodj 
the  undergarments  should  be  made  in  one  piece,  that 
is,  the  chemise  and  drawers  should  be  united.  The 
undergarments  should  be  of  flannel,  the  best  material 
for  children's  wear  at  all  seasons  of  the  year,  thick 
flannel  being  worn  in  the  winter,  and  in  the  summer 
time  the  thinnest  woolen  fabrics,  if  the  weather  is 
very  hot.  Children  often  complain  that  flannel  irri- 
tates their  sensitive  skins.  This  difficulty  can  be  ob- 
viated by  wearing  thin  gauze  suits  underneath  the 
flannel  garment.  The  stockings  should  always  be  of 
wool  except  in  very  warm  weather.  They  should 
never  be  supported  by  garters,  but  should  be  sus- 
pended from  the  shoulders  by  means  of  elastic  straps 
either  passing  over  the  shoulders  or  attached  to  the 

In  cold  weather,  high  boots  with  thick  soles  should 
be  worn,  and  should  be  supplemented  with  warm,  knit 
leggins  extending  above  the  knees. 

Short-sleeved  and  low-necked  dresses  are  fortun- 
ately just  now  out  of  style,  so  we  need  not  say  much 
with  reference  to  this  abominable  mode  of  dressing 
children  which  has  been  so  long  in  vogue.  It  must 
have  a  passing  notice,  however,  as  the  fickle  dame 
may  soon  return  to  her  old  folly,  and  insist  that  the 
arms  and  bosoms  of  children  shall  be  exposed  at  all 


seasons  of  the  year  regardless  of  the  pernicious  effect 
of  such  exposure  upon  their  delicate  constitutions. 
The  upper  part  of  the  trunk  contains  the  heart  and 
lungs, — two  of  the  most  important  vital  organs. 
Chilling  of  this  portion  of  the  body  is  certain  to 
result  disastrously  to  health.  There  is  no  doubt 
that  many  of  the  weakly,  sickly,  consumptive  girls 
of  the  present  generation  owe  their  feeble  condition 
to  the  low-necked,  short-sleeved  dresses  which  they 
wore  in  childhood. 

We  are  glad  to  know  that  mothers  are  becoming 
more  sensible  in  this  matter.  It  is  now  not  an  un- 
common thing  to  see  upon  the  streets  a  little  girl  who 
is  warmly  and  sensibly  clad.  We  hope  that  this 
course  on  the  part  of  some  mothers  will  be  con- 
tagious, so  that  we  may  have  a  thorough-going  revo- 
lution in  the  dress  of  little  girls. 

Stays,  corsets,  and  French  heels  are  instruments 
of  torture  to  which  no  intelligent  mother  will  subject 
her  growing  daughter.  The  idea  that  the  clothing  of 
the  little  girl  must  be  so  constructed  as  to  "  develop 
a  nice  form  "  is  an  intolerable  reproach  on  the  Creator. 
It  is  a  rare  thing  now-a-days,  at  least  in  large  cities,  to 
find  a  young  lady  who  can  walk  in  an  easy,  graceful 
manner.  The  stiff,  unnatural,  mincing  gait  of  the 
fashionable  young  lady  is  not  so  much  an  affectation 
as  a  necessity  with  her.  Her  physical  development 
has  been  so  sadly  deformed  by  the  unnatural  compres- 
sion of  the  waist  with  stays  or  corsets,  by  the  curving 
of  the  spine  through  the  wearing  of  shoes  with  high 
heels  placed  under  the  instep  instead  of  under  the 
heel,  and  by  various  other  deforming  processes,  that 


an  easy,  natural,  graceful  bearing  is  as  impossible  for 
her  as  for  a  man  with  heavy  manacles  upon  his  ankles. 
She  struts  or  wriggles  and  minces  along  in  the  most 
ridiculous  fashion,  not  because  she  desires  to  do  so, 
but  because  it  is  impossible  for  her  to  walk  in  any  other 
way.  But  we  will  not  delay  longer  upon  this  point 
here  as  it  will  be  more  fully  considered  hereafter. 

A  point  of  primary  importance  in  regard  to  the 
clothing  of  children  which  mothers  should  ever  bear 
in  mind  is  the  fact  that  frequent  changes  are  necessi- 
tated by  the  almost  constant  changes  of  temperature 
in  this  climate.  The  weather  of  a  temperate  climate 
is  always  subject  to  changes  which  will  be  recognized, 
and  should  be  as  far  as  possible  anticipated,  by  the 
careful  mother.  Children  possess  very  little  power 
to  resist  the  influence  of  cold  or  heat.  Their  vital 
functions,  while  very  active,  are  more  easily  disturbed 
than  those  of  older  people,  hence  they  are  more  sus- 
ceptible to  injury  from  change  of  weather  than  older 
persons.  Mothers  should  be  constantly  on  the  look- 
out for  changes  which  may  involve  the  life  of  their 
little  ones.  The  fashion  of  putting  on  flannel  under- 
garments at  the  beginning  of  the  cold  season  of  the 
year,  and  putting  them  off  again  in  the  beginning  of 
spring,  is  a  pernicious  one.  There  is  no  time  of  year 
when  flannel  clothing  is  more  imperiously  required 
than  in  the  cool,  damp  days  of  spring  and  the  occa- 
sional cool  days  in  summer.  Clothing  should  be  ad- 
justed to  the  weather  of  each  day  independently.  In 
the  winter  time,  an  unusually  cold  day  demands  an  ad- 
ditional supply  of  clothing.     In  the  summer  time,  an 

unusually  hot  day  may  require  an  opposite  change  of 



garments,  la  the  spring  and  autumn,  particularly 
when  the  weather  is  very  changeable,  it  may  be  nec- 
essary to  change  the  clothing  two  or  three  times  a 
day  in  order  to  meet  the  exigencies  of  the  weather. 

Children  should  never  be  allowed  to  suffer  for 
the  want  of  a  change  of  this  kind  simply  because 
the  needed  garment  has  been  soiled  or  must  be  saved 
for  Sunday  wear,  or  for  any  other  trivial  reason.  If 
a  child  cannot  be  properly  clothed,  it  should  be  sent 
to  bed  and  kept  there  until  the  proper  garments  can 
be  provided  for  it.  The  excuse  which  mothers  often 
make  for  carelessness  in  this  particular,  that  "  they 
have  been  too  busy  "  to  make  the  necessary  garments 
for  the  little  one  who  has  outgrown  its  old  clothing, 
is  no  justification  for  such  neglect ;  and  it  will  gener- 
ally be  found  that  the  required .  time  has  been  worse 
than  wasted  in  the  preparation  of  unwholesome  dishes 
which  will  have  no  other  influence  than  to  deprave 
the  tastes  and  undermine  the  health  of  the  husband 
and  child,  or  in  the  entertainment  of  fashionable 
friends  who  are  themselves  squandering  valuable  time 
which  belongs  properly  to  their  children,  in  the  dis- 
cussion of  the  latest  fashions  or  the  most  recent 

The  clothing  of  the  child  at  night  is  also  a  matter 
of  importance.  As  a  rule,  flannel  night-gowns  should 
be  worn,  as  by  this  means  the  little  one  avoids  the 
chill  often  given  by  coming  in  contact  with  cotton  or 
linen  sheets,  and  is  better  protected  from  the  chilly 
night  air  if,  as  is  often  the  case,  it  becomes  uncovered 
in  the  night  by  the  displacement  of  the  bed  covers 
through  its  restlessness. 


Exercise. — The  idea  that  little  girls  must  be  kept 
in  the  house  and  never  allowed  to  romp  and  play  out 
of  doors  as  do  their  brothers,  is  productive  of  a  vast 
amount  of  mischief  to  health.  There  is  no  more  rea- 
son why  little  girls  shoujd  be  treated  this  way  than 
for  the  treatment  pf  little  boys  in  the  same  manner. 
As  previously  remarked,  during  the  first  years  of 
their  existence  until  the  approach  of  puberty,  girls 
and  boys  are  very  much  alike  in  their  physical  develop- 
ment, and  there  is  no  reason  why  they  should  not  re- 
ceive very  much  the  same  treatment.  The  muscles 
and  bones  cannot  be  developed  in  any  other  way  than 
by  physical  exercise,  and  this  cannot  well  be  done 
with  the  proper  freedom  elsewhere  than  in  the  open 
air.  The  play-room  or  family  gymnasium  is  an  ex- 
cellent thing  for  use  on  rainy  days  and  in  inclement 
weather ;  but  there  is  no  means  by  which  a  good  foun- 
dation for  physical  health  and  a  normal  development 
can  be  so  well  laid  as  by  abundant  exercise  in  the 
open  air.  The  disposition  which  most  healthy  little 
girls  exhibit  to  romp  and  play  with  their  little  broth- 
ers should  not  be  repressed  unless  carried  to  great 
excess.  A  little  girl  with  the  steady  and  sober  man- 
ners of  an  old  person,  while  often  pointed  out  as  a 
model  of  decorum,  is  really  a  monstrosity.  Such  a 
girl  lacks  something  in  her  mental  or  moral  composi- 
tion, and  will  be  likely  to  be  still  more  lacking  in  the 
physical  endurance  requisite  to  meet  the  emergencies 
of  mature  womanhood,  which  can  only  be  secured  by 
proper  development  of  the  physical  organism  in  child- 
hood and  early  youth. 

Girls  as  well  as  boys  should  be  early  taught  to  be 


useful.  In  many  kinds  of  work  they  may  find  the 
most  healthful  of  all  kinds  of  exercise.  The  various 
movements  required  in  the  process  of  "  putting  a 
room  in  order,"  clearing  off  the  table,  washing  or  wip- 
ing dishes,  running  errands,  replenishing  the  fire,  and 
in  various  other  household  duties,  afford  almost  as 
good  an  opportunity  for  the  exercise  and  develop- 
ment of  muscles  as  the  most  complicated  maneuvers 
of  systematic  calisthenics  in  a  gymnasium.  For  girls 
who  do  not  have  an  opportunity  to  engage  in  light 
household  .  duties,  gymnastic  exercises  of  various 
sorts,  a  few  of  which  are  shown  on  Plate  XI,  are  ex- 
ceedingly useful,  and  should  be  employed  daily. 
Every  family  ought  to  have  its  gymnasium,  where  its 
little  ones  can  find  ample  opportunity  for  healthful 
exercise  in  all  weathers  and  at  all  seasons  of  the  year. 

Little  girls  should  be  early  taught  the  dignity  of 
work.  They  should  be  made  to  understand  that  their 
lives,  if  successful,  must  be  lives  of  usefulness. 
Nothing  can  be  more  damaging  to  the  mental  and 
moral  development  of  a  little  girl  than  the  common 
custom  of  making  her  a  household  pet.  We  do  not 
say  that  children  should  not  receive  kind  attentions 
from  older  persons,  and  be  made  to  see  that  they  are 
beloved  and  respected  by  their  superiors;  but  the 
common  habit  of  humoring  and  petting  children,  es- 
pecially little  girls,  is  in  the  highest  degree  detrimen- 
tal to  their  proper  development  and  usefulness  in  fut- 
ure life. 

Another  common  custom,  very  damaging  in  char- 
acter, is  that  of  "  coddling  "  little  children.  Very  care- 
ful mothers,  in   their   anxiety  for   their   daughters, 


frequently  keep  them  too  close  in-doors,  hovering 
about  the  fire,  or  pent  up  in  furnace-heated  rooms 
from  which  the  vivifying  air  of  heaven  and  the  re- 
viving sunshine  are  rigorously  excluded.  Such  chil- 
dren grow  up  like  sickly  plants  in  a  cellar  or  a  coal- 
mine. It  is  no  wonder  that  their  cheeks  are  pale, 
their  lips  bloodless,  their  eyes  lustreless  or  lighted  by 
an  unearthly  brightness,  and  their  constitutions  so 
weak  as  to  be  the  easy  prey  of  disease.  We  do  not 
advise  that  children  should  be  exposed  in  a  careless 
or  unreasonable  manner,  but  they  should  be  inured 
to  exposure  sufficiently  to  prevent  an  unnatural  sus- 
ceptibility to  injury  from  slight  changes.  The  man 
who  obliged  his  child  to  run  through  the  ice  and 
snow  of  winter  with  unprotected  feet,  carried  this 
idea  to  a  very  great  extreme ;  but  the  danger  to  the 
lives  and  health  of  children  through  such  extreme 
and  cruel  treatment  is  by  no  means  so  great  as  that 
incurred  by  the  mode  of  treatment  to  which  children 
are  often  subjected  by  their  over-anxious  mothers. 

Rest  and  Sleep. — Children  require  much  more 
sleep  than  older  people.  An  infant  does  little  more 
during  the  first  weeks  of  its  existence  than  to  eat  and 
sleep.  This  is  very  natural,  since  the  greater  part  of 
the  process  of  growth  and  repair  takes  place  during 
the  hours  of  sleep.  During  the  waking  hours  the 
vital  functions  are  occupied  in  the  expenditure  of  en- 
ergy through  the  activity  of  the  muscular  and  nerv- 
ous systems ;  but  during  sleep,  these  activities  cease, 
and  processes  of  growth  and  repair  are  carried  on 
with  great  vigor.  This  is  true  to  some  extent  with 
plants  as  well  as  animals.     During  the  day,  the  plant 


is  occupied  with  receiving  food  and  elaborating  it  into 
nutritive  materials  by  which  its  sap  is  enriched,  and 
during  the  night  the  new  material  received  through 
the  day  is  organized  into  cells  and  formed  into  the 
tissues  of  the  growing  plant.  It  is  of  great  impor- 
tance then  that  children  should  be  allowed  ample  time 
for  sleep.  For  a  child  eight  or  ten  years  of  age,  ten 
hours  of  sleep  is  none  too  much.  Children  should  be 
taught  to  go  early  to  bed  and  should  not  be  awakened 
in  the  morning  so  long  as  they  are  sleeping  soundly, 
but  a  child  should  never  be  allowed  to  lie  long  in  bed 
after  waking. 

Great  care  should  be  taken  that  the  children's 
conditions  during  sleep  shall  be  such  as  are  conducive 
to  health.  The  sleeping  room  should  be  well  ven- 
tilated. The  vital  activities  of  children  are  very 
great,  and  they  throw  off  from  their  bodies  in  a  given 
time  a  much  larger  proportion  of  organic  impurities 
than  do  older  persons.  Hence,  the  same  provision 
for  a  supply  of  fresh  air  should  be  made  for  a  child 
as  for  an  adult.  The  air  of  the  sleeping  apartment 
should  be  so  changed  that  it  cannot  acquire  the  pecul- 
iar fusty  odor  by  which  such  apartments  are  gener- 
ally characterized,  and  wrhich,  although  not  observa- 
ble to  the  inmates  while  occupying  them,  is  readily 
detected  by  a  person  coming  in  from  the  fresh  air 

Care  should  also  be  taken  that  children  are  warmly 
covered  at  night.  Violent  colds  are  frequently  con- 
tracted by  children  in  consequence  of  insufficient  cov- 
ering during  sleep.  The  sleep  of  children  is  so  sound 
that  the  little  one  will  not  be  awakened  by  a  degree 


of  cold  which  would  readily  awaken  an  older  person 
sleeping  less  soundly.  Changes  of  temperature  at 
night  often  result  seriously  to  a  child  which  may  have 
been  properly  covered  at  bed-time  but  is  not  protected 
from  the  greater  degree  of  cold  to  which  it  is  sub- 
jected during  a  subsequent  portion  of  the  night.  To 
provide  against  such  emergencies,  an  extra  cover 
should  always  be  provided  at  hand,  and  during  sea- 
sons of  the  year  when  sudden  changes  are  liable  to 
take  place  at  night,  young  children  should  be  looked 
after  at  least  once  during  the  night  to  see  that  they 
are  properly  covered.  Children  are  also  frequently 
restless  through  dreams,  usually  the  result  of  indiges- 
tion, late  suppers,  or  the  irritation  of  worms.  This 
also  necessitates  their  being  looked  after  during  the 
night  to  re-adjust  displaced  covering. 

Equal  care  should  be  exercised  to  avoid  covering 
the  child  too  warmly.  As  a  rule,  heavy  "  quilts " 
should  not  be  used  as  coverings  for  children,  and  in- 
deed it  would  be  better  to  avoid  their  use  as  bed- 
coverings  altogether.  Woolen  blankets  are  far  more 
healthful  since  they  furnish  an  equal  degree  of  warmth 
with  much  less  weight  than  the  old-fashioned  comfort- 

The  nature  of  the  material  on  which  the  child  lies, 
as  well  as  that  with  which  it  is  covered,  is  also  a  mat- 
ter of  importance.  We  advise  that  feathers  be  dis- 
carded altogether.  They  are  objectionable  on  many 
accounts.  Their  anitaal  origin  gives  them  in  a  high 
degree  the  property  of  absorption,  so  that  they  read- 
ily take  up  and  retain  the  exhalations  of  the  body  and 
whatever  impurities  may  be  brought  in  contact  with 


them.  It  is  true  that  feathers  may  be  renovated, 
but  this  process  is  seldom  resorted  to  more  than  once 
a  year,  and  frequently  the  feather-bed  passes  down  un- 
cleansed  from  generation  to  generation,  adding  yearly 
to  its  accumulation  of  impurities.  The  susceptible 
systems  of  children  may  be  readily  injured  by  con- 
tact with  this  source  of  impurities.  We  well  recollect 
when  a  child,  visiting  away  from  home,  having  been 
made  very  sick  upon  several  occasions  by  being  put 
to  bed  on  one  of  these  reservoirs  of  filth.  Feathers 
are  also  objectionable  on  account  of  their  heating 
property.  The  body  settles  into  the  yielding  mass 
in  such  a  way  as  to  be  half  buried  in  it.  Feathers 
are  very  poor  conductors  of  heat,  and  consequently 
a  child,  if  none  too  warm  when  first  put  to  bed,  by 
the  accumulation  of  heat  is  very  certain  to  become 
very  warm  after  an  hour  or  two.  Perspiration  being 
induced,  the  little  one  becomes  restless,  and  kicks  off 
the  covering,  exposing  itself  to  the  cold  air,  which 
suddenly  checks  perspiration,  thus  occasioning  a  se- 
vere cold. 

A  word  should  be  said  respecting  the  sleeping  of 
children  with  older  people.  We  have  fto  faith  in  the 
popular  notion  that  one  person  may  attract  vitality 
from  another  in  a  mysterious  way,  and  would  not  sug- 
gest that  children  may  be  injured  from  any  such 
cause.  We  have  no  idea  that  any  injury  whatever 
can  come  to  a  child  from  sleeping  with  a  healthy 
adult;  but  the  susceptible  constitutions  of  children 
may  be  injured  by  sleeping  with  an  invalid  or  an 
elderly  person  with  enfeebled  constitution,  through 
the  absorption  of  effete  materials  thrown  off  by  its 


invalid  or  aged  and  infirm  companion.  The  custom 
of  placing  a  child  between  two  adult  persons  is  one 
which  should  be  condemned.  A  child  so  circum- 
stanced is  often  in  the  highest  degree  uncomfortable. 
If  the  face  of  each  of  its  companions  happens  to  be 
turned  toward  it,  it  may  have  to  lie  for  hours  breath- 
ing air  grossly  contaminated  by  the  exhalations  of  fts 
bed-fellows.  Very  often,  also,  a  child  sleeping  with 
elder  persons  becomes  covered  with  the  bed-clothing 
in  such  a  way  that  it  breathes  over  and  over  the  air 
charged  with  the  products  of  its  own  respiration  and 
the  exhalations  of  its  companions.  Death  not  infre- 
quently results  in  this  way.  Sometimes,  also,  in  the 
case  of  small  infants,  death  has  resulted  by  the  little 
one  being  "overlaid"  by  one  of  its  parents,  most  fre- 
quently the  mother. 

We  also  object  to  children  of  the  opposite  sex 
sleeping  together,  at  least  after  the  very  earliest  years 
of  infancy  are  passed.  We  have  in  mind  examples 
where  children  of  both  sexes  have  been  injured  for 
life  by  promiscuous  sleeping.  It  is  very  seldom  that 
little  girls  are  allowed  to  sleep  with  older  brothers, 
but  the  contrary  arrangement  is  a  very  frequent 
custom,  and  should  be  condemned.  Children  who  are 
properly  brought  up  will  seldom  be  afraid  to  sleep 
alone.  The  infant  may  be  accustomed  to  sleeping  by 
itself  from  its  earliest  childhood,  and  if  it  is  never  in- 
jured by  frightful  stories  of  ghosts  and  hobgoblins,  it 
will  never  think  of  being  afraid  of  the  dark,  or  con- 
sider a  bed  companion  necessary. 

Diet — The  health  of  children  is  to  a  much  greater 
degree  dependent  upon  their  food  than  is  generally 

142  THE  LAMMS'   GUIDE. 

supposed.  The  popular  notion  seems  to  be  that  little 
ones  should  be  allowed  to  eat  what  they  crave  and 
whenever  they  please.  This  is  a  very  mischievous 
practice,  and  results  in  weakening  their  digestive  or- 
gans at  a  very  early  age.  Candies,  nuts,  sweet-meats, 
and  "  knick-knacks  "  generally,  are  exceedingly  harm- 
ful, and  should  never  be  allowed  children  at  any  age. 
Their  digestive  organs  are  not  as  strong  as  those  of 
older  persons,  and  will  not  bear  the  amount  of  abuse 
which  those  of  their  parents  endure  with  impunity. 

The  diet  of  children  should  be  simple  in  character. 
It  should  consist  chiefly  of  fruits  and  grains  with 
plenty  of  milk.  Eggs  should  be  sparingly  used  and 
meat  would  better  be  discarded  altogether.  Condi- 
ments, such  as  pepper,  vinegar,  pepper-sauce,  mustard, 
and  other  stimulating  articles  of  diet,  should  be  wholly 
interdicted.  The  use  of  tea  and  coffee  is  another 
practice  which  should  be  discountenanced  in  the 
young  as  well  as  in  older  persons.  The  use  of  stim- 
ulating articles  of  diet  not  only  weakens  the  digestive 
organs,  but  develops  those  parts  of  the  system  which 
would  better  be  restrained. 

Fine  flour  bread  is  another  article  of  diet  the  gen- 
eral use  of  which  has  been  in  the  highest  degree  det- 
rimental to  children  by  interfering  with  their  normal 
development.  Grain  from  which  the  coarse  parts 
have  been  removed  does  not  contain  the  requisite 
amount  of  bone  and  muscle  building  material.  Such 
food  is  fattening,  but  not  strengthening.  Graham 
bread,  cracked  wheat,  oatmeal,  and  other  whole-meal 
preparations,  are  in  the  highest  degree  wholesome, 
and  are  especially  adapted  to  the  wants  of  the  grow- 


ing  child.  The  taste  for  these  articles,  if  not  nat- 
urally possessed  by  the  child,  should  be  early  culti- 

A  child  brought  up  on  "  knick-knacks  "  is  never  a 
healthy  child.  The  large  use  of  sweets  is  sure. to  re- 
sult in  some  sort  of  dyspepsia  sooner  or  later.  Gau- 
dies should  be  discarded  altogether,  not  only  as 
furnishing  an  unnecessary  amount  of  saccharine  mate- 
rial, but  on  account  of  the  fact  that  they  contain  many 
injurious  articles  employed  for  flavoring  and  coloring 
purposes.  The  public  should  also  know  that  such  a 
thing  as  pure  candy,  that  is,  candy  made  from  genuine 
cane-sugar,  does  not  exist.  Candy  is  universally 
adulterated.  Glucose,  or  "  corn-sugar/'  is  almost  ex- 
clusivelv  used  in  the  manufacture  of  all  kinds  of 

The  habit  of  eating  fruits,  nuts,  sweet-meats,  etc., 
between  meals,  is  in  the  hightest  degree  pernicious 
and  detrimental  to  the  health  of  the  child.  When  it 
is  considered  how  universal  is  the  custom  of  allowing 
children  to  indulge  in  sweet-meats,  pastry,  and  tidbits 
of  every  description  without  restraint,  it  is  not  to  be 
wondered  at  that  infantile  dyspeptics  are  becoming 
exceedingly  common.  Great  regularity  in  meals 
should  be  observed  from  the  very  beginning  of  infant 
life.  After  the  first  month  of  infancy,  the  child 
should  be  strictly  confined  to  three  regular  meals  a 
day,  and  the  last  meal  should  not  be  taken  less. than 
two  and  one-half  hours  before  retiring.  The  child 
should  not  be  allowed  to  taste  a  mouthful  between 
meals.  The  habit  of  eating  between  meals  when 
early  acquired,  becomes  as  inveterate  and  difficult  to 


break  as  that  of  tobacco-using  or  liquor-drinking.  A 
short  time  ago,  we  heard  a  confirmed  dyspeptic  con- 
fess that  he  had  experienced  greater  difficulty  in 
breaking  off  the  habit  of  taking  sugar  between  meals 
than  in  discontinuing  the  use  of  tobacco,  although  he 
had  been  an  inveterate  user  of  the  weed  for  years. 

Regular  Habits. — A  variety  of  diseases  very 
grave  and  sometimes  incurable  in  character  arise  from 
the  habit  of  inattention  to  the  call  of  nature  to  re- 
lieve the  bowels  and  bladder.  The  habit  of  inatten- 
tion to  this  important  duty  to  the  body  is  often  formed 
in  early  childhood.  This  is  the  case  especially  with 
girls.  Mothers  ought  to  give  attention  to  this  matter 
and  instruct  their  daughters  respecting  the  impor- 
tance of  regularly  relieving  the  bowels  and  bladder  at 
certain  times  each  day.  The  call  of  nature  should 
never  be  resisted  or  delayed  a  moment  when  such 
delay  can  be  avoided.  The  inactive  condition  of  the 
bowels  and  the  irritable  state  of  the  bladder  which 
often  result  from  the  violation  of  this  simple  rule  of 
health  are  not  infrequently  the  means  of  inducing  ab- 
normal excitement  in  the  genital  organs  which  may 
result  in  the  formation  of  habits  most  deplorable  in 
their  character  and  consequences. 

Vicious  Habits. — Many  mothers  are  wholly  ig- 
norant of  the  almost  universal  prevalence  of  se- 
cret vice,  or  self-abuse,  among  the  young.  It  is  ex- 
ceedingly common  among  girls  as  well  as  boys.  The 
nature  of  this  vice  is  such  that  it  may  be  acquired 
and  continued  months  and  even  years,  possibly  dur- 
ing the  greater  part  of  a  life-time,  without  its.  exist- 
ence being  suspected  by  those  who  are  not  skilled 


in  its  detection.  We  have  met  scores  of  such  cases 
in  which  it  was  impossible  to  convince  the  doting 
mother  that  her  daughter  could  be  guilty  of  such  an 
offense,  although  the  marks  of  vice  were  too  plain  to 
be  mistaken.  A  careful  study  of  this  too  prevalent 
vice  and  a  wide  opportunity  for  observation  have  con- 
vinced us  that  this  is  one  of  the  great  causes  of  the 
large  increase  of  nervous  diseases  and  diseases  pecul- 
iar to  the  sex,  which  has  been  so  marked  among  wo- 
men during  the  last  half  century.  A  pungent  writer 
who  has  devoted  himself  almost  exclusively  to  the 
treatment  of  the  diseases  of  females,  asks  pertinently  : 
"  Why  hesitate  to  say  firmly  and  without  quibble  that 
personal  abuse  lies  at  the  root  of  much  of  the  feeble- 
ness, paleness,  nervousness,  and  good-for-nothingness 
of  the  entire  community?" 

Within  the  last  ten  years  we  have  examined  and 
treated  for  various  local  ailments  the  cases  of  sev- 
eral thousand  women  of  various  ages,  and  more  often 
than  we  have  dared  to  declare  have  we  found  convin- 
cing evidence  that  the  foundation  of  the  disease  from 
which  the  patient  was  suffering  had  been  laid  in  vi- 
cious habits  acquired  in  early  childhood. 

This  vice  is  not  confined  to  any  one  class  of  so- 
ciety ;  it  penetrates  all  classes.  Those  whose  social 
surroundings  have  been  such  that  they  would  be 
least  suspected,  are  frequently  found  to  be  among  its 
most  abject  victims.  Too  little  attention  has  been 
given  to  this  matter.  Certain  writers  have  taken  the 
position  that  the  prevalence  of  the  vice  has  been 
greatly  exaggerated  as  well  as  its  bad  effects,  which 
has   had  a  tendency  to  lull  to   sleep   parents   who 


might  otherwise  have  realized  the  dangers  with 
which  their  daughters  as  well  as  their  sons  were 

Mothers  place  their  daughters  in'  boarding  schools 
which  enjoy  a  good  reputation  as  successful  and  re- 
spectable schools,  and  imagine  that  they  are  safe ; 
when  their  associations  are  such  that  if  they  escape 
contamination  with  this  foul  vice  it  is  to  be  regarded 
as  almost  a  miracle.  It  is  not  to  be  supposed  that  all 
girls  are  corrupt,  or  that  most  of  those  who  are  the 
inmates  of  boarding  schools  are  so ;  but  it  is  scarcely 
possible  that  a  large  number  of  girls  can  be  brought 
together  without  including  at  least  a  few  who  have 
been  corrupted  by  this  evil  habit ;  and  one  or  two  of 
these  emissaries  of  evil  are  sufficient  to  contaminate 
any  number  of  others. 

Teachers  as  well  as  parents  ought  to  inform  them- 
selves on  this  subject  so  that  they  may  be  prepared 
to  rescue  those  who  may  have  become  enslaved,  and 
protect  those  whose  innocence  has  not  yet  been 

Effects  of  Solitary  Vice  in  Girls. — The  victim 
of  this  evil  habit  is  certain  to  suffer  sooner  or  later 
the  penalty  which  nature  invariably  inflicts  upon 
those  who  transgress  her  laws.  Every  law  of  nature 
is  enforced  by  an  inexorable  penalty.  This  is  em- 
phatically true  respecting  the  laws  which  relate  to 
the  sexual  organs.  The  infliction  of  the  penalty 
may  be  somewhat  delayed,  but  it  will  surely  come, 
sooner  or  later.  The  girl  who  begins  the  habit  in 
early  childhood  will  scarcely  escape  great  suffering 
from  some  form  of  sexual  disorder  as  she  approaches 


womanhood,  at  the  period  of  puberty,  and  her  suffer- 
ings will  not  end  here.  All  through  life  the  penalty 
of  unlawful  transgression  will  be  visited  upon  her. 
If  she  becomes  a  wife  and  mother,  the  perils  incident 
to  that  condition  will  be  vastly  increased. 

In  the  majority  of  cases,  the  effects  of  secret  vice 
soon  begin  to  manifest  themselves  in  a  Aariety  of 
ways  which  are  easily  recognized  by  the  experienced 
physician,  and  may  often  be  detected  by  others.  How 
often  have  we  seen  little  girls  who  at  the  age  of  five 
or  six  years  were  pictures  of  blooming  health,  with 
faces  indicative  of  purity  and  all  the  elements  which 
when  developed  contribute  to  the  formation  of  perfect 
womanhood, — how  often,  we  say,  have  we  seen  such 
lovely  little  ones  fading  away  under  the  influence  of 
some  terrible  blight  of  the  nature  of  which  their 
friends  were  wholly  ignorant.  From  month  to  month 
we  have  seen  the  roses  leave  their  cheeks,  the  lustre 
depart  from  their  eyes,  the  elasticity  from  their  step, 
the  glow  of  health  and  purity  from  their  faces,  while 
with  the  gradual  departure,  one  by  one,  of  their 
charms,  came,  instead,  the  convincing  evidences  of  the 
vicious  habit,  undermining  both  their  constitution  and 
their  character,  and  working  devastation  which  the 
lapse  of  long  years  could  not  efface.  The  mother 
often  notices  these  changes  in  her  daughter  with 
other  changes  which  we  might  mention,  and  wonders 
what  can  be  the  cause  for  such  remarkable  evidences 
of  deterioration.  Perhaps  it  is  attributed  to  some 
trivial  cause  which  has  had  little  or  no  influence  in 
effecting  the  change,  but  the  real  cause  is  usually 
overlooked.     As  a  rule,  mothers  will  not  believe  it 


possible  that  their  daughters  can  be  guilty  of  a 
vice  which  they  are  forced  to  believe  is  common 
enough  among  the  daughters  of  their  friends,  and 
often  cannoi  be  induced  to  institute  a  thorough-going 
investigation,  when  the  need  of  it  is  plainly  evident 
to  an  unbiased  observer. 

Wide  observation  has  convinced  us  that  a  great 
many  of  the  back-aches,  side-aches,  and  other  aches 
and  pains  of  which  girls  complain,  are  attributable  to 
this  injurious  habit.  Tenderness  of  the  spine,  giving 
rise  to  grave  fears  of  spinal  disease,  is  not  an  infre- 
quent result.  Much  of  the  nervousness,  hysteria, 
neuralgia,  and  general  worthlessness  of  the  girls  of 
the  rising  generation,  originates  in  this  cause  alone. 
The  pale  cheeks,  hollow  eyes,  expressionless  counte- 
nances, and  languid  air  of  many  school-girls,  which 
are  likely  to  be  attributed  to  overstudy,  are  due  to 
this  one  cause.  We  know  of  no  means  by  which  the 
vitality  can  be  so  quickly  lowered  and  the  very 
foundations  of  the  constitution  sapped, .  as  by  this. 
The  continuance  of  the  habit  for  only  a  few  years  is 
sufficient  to  lay  the  foundation  for  suffering  through 
the  whole  future  life. 

The  period  of  puberty  is  one  at  which  thousands 
of  girls  break  down  in  health.  One  great  cause  of 
this  alarming  decline  at  this  period  is  undoubtedly 
that  which  we  have  mentioned.  At  this  time  un- 
usual demands  are  made  on  the  system ;  and  the  con- 
stitution, already  weakened  by  a  debilitating,  debas- 
ing vice,  is  not  prepared  for  the  unusual  strain,  and 
the  poor  victim  drops  into  a  premature  grave.  In 
most  of  these  cases,  the  sudden  failure  is  attributed 


to  overwork,  overstudy,  a  slight  exposure,  or  some 
other  cause  by  no  means  sufficient  to  account  for 
the  observed  results. 

Signs  of  Self- Abuse  in  Girls. — Mothers  should 
always  be  on  the  alert  to  detect  the  first  evidences  of 
this  vice  in  their  daughters.  It  is  especially  impor- 
tant that  it  should  be  detected  at  the  start,  as  the 
habit  when  once  formed  so  completely  subjects  its 
victim  as  to  make  escape  well-nigh  impossible.  It 
fastens  its  fetters  so  firmly  that,  in  some  instances, 
nothing  but  almighty  power  seems  competent  to  loosen 
its  grasp.  It  is  by  no  means  easy  to  detect  the 
habit  in  those  who  are  addicted  to  it.  The  evidences 
may  be  such  as  to  convince  the  watchful  mother  or 
experienced  physicians,  but  it  will  be  necessary  in 
most  cases  to  obtain  undoubted  evidences  of  the  ex- 
istence of  the  habit  before  it  can  be  broken  up. 
Girls  will  almost  uniformly  deny  very  emphatically 
that  they  are  addicted  to  the  vice,  when  they  are 
truthful  on  every  other  subject.  We  have  found 
this  to  be  the  case  much  more  frequently  with  girls 
than  with  boys.  Hence,  it  requires  the  greatest 
care  and  watchfulness  in  most  cases  to  obtain  such 
evidence  of  the  vice  as  will  render  mistake  impossible. 
The  only  positive  evidence  is,  of  course,  detection  of 
the  child  in  the  act.  If  the  child  is  observed  to 
visit  some  secluded  spot  daily  or  more  or  less  fre- 
quently, or  to  be  much  alone,  avoiding  the  company 
of  other  girls  of  her  age,  her  actions  should  be  care- 
fully watched,  and  means  taken  to  detect  her  in  the 
act.  The  habit  is  often  pursued  at  night  after  retir- 
ing, or  in  the  morning  after  awakening,  before  getting 




up.  Not  infrequently  we  have  known  children  to  be 
pursuing  this  soul-and-body-destroying  vice  while 
their  parents  supposed  them  to  be  quietly  slumbering 
in  healthy  innocence.  Children  sometimes  feign 
sleep  to  afford  them  an  opportunity  to  practice  this 
vile  but  fascinating  indulgence.  A  suspected  child 
should  be  watched  under  all  circumstances  with  un- 
ceasing vigilance. 

It  is  not  enough  to  have  such  a  child  under  ob- 
servation in  a  general  way.  A  most  vigilant  surveil- 
lance must  be  kept  up  constantly,  and  during  the 
night  as  well  as  during  the  day.  No  dependence  can 
be  placed  upon  the  statements  made  by  the  victims 
of  this  vice,  for  the  moral  nature  soon  becomes  de- 
praved to  such  a  degree  that  conscience  is  easily  si- 

Aside  from  positive  evidence,  there  are  other 
signs  which  may  well  give  rise  to  suspicion  which 
may  lead  to  the  discovery  of  positive  evidence. 
These  may  be  enumerated  as  follows  : — 

1.  A  sudden,  marked  decline  in  health.  A  change 
of  this  kind  in  a  girl  who  has  previously  been  healthy 
and  has  been  subject  to  no  influences  adequate  to 
produce  such  a  change  may  well  be  regarded  with 
suspicion  and  should  be  closely  watched.  Mothers 
will  often  find  upon  a  careful  investigation  of  such 
cases  a  depth  of  depravity  for  which  they  are  Avholly 

2.  A  marked  change  in  disposition  is  frequently 
the  result  of  this  same  cause.  When  a  girl  who  has 
formerly  been  truthful,  happy,  obliging,  gentle,  and 
confiding,   becomes   within  a   short  period   of  time 


peevish,  irritable,  morose,  disobedient,  and  restrained 
in  her  manner,  it  is  evident  that  she  is  under  the  in- 
fluence of  some  foul  blight,  and  the  one  which  we 
have  described  is  the  one  of  all  others  the  most  fre- 
quent. Such  a  change  in  disposition  should  arouse 
the  mother's  most  earnest  solicitude  and  lead  to  a 
thorough   investigation   of  the   habits   of  the  child. 

3.  Loss  of  memory  and  of  the  love  for  study  is  a 
very  frequent  result  of  this  enervating  habit.  The 
nervous  forces  are  weakened  and  the  Adtality  lowered 
to  such  a  degree  that  the  natural  energy  and  vivacity 
are  destroyed,  giving  place  to  mental  weakness  and 

4.  Unnatural  boldness  in  a  little  girl  who  has 
previously  been  retiring  and  reserved,  if  not  bashful, 
is  evidence  of  some  deep-seated  cause  which  affects 
the  character,  and  is  just  ground  for  the  suspicion  of 
secret  vice. 

5.  A  forward  or  loose  manner  in  company  with 
little  boys  is  suspicious  conduct,  especially  in  one 
who  has  previously  shown  no  disposition  of  this  sort. 
Girls  addicted  to  this  habit  usually  show  an  unnatural 
fondness  for  the  society  of  little  boys,  and  not  infre- 
quently are  guilty  of  the  most  wanton  conduct. 

6.  Languor  and  lassitude  appearing  in  a  little  girl 
who  has  previously  possessed  a  marked  degree  of 
activity  and  energy,  should  give  rise  to  earnest  solici- 
tude on  the  part  of  the  mother  for  the  physical  and 
moral  condition  of  her  child. 

7.  An  unnatural  appetite  is  another  indication  of 
the  existence  of  this  habit.  This  peculiarity  is 
manifested  in  a  great  variety  of  ways.     Sometimes 


children  will  show  an  excessive  fondness  for  mus- 
tard, pepper,  vinegar,  spices,  and  other  stimulat- 
ing condiments.  Little  girls  who  are  very  fond  of 
cloves  and  desire  to  be  always  eating  them  are  likely 
to  be  depraved  in  other  respects.  Such  girls  are  also 
often  very  fond  of  eating  clay,  slate,  chalk,  charcoal, 
and  other  indigestible  substances.  We  have  met 
persons  who  were  in  the  habit  of  eating  large  quanti- 
ties of  these  articles  daily. 

8.  The  presence  of  leucorrhoea  in  a  young  girl,  ac- 
companied by  a  relaxed  condition  of  the  vagina,  is 
presumptive  evidence  of  the  existence  of  this  vice,  if 
there  is  no  other  cause  to  which  this  unnatural  con- 
dition can  be  attributed.  We  have  met  girls  who 
had  scarcely  entered  their  teens  in  whom  the  relaxa- 
tion was  almost  as  great  as  if  they  had  been  the 
mothers  of  children.  This  condition  very  readily  re- 
sults from  the  practice  of  self-abuse,  which  occasions 
a  frequently  recurring  congestion  of  the  parts,  to- 
gether with  the  mechanical  irritation  accompanying 
the  habit. 

9.  Ulceration  about  the  roots  of  the  nails,  espe- 
cially affecting  one  or  both  of  the  first  two  fingers  of 
the  hand,  usually  the  right  hand,  is  an  evidence  of 
the  habit  which  depends  upon  the  one  just  mentioned* 
the  irritation  of  the  fingers  being  occasioned  by  the 
acrid  vaginal  discharge. 

10.  Biting  the  finger-nails  is  a  habit,  which,  when 
very  marked,  may  be  regarded  with  some  degree  of 
suspicion.  The  irritation  of  the  fingers  which  gives 
rise  to  the  habit,  growing  out  of  the  irritable  condi- 
tion of  the  nails  described  in  the  preceding  paragraph. 


11.  The  expression  of  the  eyes  often  betrays  to 
the  careful  observer  the  existence  of  this  deteriorat- 
ing vice.  The  blank,  dull,  lustreless,  expressionless 
eye  sui*rounded  by  a  dark  ring,  habitually  given  to 
staring  into  vacancy,  frequently  tells  the  tale  of  sin 
which  its  possessor  vainly  imagines  to  be  unknown  to 
any  but  herself. 

12.  Palpitation  of  the  heart,  hysteria,  nervous- 
ness, St.  Vitus*  dance,  epilepsy,  and  other  marked 
nervous  symptoms  occurring  in  children  who  have 
been  previously  healthy  and  have  been  subject  to  no 
other  causes  adequate  to  produce  such  results,  are 
good  grounds  for  suspicion.  Incontinence  of  urine, 
giving  rise  to  wetting  the  bed,  is  a  common  result  of 
masturbation,  and  when  present  calls  for  careful  inves- 
tigation of  the  habits  of  the  child. 

It  should  be  remarked  that  none  of  the  above- 
mentioned  suspicious  signs  when  taken  alone  is  suffi- 
cient evidence  to  warrant  the  conviction  of  a  girl  of 
this  soul-destroying  vice,  but  several  taken  together 
may  form  a  chain  of  evidence  sufficiently  strong  to  be 
considered  positive. 

Evil  Associations. — It  is  well  that  mothers 
should  thoroughly  inform  themselves  respecting  the 
various  channels  through  which  their  daughters  may 
become  contaminated.  The  majority  of  mothers  are 
either  sadly  ignorant  of  the  dangers  to  which  their 
daughters  are  exposed,  or  are  asleep  with  reference  to 
them.  We  earnestly  desire  to  say  something  that 
will  arouse  mothers  from  their  apathy  respecting  the 
dangers  that  their  daughters  are  subject  to  almost 
from  early  infancy. 


That "  evil  communications  corrupt  good  manners" 
is  as  true  at  the  present  day  as  when  the  words  were 
penned  by  the  inspired  writer.  The  vice  to  which 
we  have  called  attention  is  almost  always  acquired 
through  the  influence  of  evil  associations.  On  this 
account,  mothers  should  be  exceedingly  careful  of  the 
associations  of  their  daughters.  Little  girls  should 
never  be  allowed  to  go  away  to  spend  the  night  or  to 
sleep  with  other  girls,  either  of  their  own  age  or  much 
older,  whose  characters  are  not  known  to  be  above 
suspicion.  Many  times  persons  who  would  not  be 
suspected  of  such  a  crime,  are  in  fact  not  only  guilty 
of  the  vice  themselves,  but  ready  to  lead  others  to 
the  same  degradation.  Servant-girls  often  teach  the 
habit  to  young  children  as  a  means  of  quieting  them. 
Girls  not  infrequently  learn  the  habit  in  school. 
There  is  probably  not  a  public  school  in  the  land 
where  there  are  not  one  or  more  instructors  in  this 
debasing  vice.  Sometimes  vile  boys,  taking  advan- 
tage of  the  unsuspecting  innocence  and  simplicity  of 
girls  of  tender  years,  give  them  their  first  lessons  in 
this  most  degrading  vice. 

In  a  case  which  came  under  our  observation  a  few 
years  ago  a  little  girl,  naturally  bright  and  unusually 
attractive  and  intelligent,  had  become  the  victim  of 
this  soul-and-body-destroying  habit,  which  had  brought 
on  a  serious  nervous  disease  that  threatened  to  de- 
stroy both  body  and  mind  before  she  had  reached 
the  age  of  ten  years.  Her  first  instruction  was  re- 
ceived from  a  hoary-headed  fiend  in  human  shape  who 
had  enticed  her  to  a  secluded  place,  and  there  intro- 
duced her  to  all  the  nastiness  which  his  depraved  and 


sensual  nature  could  devise.  That  a  mature  human 
being  could  ever  descend  to  such  immeasurable  depths 
of  infamy  as  this,  is  almost  beyond  belief;  yet  the 
facts  are  too  well  attested  to  be  doubted. 

Mothers  cannot  be  too  careful  of  the  associations 
of  their  little  daughters.  Often  those  who  would  be 
least  suspected  of  such  wickedness  are  the  agents  of 
sin  who  will  instruct  their  innocent  little  ones  in  this 
debasing  habit.  Trust  no  one  not  known  to  be  pure. 
Keep  your  little  girls  under  your  own  roof  until  you 
are  sure  that  their  characters  are  sufficiently  well- 
formed  to  resist  the  encroachments  of  evil.  Build 
up  bulwarks  against  vice  by  developing  the  pure  and 
the  good  in  their  dispositions  and  repressing  evil  ten- 
dencies. The  first  impure  thought  instilled  into  a 
child's  mind  is  usually  the  source  of  all  the  subse- 
quent ruin.  A  prurient  curiosity  is  excited  which 
craves  satisfaction,  and  will  not  rest  until  the  de- 
sired information  is  obtained.  Thus  the  evil  seed 
germinates  and  develops,  and  in  due  time,  under  ordi- 
nary circumstances,  brings  forth  an  abundant  crop  of 
impure  ideas  Avhich  fill  the  mind  and  result  in  impure 
acts.  A  child  whose  mind  has  been  contaminated  by 
evil  communications  may  be  rescued,  but  cannot  be 
restored  to  the  innocence  which  when  once  lost  is 
gone  forever.  A  scar  will  always  remain  which  can- 
not be  effaced.  Our  observation  has  been  that  the 
cases  of  vicious  depravity  in  young  women  are  almost 
exclusively  confined  to  those  whose  minds  have  been 
corrupted  in  early  childhood,  so  that  their  evil  ten- 
dencies have  grown  and  strengthened  with  their 
years.     This  fact  accounts  for  the  great  difficulty  of 


reforming  young  women  who  have  once  fully  entered 
upon  a  life  of  shame. 

Bad  Books. — By  bad  books  we  do  not  mean  those 
included  under  the  head  of  obscene  literature.  The 
active  efforts  of  Mr.  Anthony  Comstock  for  several 
years  past  have  resulted  in  the  suppression  of  the 
greater  part  if  not  the  whole  of  this  class  of  literature, 
but  we  refer  to  a  class  of  books  not  generally  recog- 
nized as  so  very  bad  in  character.  Mr.  Comstock 
has  only  succeeded  in  suppressing  the  publication  of 
those  works  which  are  ostensibly  vile  in  character 
and  vicious  in  purpose.  In  this  he  has  done  a  most 
excellent  work,  and  his  labors  have  undoubtedly 
resulted  in  saving  thousands  of  young  men  and  women 
from  ruin ;  but  there  is  a  large  and  growing  class  of 
literature  which  his  efforts  do  not  and  cannot  reach. 
We  refer  to  books  written  by  men  and  women  whose 
sole  object  is  gain,  and  who  do  not  hesitate  to 
introduce  in  one  way  or  another  ideas  which  tend  in 
exactly  the  same  direction  as  the  class  of  books 
which  are  pronounced  illegal,  and  are  suppressed 
Avherever  found  by  authorized  agents  of  the  govern- 
ment. Often  these  prurient,  sensual  ideas  are  pre- 
sented in  the  most  refined  and  elegant  language,  and 
interwoven  with  other  thoughts  which  may  be  in 
themselves  elevating,  in  such  a  manner  that  the 
intent  of  the  writer  may  be  wholly  disguised  to 
many  persons,  and  the  real  character  of  the  book  not 
discoverable  without  the  most  careful  scrutiny,  by  a 
person  whose  taste  is  unvitiated  by  familiarity  with 
vice,  and  whose  intuitions  are  in  harmony  with  what 
is  pure  and  ennobling  in  character. 


It  is  not  always  the  direct  object  of  these  writers 
to  corrupt  the  morals  of  their  readers.  They  recog- 
nize the  fact,  however,  that  a  very  large  class  of  read- 
ers have  an  intense  relish  for  works  which  give  here 
and  there  hints  of  dark  intrigues,  illicit  amours,  and 
other  manifestations  of  sensuality,  and  introduce  this 
class  of  ideas  as  a  sort  of  spice  by  which  to  render 
their  productions  palatable  to  the  depraved  taste  of  a 
large  proportion  of  the  novel-reading  public  of  the 
present  day.  Never  was  there  a  time  when  books 
were  so  plentiful  or  cheap  as  now.  The  competition 
of  great  publishing  houses  has  brought  books  of  every 
sort  within  the  reach  of  persons  of  all  classes,  and  a 
dime  to-day  will  buy  more  reading-matter  than  a  dol- 
lar half  a  century  ago. 

Within  a  generation,  a  special  class  of  literature 
has  sprung  up  known  by  the  general  term  of  "  Sun- 
day-school books."  The  supposed  characteristics  of 
these  books  are  wholesome  thought,  freedom  from  im- 
moral tendencies,  and  the  inculcation  of  pure  and  ele- 
vating principles.  Unfortunately,  many  books  even 
of  this  class  are,  from  our  stand-point,  wholly  unsuit- 
able to  be  read  by  young  girls,  if  indeed  they  are 
suitable  to  be  read  by  anybody.  The  fact  that  a 
book  is  a  "  Sunday-school "  book  should  not  be  suffi- 
cient recommendation  to  a  mother  who  desires  to  pre- 
serve the  simple-hearted  purity  of  her  daughter. 
Every  mother  should  scrutinize  writh  the  greatest  care 
the  reading  matter  supplied  to  her  daughter  at  Sunday- 
school  or  day-school,  from  the  town  library,  circulating 
libraries,  or  libraries  of  friends.  From  whatever 
source  a  book  or  paper  or  magazine  comes,  it  should 


be  carefully  examined  before  being  placed  in  the 
hands  of  a  little  girl  old  enough  to  read  and  compre- 
hend its  meaning.  We  once  took  from  the  hands  of 
a  little  girl  a  book  over  which  she  had  been  poring 
for  hours,  ancf  found  on  the  open  page  sentiments 
which  made  our  cheeks  tingle  with  shame  that  au- 
thors could  be  so  lost  to  the  interests  of  purity  and 
virtue  and  so  reckless  of  results  as  to  pen  such  senti- 
ments as  wo  found  expressed  so  plainly  that  even  a 
young  and  unsophisticated  school-girl  could  not  fail 
to  comprehend  the  import  of  the  language. 

In  our  opinion,  sentimental  literature,  whether  im- 
pure in  its  subject  matter  or  not,  has  a  direct  ten- 
dency in  the  direction  of  impurity.  The  stimulation 
of  the  emotional  nature,  the  instilling  of  sentimental 
ideas  into  the  Blinds  of  young  girls,  has  a  tendency 
to  develop  the  passions  prematurely,  and  to  turn  the 
thoughts  into  a  channel  which  leads  in  the  direction 
of  the    formation   of  vicious   habits. 

Various  Causes  of  Vice. — Among  other  causes 
which  operate  to  produce  a  tendency  to  the  vice  un- 
der consideration  in  the  early  years  of  girlhood,  may 
be  mentioned  had  diet.  The  use  of  mustard,  pepper- 
sauC6j  pepper,  vinegar,  spices,  and  highly  seasoned 
and  stimulating  dishes  and  articles  of  diet  of  every 
description,  has  a  marked  tendency  to  the  produc- 
tion of  an  abnormal  development  of  the  passions, 
sometimes  undoubtedly  stimulating  the  sexual  organs 
to  such  a  degree  as  to  occasion  a  spontaneous  forma- 
tion of  the  habit.  We  have  known  instances  in 
which  this  1ms  been  the  case,  the  habit  being  ac- 
quired accidentally,  without  the  aid  of  an  instructor. 


Sometimes  this  abnormal  condition  of  the  genitals  is 
produced  by  local  disease,  causing  an  irritable  or  itch- 
ing condition  by  which  the  child's  attention  is  called 
to  this  part  of  the  body  in  such  a  way  as  to  lead  to 
the  discovery  of  the  awful  secret.  Intestinal  worms, 
a  constipated  condition  of  the  bowels,  certain  forms 
of  skin  disease  affecting  the  parts,  are  all  causes 
which  may  result  in  the  accidental  formation  of  the 
habit  of  self-abuse. 

Another  cause  which  we  shall  mention,  one  which 
we  believe  has  been  generally  overlooked,  is  the 
improper  dressing  of  infants.  It  is  a  custom  with 
most  mothers  and  nurses  during  the  early  years  of 
infancy  to  envelop  that  portion  of  the  body  of  the  in- 
fant in  which  the  genitals  are  located,  in  many  folds 
of  diapers  for  the  purpose  of  avoiding  the  necessity 
for  frequent  change.  Sometimes  this  thick  mass  of 
material  is  still  further  augmented  by  a  covering  of 
oiled  silk  or  rubber.  The  effect  of  this  practice  is  to 
retain  the  moisture  of  the  excretions  in  contact  with 
this  delicate  portion  of  the  system,  which,  with  the 
heat  accumulated  from  the  body,  acts  like  a  poultice, 
stimulating  and  irritating  the  nerves  of  the  parts,  and 
thus  inducing  an  abnormally  sensitive  and  excitable 
condition.  We  have  no  doubt  but  that  this  unwhole- 
some practice  on  the  part  of  mothers  is  a  very  great 
cause  not  only  of  the  early  formation  of  the  destructive 
vice,  but  also  of  serious  disease  in  future  life. 
Mothers  should  wisely  consider  this  matter  before 
allowing  themselves  to  subject  their  little  ones  to 
such  an  unwholesome  practice,  and  one  which  would 
seem  to  be  directly  contrarj^to  the  dictates  of  com- 


mon  sense  respecting  the  requirements  of  cleanliness. 
The  diaper  should  consist  of  as  few  folds  as  possible, 
and  should  never  be  covered  by  anything  impervious 
to  air.  The  child's  clothing  should  be  changed  as  often 
as  necessary,  which  is  as  often  as  it  is  soiled,  or 
as  soon  as  possible  after. 

Silly  letter  writing  in  which  little  boys  and  girls 
at  school  often  indulge,  should  never  be  encouraged 
nor  tolerated  by  parents.  We  have  known  of  several 
instances  in  which  the  minds  of  pure  girls  became 
contaminated  through  this  channel.  A  few  years 
ago,  a  letter  was  intercepted  from  a  little  boy  to  a 
little  girl  and  brought  to  our  notice.  Both  the 
writer  and  the  intended  receiver  of  the  letter  were 
wholly  unsuspected  of  any  evil  tendency,  and  had 
been  on  intimate  terms  for  a  long  time.  Notwith- 
standing this  fact,  the  letter  contained  language  in 
the  highest  degree  vulgar  and  impure,  and  displayed 
a  depth  of  depravity,  on  the  part  of  the  sender  at 
least,  which  was  most  astounding.  Mothers  should 
scrutinize  carefully  the  conduct  of  their  daughters  in 
their  associations  with  the  opposite  sex,  checking 
promptly  any  tendency  to  undue  familiarity,  and  pro- 
hibiting utterly  associations  the  tendency  of  which  is 
manifestly  bad.  Eternal  vigilence  is  the  price  of  pu- 
rity, and  at  no  time  in  the  development  of  the  girl  is 
it  of  more  importance  than  between  the  ages  of  six 
and  ten  or  twelve  years. 

A  Few  Sad  Examples. — To  illustrate  the  facts  to 
which  we  have  called  attention,  we  will  cite  a  few 
out  of  the  hundreds  of  cases  which  have  come  under 
our  care,  taking  pains  to  withhold  names,  and  in  some 


cases  slightly  modifying  some  of  the  unimportant  de- 
tails so  as  to  make  impossible  the  identification  of  the 
individuals  referred  to.  We  do  this  merely  for  the 
purpose  of  impressing  on  the  minds  of  mothers  the 
importance  of  this  subject  and  the  reality  of  the  facts 
to  which  we  have  called  attention.  Many  times  wre 
have  received  evidence  for  believing  that  the  average 
mother  is  quite  too  incredulous  respecting  the  extent 
and  enormity  of  this  evil.  It  is  only  in  the  hope 
that  we  may  say  something  to  arouse  such  mothers 
to  a  sense  of  the  dangers  to  which  their  little  daugh- 
ters may  be  exposed  or  the  condition  in  which  they 
may  be  already,  that  we  venture  to  pen  these  chap- 
ters in  the  life  history  of  a  few  of  those  who  have 
come  under  our  immediate  care  for  the  treatment  of 
the  terrible  results  of  an  evil  which  we  have  at- 
tempted to  portray  in  its  true  colors. 

A  Remarkable  Case. — Some  years  ago,  a  little 
girl  came  under  our  care  for  the  treatment  of  a  very 
curious  nervous  difficulty,  which  had  baffled  the  skill 
of  numerous  physicians  wTho  had  been  invited  to 
examine  the  case.  The  little  girl  was  naturally 
bright,  attractive,  and  intelligent,  and  excited  the 
sympathy  of  all  who  witnessed  the  strange  and 
inexplicable  manifestations  of  her  disease.  Her  doting 
parents  had  spared  no  means  which  might  conduce  to 
her  recovery,  and  wThich  could  be  secured  by  the 
employment  of  the  best  medical  skill  and  the  lavish 
expenditure  of  money,  but  she  was  no  better.  The 
painful  and  distressing  malady  which  had  fastened 
itself  upon  her  and  threatened  to  destroy  her  mentally 
as  well  as  physically,  held  her  firmly  in  its  grasp. 


At  any  moment  of  the  day  or  night  she  was  liable  to 
be  seized  with  paroxysms  most  distressing  to  behold. 
We  at  once  suspected  the  real  nature  of  the  difficulty, 
but  the  most  careful  investigation  failed  to  reveal  any 
tangible  evidence  to  sustain  our  suspicions,  except 
what  we  could  draw  from  our  knowledge  of  the  nature 
of  the  case.  The  mother  felt  almost  indignant  that 
her  lovely  daughter  should  be  suspected  of  such  a 
horrible  vice.  Every  measure  of  treatment  was 
wholly  unsuccessful  or  only  temporary  in  its  effects. 
At  last  the  discovery  was  accidentally  made  that  the 
girl  had  for  years  been  addicted  to  a  curious  habit 
which  had  been  considered  as  simply  a  strange  no- 
tion and  had  not  aroused  the  least  suspicion  as  being 
in  any  way  connected  with  the  vicious  habit  under 
consideration.  Feeling  thoroughly  convinced  now  of 
her  guilt,  we  did  not  hesitate  t©  insist  upon  the 
child's  being  placed  under  such  circumstances  as  to 
make  the  practice  of  the  habit  impossible.  For  some 
time  this  was  not  effected  satisfactorily,  but  ulti- 
mately the  desired  end  was  accomplished,  and  a  good 
recovery  was  secured. 

How  to  Cure  Vicious  Habits. — The  habit  of  self- 
pollution  is  one  which  when  thoroughly  established,  is 
by  no  means  easily  broken.  The  victim  of  this  most 
terrible  vice  is  held  in  the  most  abject  slavery,  the 
iron  fetters  of  habit  daily  closing  the  prisoner  more 
and  more  tightly  in  their  grasp.  When  the  mother 
makes  for  the  first  time  the  discovery  that  her  little 
daughter  is  a  victim  to  this  polluting  habit,  it  usually 
seems  to  her  that  all  the  case  will  require  is  a  careful 
explanation  of  its  sinfulness  and  a  vivid  portrayal  of 
the  consequences ;  but  in  the  majority  of  cases  they 


soon  learn  that  this  is  not  enough.  The  effect  of  this 
kind  of  transgression  is  to  weaken  the  moral  sense 
perhaps  more  rapidly  than  any  other  vice.  The  vic- 
tim gradually  grows  weaker  and  weaker  in  will-power, 
and  the  conscience  becomes  less  and  less  sensitive, 
until  there  is  very  little  left  in  the  character  of  the 
child  to  which  an  appeal  can  be  made  or  by  which  an 
effort  to  reform  can  be  supported. 

Scores  01  times  have  we  received  from  anxious 
mothers  the  inquiry,  •"  How  can  I  rescue  my  daughter 
from  this  terrible  habit?"  As  before  remarked,  the 
task  is  not  an  easy  one.  Notwithstanding  the  fact 
that  the  effort  may  be  wholly  ineffectual,  the  mother 
should  first  carefully  set  before  the  child  the  exceed- 
ing sinfulness  of  the  habit,  its  loathsomeness  and  vile- 
ness,  and  the  horrible  consequences  which  follow  in 
its  wake.  As  powerful  an  impression  as  possible 
should  be  made  at  the  first  interview.  In  some  in- 
stances, this  will  be  all  that  is  required,  but  in  the 
majority  of  cases  the  evil  is  not  so  easily  mastered. 
After  receiving  the  proper  instruction,  the  child 
should  be  carefully  watched.  The  little  girl  should 
be  placed  in  the  care  of  some  trustworthy,  judicious 
person  whose  duty  should  be  to  keep  her  under  con- 
slant  observation  every  moment  of  her  waking  hours. 
Some  simple  employment  or  congenial  amusement 
should  be  afforded  by  which  her  time  may  be  wholly 
occupied,  and  a  sufficient  degree  of  active  exercise 
should  be  secured  to  render  the  child  by  evening 
thoroughly  tired  muscularly  and  nervously,  so  that 
sleep  will  be  natural  and  grateful,  and  the  child 
will  have   no   disposition  to*  lie  awake  after  going 


to  bed.  Care  should  be  taken  that  the  child  does  not 
feign  sleep  for  the  purpose  of  gaining  an  opportunity 
to  avoid  observation.  This  we  have  known  to  be 
done  very  frequently  by  those  who  were  determined 
to  continue  the  habit  in  spite  of  the  instruction 
and  warnings  given  them.  Immediately  upon  wak- 
ing in  the  morning,  the  child  should  be  taken  out 
of  bed  and  dressed,  and  should  be  employed  from 
that  moment  until  the  time  of  retiring  at  night.  In 
case  there  is  any  disease  of  the-  bladder  or  rectum, 
or  of  any  other  portion  of  the  body  immediately 
associated  with  the  genital  apparatus,  this  matter 
should  receive  attention  from  a  competent  physician, 
so  that  whatever  influence  it  may  exert  as  a  cause  of 
the  habit  may  be  removed. 

Children  suffering  with  incontinence  of  urine 
should  be  made  to  empty  the  bladder  frequently,  as 
the  nervous  condition  which  results  from  over-disten- 
sion, or  its  irritable  condition,  often  produces  an  un- 
easy condition  of  the  genitals  which  may  not  only 
lead  to  the  formation  of  the  habit,  but  will  present  a 
great  obstacle  in  the  way  of  its  cure. 

Care  should  also  be  taken  to  see  that  the  bowels 
are  properly  evacuated.  Constipation  of  the  bowels 
is  often  a  cause  of  sexual  excitement  which  cannot 
be  easily  controlled  so  long  as  the  physical  condition 
is  such  as  to  antagonize  the  effort  of  the  will  in  the 
direction  of  reform. 

Itching  of  the  genitals  is  another  physical  condi- 
tion which  should  receive  attention,  medical  aid  being 
called  unless  careful  regard  for  cleanliness  suffices  to 
secure  relief. 


In  obstinate  cases,  very  severe  means  must  be 
sometimes  adopted.  We  were  once  obliged  after 
every  other  measure  had  failed,  to  perform  a  surgical 
operation  before  we  were  able  to  break  the  habit  in 
the  case  of  a  young  girl  of  eight  or  ten  years  who 
had  become  addicted  to  the  vice  to  a  most  extraordin- 
ary degree. 

As  a  rule,  it  is  much  more  difficult  to  cure  this 
soul-destroying  vice  in  girls  than  in  boys.  They  are 
seldom  as  ready  to  confess  their  guilt  as  are  boys, 
and  then  are  less  easily  influenced  by  a  portrayal  of 
its  terrible  consequences,  so  that  moral  means  have 
less  influence  with  them  than  with  boys.  The  most 
sleepless  vigilance  must  be  coupled  with  the  most 
persevering  patience  to  rescue  one  of  the  unfortunate 
victims  from  the  physical,  mental,  and  moral  ruin 
which  are  certain  to  result  from  a  continuation  of  this 
terrible  vice. 

Reform  is  not  impossible,  however,  for  any  one 
who  really  desires  to  reform ;  but  the  work  of  refor- 
mation must  begin  with  the  mind.  The  impure 
thoughts  and  images  which  have  been  harbored  must 
be  banished.  The  mind  must  be  cleansed  from  every 
taint  of  evil.  This  is  a  task  which  requires  no  little 
patience,  and  in  many  cases,  more  than  human 
strength.  In  seeking  to  reform  such  an  one,  point 
her  to  the  Source  of  all  strength,  encourage  her  to 
believe  that  there  is  One  who  knows  the  weaknesses 
of  human  nature,  and  while  He  abhors  sin  and  vile- 
ness,  loves  the  sinner  and  is  ready  and  anxious  to 
aid  her  to  release  herself  from  the  toils  of  vice.  Re- 
ligion offers  aid  to  these  victims  of  sin  for   which 



there  is  no  substitute;  and  with  the  majority  of 
those  who  have  become  fully  ensnared,  success  can- 
not be  attained  except  through  earnest  prayer  for 
divine  aid.  By  the  aid  of  an  earnest  purpose  to  re- 
form, and  a  determination  to  become  again  pure  and 
free  from  the  foul  taint  of  vice,  and  by  a  humble, 
prayerful  life  of  trust  in  divine  strength,  the  most 
hapless  sinner  may  find  pardon,  peace,  and  purity. 

A  Few  Words  to  Girls. — Who  does  not  admire 
the  sweet  purity  of  the  lily,  the  delicate  loveliness  of 
the  rose,  the  natural  beauty  and  grandeur  of  a  land- 
scape, or  the  golden  tinting  of  an  autumn  sunset?  No 
work  of  art,  however  marvelous  its  ingenuity,  or 
wonderful  its  symmetry,  can  rival  for  a  moment  the 
magnificence  and  the  wonderful  delicacy  of  the  nat- 
ural beauty  which  the  Creator  has  spread  about  us. 
We  all  admire  them.  Even  the  little  infant  in  its 
mother's  arms,  is  not  insensible  to  the  charms  of  nat- 
ural beauty. 

The  transparent  loveliness  of  the  dew  drop  or  the 
icicle  glittering  in  the  sunshine  fixes  the  attention  of 
the  appreciative  on-looker  as  closely  as  the  sheen  and 
glitter  of  the  costliest  gem. 

The  love  of  beauty,  of  purity,  is  innate  in  the 
human  mind.  Who  does  not  suffer  a  pang  of  grief  at 
the  ruthless  destruction  of  one  of  nature's  beauties — 
the  crushing  of  a  flower  or  a  crystal,  or  of  any  lovely 
object  ? 

Most  beautiful  and  noble  of  all  the  Creator's 
works,  is  the  human  form.  Towering  in  grandeur 
high  above  the  most  impressive  of  all  Nature's  pict- 
ures, is  the  human  character,  a  miniature  copy  of  the 


divine.  Even  in  its  least  attractive  forms,  the  hu- 
man face  possesses  a  beauty  unrivaled  by  any  other 
natural  object ;  and  when  not  debased  by  sin  and  de- 
formed by  vice,  the  human  character  possesses  attrac- 
tions unapproachable  by  any  other  of  all  God's  handi- 

The  Creator  has  given  to  each  nbt  only  natural 
graces  and  beauties  of  form  and  character,  but  the 
power  to  become  more  beautiful  and  attractive  through 
the  improvement  of  natural  good  qualities,  and  the 
acquirement  of  others.  Human  life  is  a  school,  the 
object  of  which  is  to  fit  human  beings  for  a  higher 
and  grander  life.  How  this  life  is  spent,  determines 
the  condition  in  the  next.  Is  it  not  a  glorious,  soul- 
inspiring  thought  that  this  life  may  be  made  the  be- 
ginning of  an  endless  eternity  of  progress,  a  never- 
ending  school-day,  each  moment  adding  new  wisdom 
and  knowledge  and  beauties  and  graces?  The  all- 
wise  Father  puts  men  and  women,  boys  and  girls,  on 
trial  in  this  life,  to  see  whether  their  tendency  is 
greatest  in  an  upward  or  a  downward  direction. 
Those  who  love  true  beauty  and  purity,  and  who  as- 
pire to  the  highest  degree  of  perfection  attainable, 
will  gladly  seek  such  aids  to  a  perfect  life  as  are  of- 
fered by  genuine  religion ;  while  those  who  choose 
sin  rather  than  holiness,  vice  rather  than  purity,  ug- 
liness rather  than  beauty,  will  despise  the  good  coun- 
sels of  their  parents,  the  warnings  of  the  Book  of 
books,  the  admonitions  of  friends,  and  will  rush  head- 
long down  the  path  of  sin  to  reap  at  last  the  terrible 
reward  of  evil  doers. 

The  love  of  purity,  the  abhorrence  of  sin,  the  de- 


sire  to  attain  to  the  highest  degree  of  perfection  pos- 
sible to  humankind,  will  be  the  actuating  motives  of 
every  high-minded,  unsophisticated  girl.  The  mere 
thought  of  evil  will  be  appalling  to  such  an  one- 
Self-respect  and  veneration  for  the  God-implanted 
virtues  of  purity  and  innocence,  should  be  encour- 
aged and  cultivated.  The  girl  who  has  these  quali- 
ties will  turn  a  deaf  ear  to  the  siren  voice  which 
tempts  her  to  sin.  The  allurements  of  vice  will  pre- 
sent no  fascinations  to  her.  She  is  safely  entrenched 
behind  an  impregnable  wall  of  defense. 

The  fact  that  sin  may  be  committed  without  be- 
ing known  to  parents  or  friends  will  be  no  induce- 
ment to  a  girl  of  pure  instincts.  That  she  will  her- 
self possess  the  knowledge  of  her  guilt  will  be  a  suf- 
ficient restraint  to  prevent  the  commission  of  the 
wrong ;  and  that  God  and  pure  beings  will  behold  the 
sin  and  grieve  over  it,  will  be  a  mental  monitor  ever 
at  hand  to  defeat  the  tempter. 

An  unvitiated  mind  will  be  ever  on  the  alert  to 
detect  wrong  and  to  avoid  it.  Its  keen  sensibilities 
will  apprehend  the  real  character  of  sin  under  what- 
ever guise  it  may  come.  There  will  be  no  dallying 
with  sin,  no  harboring  of  evil  thoughts,  no  beginnings 
of  vice.  The  seeds  of  impurity  cannot  take  root  in 
such  a  soil.  How  important  then  that  from  earliest 
infancy  the  mind  should  be  prepared  for  the  ready 
appreciation  and  eager  acceptance  of  truth  and  purity, 
and  the  prompt  resistance  of  the  first  approach*  of 
what  is  false  and  impure. 

We  doubt  not  that  we  have  all  inherited  enough 
of  sinful  tendencies  and  depraved  propensities  to  lead 


us  in  a  downward  direction  without  some  powerful 
restraining  and  redeeming  influence ;  but  we  do  not 
believe  in  the  idea  that  humanity  is  wholly  depraved. 
There  is  enough  of  good  in  every  human  being  to 
furnish  a  foundation  for  a  pure  and  noble  character  if 
only  the  desire  for  such  a  character  is  present.  The 
want  of  respect  for  the  pure  and  good  and  truly  beau- 
tiful is  what  leaves  so  many  human  lives  to  go  to 
wreck  and  ruin. 

The  only  hope  for  the  race  is  in  the  future  of  its 
girls.  If  there  is  to  be  any  permanent,  thorough- 
going reform,  it  must  start  with  the  girls  and  young 
women  of  the  world.  They  are  to  be  the  mothers  of 
the  next  generation.  They  will  mold  the  characters 
of  the  men  and  women  who  are  to  rule  in  politics 
and  society  a  score  or  two  of  years  hence.  They  are 
to  cradle  the  men  who  through  the  press  and  the  pul- 
pit give  tone  to  the  religious  sentiments  of  the  gener- 
ation to  come.  Whatever  they  are,  their  children 
will  be  like  them.  Woman's  responsibility  to  the 
race  is  vast  and  incomprehensible. 

The  girl  who  wishes  to  be  a  grand,  noble,  useful 
woman,  a  true  mother,  must  be  a  noble-minded,  truth- 
ful, honorable,  pure  girl.  If  she  yields  herself  to 
vice  and  sin,  it  is  not  she  alone  that  suffers ;  for  the 
deformities  of  mind  and  character  which  she  thus  ac- 
quires will  follow  along  down  the  ages,  a  legacy  of 
woe  and  shame,  ineffaceable  to  the  end  of  time.  Let 
overy  girl  who  has  not  yet  been  led  into  vice  and 
sensuality  think  of  this.  When  the  tempter  comes 
to  you,  count  the  cost  to  yourself  and  to  the  race  be- 
fore you  yield  yourself  to  sinful  indulgence.     Think 


how  your  mother,  your  father,  or  an  innocent  brother 
would  look  upon  you  if  your  guilt  were  known  to 
them,  and  then  think  how  the  purity  of  Heaven 
must  regard  such  acts.  Let  the  thought  inspire  in 
your  own  heart  the  same  abhorrence  and  loathing, 
and  you  will  be  saved  from  the  tempter's  wiles. 

Happy  indeed  is  the  girl  who  has  come  to  woman- 
hood with  a  mind  untainted  by  sin,  a  character  un- 
sullied by  vice  !  The  graces  of  simple  innocence  and 
purity  are  gems  above  price.  It  is  the  earnest  prayer 
of  the  writer  that  God  will  aid  these  pages  to  inspire 
in  the  hearts  and  minds  of  at  least  a  few  of  those  who 
may  peruse  them,  aspirations  after  purity,  longings 
for  real  beauty  of  character,  such  as  will  lead  them  to 
seek  the  great  Source  of  all  goodness  and  purity  and 
wisdom  for  aid  and  guidance  through  the  pitfalls  and 
perils  of  girlhood,  to  the  attainment  of  a  noble,  ma- 
ture, and  useful  womanhood. 

The  Young  Lady. 

*    ■>«'    * 

YOUNG  girl  just  budding  into  womanhood, 
with  a  warm,  loving  heart,  an  innocent  and 
unsophisticated  mind,  rosy  health  upon  her 
cheeks,  bounding  vitality  in  her  veins,  and 
a  gay  laugh  in  her  voice,  is  the  most  beauti- 
ful object  the  Creator  ever  made.  The 
critical  period  at  which  the  change  from 
girlhood  to  womanhood  occurs  is  known  as 

Puberty. — The  physiological  import  of 
this  change  has  already  been  described,  and 
need  not  be  further  dilated  upon  here.  The  time  at 
which  puberty  occurs  differs  considerably  in  different 
individuals  as  well  as  in  the  two  sexes  and  in 
the  different  races  of  human  beings,  always  oc- 
curring a  little  earlier  in  females  than  in  males. 
In  this  country,  the  average  age  at  which  the 
change  occurs  in  girls  is  fourteen  years.  In  trop- 
ical climates,  the  change  occurs  very  much  earlier. 
It  is  stated  that  one  of  the  wives  of  Mahomet  was  a 
mother  at  ten  years,  and  a  case  is  on  record  in  which 
puberty  occurred  in  a  little  girl  at  the  age  of  two 
years  and  pregnancy  at  eight.  In  cold  climates,  as 
in  Denmark,  Sweden,  and  the  adjacent  countries,  the 
age  of  puberty  is  usually  delayed  to  eighteen  or  nine- 



teen  years.  In  temperate  climates  like  this  it  is  not 
infrequent  to  observe  the  change  as  early  as  eleven 
or  twelve  years  and  as  late  as  seventeen  or  eighteen. 

Causes  of  Precocious  Puberty. — Puberty  is  hast- 
ened by  a  variety  of  causes  besides  that  of  the  influ- 
ence of  climate  just  mentioned.  In  the  cases  of  early 
puberty  which  we  have  observed,  the  individuals 
were  of  feeble  constitution,  nervous  temperament  and 
decidedly  precocious  in  other  particulars  as  well  as  in 
this.  We  believe  this  to  be  usually  the  case.  Emo- 
tional influences  of  any  sort  have  a  direct  tendency 
to  hasten  the  change  from  girlhood  to  womanhood. 
Theaters,  social  gatherings,  dancing,  etc.,  all  have  an 
unhappy  influence  in  this  direction. 

The  influence  of  diet  in  hastening  puberty  is  such 
that  it  cannot  be  ignored.  Stimulating  foods  Qf  all 
kinds,  by  their  effect  on  the  nervous  system  and  the 
circulation,  stimulate  the  development  of  the  sexual 
system  and  thus  have  a  tendency  to  hasten  the  change. 

It  may  also  be  remarked  that  temperament  seems 
to  have  considerable  influence  in  determining  the  pe- 
riod at  which  puberty  shall  occur.  Medical  men  have 
observed  that  as  a  rule  puberty  occurs  a  little  earlier 
in  brunettes  than  in  blondes,  and  in  persons  of  a  nerv- 
ous temperament  than  in  those  who  are  of  a  phleg- 
matic disposition. 

The  national  peculiarity  in  respect  to  the  early  or 
late  appearance  of  puberty  seems  to  be  preserved  to  a 
greater  or  less  degree  even  when  a  change  of  climate 
is  made.  For  example,  puberty  occurs  one  or  two 
years  earlier  in  Jews  in  their  native  country  than  is 


the  average  with  girls  in  this  country,  and  the  same 
peculiarity  is  observed  in  Jewish  children  born  in  the 
United  States. 

Influences  which  Delay  Puberty. — Aside  from 
the  influence  of  a  cold  climate,  various  other  causes 
affect  the  system  in  such  a  manner  as  to  delay  the 
approach  of  puberty,  in  some  persons  even  to  a  very 
marked  degree.  Some  considerable  delay  may  occur 
within  the  limits  of  health,  but  when  the  change  does 
not  make  its  appearance  within  a  year  and  a  half  or 
two  years  of  the  time  at  which  it  usually  occurs  in 
other  females  of  the  same  family,  medical  advice 
should  be  had,  as  there  may  be  some  fault  in  the  con- 
stitution, the  correction  of  which  may  be  aided  by  an 
intelligent  physician.  We  do  not  wish  to  intimate 
that  drugs  should  be  given  for  the  purpose  of  bring- 
ing on  the  menstrual  flow  when  it  does  not  make  its 
appearance  at  the  proper  time :  nothing  could  be 
more  unwise  than  this.  A  girl  in  whom  puberty  is 
unnaturally  delayed  is  usually  undeveloped  in  other 
particulars,  and  the  proper  thing  to  be  done  is  to  en- 
force such  habits  of  life,  exercise,  diet,  sleep,  etc.,  as 
shall  tend  to  promote  growth  and  development.  If 
active  disease  of  any  sort  is  present,  such  as  indiges- 
tion, resulting  in  anaemia,  nervous  troubles  of  any 
sort,  etc.,  the  proper  remedies  or  means  of  treatment 
should  be  employed  to  correct  the  defect. 

Certain  malformations  of  the  sexual  organs  some- 
times occur  which  prevent  the  appearance  of  the  men- 
strual flow  after  the  other  changes  incident  to  puberty, 
such  as  increased  rapidity  of  growth,  broadening  of  the 


hips,  development  of  the  breasts,  etc.,  have  occurred. 
In  such  a  case  as  this  a  skillful  surgeon  should 
be  consulted.  In  some  cases  it  will  be  found  that  the 
hymen  is  unnaturally  developed,  entirely  closing 
the  mouth  of  the  vagina,  so  that  the  menstrual  flow 
is  left  to  accumulate  in  the  vagina  and  uterus.  Cases 
of  this  sort  have  occurred  in  which  the  real  cause  was 
not  discovered  until  several  years  had  elapsed,  in 
which  time  the  accumulation  had  become  so  great  as 
to  form  what  was  supposed  to  be  a  large  tumor.  In 
a  few  cases  the  vagina  has  been  found  to  be  absent, 
while  both  uterus  and  ovaries  were  present.  In  both 
of  these  classes  of  cases,  a  surgical  operation  is  neces- 
sary, and  by  the  aid  of  it  the  obstruction  can  usually 
be  removed.  Great  skill,  however,  and  experience 
are  required  in  the  performance  of  such  operations, 
and  care  should  be  taken  to  consult  for  the  purpose  a 
surgeon  known  to  be  wholly  competent  and  experi- 
enced in  such  cases. 

A  peculiar  case,  illustrating  another  cause  of  the 
non-appearance  of  menstruation  has  recently  come  to 
our  attention.  The  case  was  that  of  a  girl  bereaved 
of  her  mother  at  an  early  age,  and  left  without  the 
care  and  advice  of  a  lady  friend.  Being  wholly  ig- 
norant of  matters  of  the  kind,  she  was  not  alarmed 
that  the  menstrual  flow  did  not  mako  its  appear- 
ance at  the  usual  age,  and  in  fact  did  not  know 
fhat  she  was  in  any  way  different  from  other  girls 
until  many  years  after  the  usual  time  for  the  appear- 
ance of  the  change.  Becoming  informed  with  ref 
erence  to   the  matter,  she  finally  consulted  a  sur- 


geon,  who,  upon  making  an  examination  and  consult- 
ing with  other  eminent  physicians,  arrived  at  the 
conclusion  that  the  case  was  one  of  deformity, 
only  the  external  organs  being  present,  no  trace  of 
either  ovaries,  uterus,  or  vagina  being  discoverable. 
One  very  remarkable  feature  of  this  case  was  the  fact 
that  the  hips,  breast,  and  other  portions  of  the  form 
were  developed  in  the  characteristic  manner  which 
is  usually  considered  to  be  impossible  without  the  in- 
fluence of  the  ovaries. 

Signs  of  the  Approach  of  Puberty. — As  the 
time  for  the  establishment  of  a  new  function  ap- 
proaches, various  changes,  mental  and  physical,  begin 
to  make  their  appearance.  Usually  the  physical  de- 
velopment becomes  more  rapid.  The  vital  forces 
seem  to  waken  to  new  activity.  The  girl  grows  tall  and 
slender.  In  the  course  of  a  year  or  two,  the  breast  be- 
gins to  expand,  the  hips  to  broaden,  and  the  abdomen 
to  enlarge.  The  organs  of  generation  increase  in  size 
and  become  covered  externally  by  an  excessive  devel- 
opment of  the  hairy  growth  with  which  the  whole  body 
is  covered.  In  some,  development  takes  place  in  the 
hairs  of  the  arm-pits  and  to  some  extent,  in  many 
cases,  over  the  greater  portion  of  the  body. 

Mental  changes  of  an  equally  well  marked  charac- 
ter are  also  observed.  If  of  a  nervous  temperament, 
the  little  girl,  though  usually  kind  and  affable,  is  likely 
to  become  somewhat  petulant  and  irritable.  She  is 
restless  and  uneven  of  disposition,  apt  to  become 
easily  excited,  and  subject  to  spells  of  depression  and 
despondency.     A  strong  tendency  to  sentimentality 


is  also  manifest.  Indeed,  as  one  writer  says,  senti- 
mentality is  a  malady  incident  to  this  period  of  girl- 
hood as  much  as  measles,  mumps,  chicken-pox,  and 
other  diseases  are  incident  to  childhood. 

Hygiene  of  Puberty. — When  the  above-mentioned 
signs  make  their  appearance,  the  mother's  watchful 
care  should  be  called  into  still  more  active  exercise. 
The  most  strict  attention  should  be  given  to  every 
habit  of  life  which  relates  to  mental  and  physical 
health.  The  interests  of  the  girl's  moral  nature 
should  also  receive  attention,  as  the  turbulent  condi- 
tion of  both  mind  and  nervous  system  which  fre- 
quently occurs  at  this  period  of  the  girl's  existence, 
needs  the  calming  and  soothing  effects  of  wholesome 
religious  influences. 

Great  care  should  be  taken  that  a  sufficient 
amount  of  wholesome  and  nutritious  food  is  eaten 
regularly  and  at  proper  hours.  At  this  period,  the 
appetite  is  often  capricious,  and  frequently  new  and 
strange  appetites  are  developed  which  need  to  be 
restrained,  while  there  may  be  suddenly  manifested  a 
strange  aversion  for  the  simple  and  wholesome  food 
which  has  before  been  eaten  with  relish.  Fruits  and 
grains  should  chiefly  constitute  the  diet.  Oatmeal, 
cracked  wheat,  graham  bread,  milk,  and  fruit,  with 
various  grain  preparations,  furnish  the  very  materials 
which  are  most  needed  for  the  proper  development  of 
the  system  at  this  time,  and  in  the  very  best  possible 
form.  Meat  should  be  used  sparingly.  The  idea  that 
girls  at  this  time  require  a  large  amount  of  mutton, 
beef-steak,  eggs,  and  other  stimulating  and  exciting 


food,  is  a  very  great  mistake.  It  is  much  better  that 
the  system  should  be  undisturbed  by  stimulating  in- 
fluences of  any  sort. 

Too  early  indications  of  the  occurrence  of  puberty 
are  just  cause  for  solicitude  on  the  part  of  the  mother, 
and  call  for  the  employment  of  all  such  measures  as 
will  tend  to  prevent  premature  development.  It 
should  be  recollected  that  early  decay  is  very  certain 
to  be  the  result  of  precocious  development. 

The  changes  which  occur  at  puberty  require  but  a 
very  short  time  for  their  completion.  In  fact,  the  ra- 
pidity with  which  such  extraordinary  changes  may 
occur  is  very  remarkable.  Such  extraordinary  de- 
mands on  the  vital  forces  of  the  individual  make  this 
the  most  critical  of  all  periods  in  a  woman's  life.  At 
this  time  is  often  laid  the  foundation  for  a  whole  life- 
time of  suffering.  A  large  share  of  the  peculiar 
troubles  with  which  women  are  afflicted  originate  in 
indiscretions  occurring  at  this  time.  The  ignorance 
of  mothers  and  their  failure  to  instruct  their  daugh- 
ters when  they  themselves  are  informed  respecting 
the  dangers  incident  to  this  period  of  life,  undoubt- 
edly result  in  a  vastly  greater  amount  of  disease  and 
premature  death  than  the  "  ills  of  maternity  "  which 
are  often  charged  with  being  the  bane  of  a  woman's 
life  and  the  cause  of  the  greater  portion  of  her  suffer- 

We  cannot  emphasize  too  emphatically  the  impor- 
tance of  giving  proper  instruction  at  the  right  time. 
Mothers  should  first  inform  themselves  thoroughly  re- 
specting the  physiological  changes  which  puberty  in- 


volves,  and  the  possible  dangers  which  may  arise,  and 
should  then  give  their  daughters  explicit  and  careful 
instruction  respecting  the  care  of  their  health  during 
this  critical  period. 

We  have  met  hundreds  of  cases  in  which  women 
have  suffered  all  through  life  in  consequence  of  the 
want  of  instruction  at  the  proper  time.  Within  a  few 
hours  of  the  time  of  this  writing,  we  have  been  con- 
sulted by  a  lady  of  unusual  intelligence  and  most  brill- 
iant talents,  whose  whole  life  has  been  made  miser- 
able with  pain  and  suffering  in  consequence  of  inad- 
vertent imprudence  during  this  period.  A  little  in- 
struction at  this  time  would  have  saved  all  these 
years  of  suffering  and  added  greatly  to  the  usefulness 
of  one  whose  rare  gifts  qualified  her  for  wide  useful- 
ness. Notwithstanding  her  disabilities  and  the  great 
obstacles  thrown  in  her  way  by  feeble  and  uncertain 
health,  she  had  accomplished  a  great  amount  of  good 
and  won  an  enviable  position  in  society;  but  just 
when  she  was  by  experience  and  influence  prepared 
to  accomplish  the  greatest  good,  her  nervous  system 
gave  way  under  the  double  strain  of  physical  suffer- 
ing and  mental  labor.  Though  fond  of  children  and 
devoting  her  whole  life  to  efforts  in  behalf  of  poor  lit- 
tle waifs,  she  had  herself  to  remain  childless  in  conse- 
quence of  disability  suffered  from  ignorant  violation 
of  nature's  laws  at  the  establishment  of  the  menstrual 

Some  time  ago  a  young  lady  was  brought  to  us 
for  treatment  who  had  suffered  for  years  from  a  sim- 
ilar cause.     The  menstrual  function  made  its  appear- 


ance,  she  was  alarmed  and  distressed,  and  having 
never  been  taught  to  make  a  confident  of  her  mother, 
especially  on  subjects  of  this  kind,  she  said  nothing 
about  the  matter,  but  brooded  over  it  and  mourned 
about  it  until  reason  was  nearly  dethroned.  In  this 
condition  she  roamed  about  through  snow  and  rain 
exposing  herself  to  the  searching  cold  of  an  early 
winter  day,  at  one  time  remaining  out  during  the 
whole  night,  her  clothing  becoming  saturated  to  the 
skin  and  her  whole  body  thoroughly  chilled.  This 
was  repeated  at  nearly  every  menstrual  period.  It 
resulted,  of  course,  in  the  production  of  serious  local 
disease  in  a  very  short  time  giving  rise  to  severe  pain 
in  connection  with  menstruation,  which  increased  her 
mental  disturbance.  This  led  to  the  discovery  of  her 
real  condition  by  her  friends,  but  they  too  were  igno- 
rant of  what  should  be  done  under  the  circumstances; 
instead  of  placing  the  girl  under  the  care  of  a  skillful 
physician  she  was  sent  to  school.  Close  confinement 
to  her  studies  and  the  constant  recurrence  of  a  period 
of  suffering,  led  to  the  appearance  or  nervous  symp- 
toms, which  finally  terminated  in  what  her  physician 
pronounced  to  be  a  serious  attack  of  inflammation  of 
the  brain.  For  weeks  she  was  very  near  death's 
door.  She  finally  rallied,  however,  but  was  left  in  a 
helpless  condition  from  complete  paralysis  of  the 
lower  extremities. 

The  above  was  the  condition  in  which  we  found 
her.  The  history  of  the  case  led  us  to  make  a  care- 
ful local  examination,  the  result  of  which  was  simply 
astounding.     It  scarcely  seemed  possible  that  disease 


could  have  obtained  so  firm  a  hold  upon  one  so  young 
and  in  so  short  a  space  of  time.  The  uterus  and 
ovaries  were  both  involved  in  most  serious  disease, 
the  womb  being  enormously  enlarged  from  repeated 
inflammation,  and  prolapsed  to  such  a  degree  as  to  be 
almost  ready  to  make  its  exit  into  the  external 
world,  and  exquisitely  sensitive,  as  were  all  the  sur- 
rounding tissues.  After  many  months  of  treatment 
the  patient  was  restored  to  a  fair  degree  of  health, 
regaining  the  use  of  her  limbs  and  being  almost 
wholly  relieved  of  the  severe  menstrual  pain  which 
she  had  suffered  from  almost  the  beginning  of  the 
function.  In  this  case  an  unusually  intelligent,  amia- 
ble girl  was  well-nigh  ruined  for  life  by  the  injuries 
resulting  from  want  of  knowledge. 

As  before  remarked,  we  believe  it  to  be  the  sol- 
emn duty  of  mothers  to  thoroughly  inform  themselves 
on  this  subject,  and  then  impart  to  their  daughters 
the  needed  information.  Indeed,  one  of  the  strongest 
motives  which  has  actuated  us  in  the  preparation  of 
this  volume  has  been  the  hope  that  we  might,  by  call- 
ing attention  to  these  facts,  induce  at  least  a  few 
mothers  to  give  their  daughters  timely  warning  of  the 
necessity  of  special  care  and  watchfulness  at  the 
time  the  menstrual  function  is  being  established  and 
at  the  monthly  recurrence  of  each  subsequent  period. 
Young  girls,  especially  at  this  period,  are  often  quite 
reckless  respecting  the  care  of  their  health.  This  is 
particularly  the  case  if  they  have  never  been  previ- 
ously taught  to  regard  the  preservation  of  their 
health  as  a  sacred  duty  and  a  moral  obligation  as 


binding  upon  them  as  any  other.  No  pains  should 
be  spared  to  impress  upon  them  the  fact  that  the 
first  two  or  three  years  after  puberty  are  pretty  cer- 
tain to  exert  an  influence  of  no  trifling  character 
upon  their  whole  subsequent  life.  After  the  men- 
strual function  becomes  thoroughly  established,  it  is 
not  so  easily  disturbed,  but  at  this  time,  when  nature 
is  just  establishing  the  changes  incident  to  the  per- 
formance of  this  function,  very  slight  causes  may 
produce  serious  disturbance. 

One  who  is  acquainted  with  these  facts  is  often 
appalled  at  the  recklessness  which  young  wTomen 
sometimes  exhibit.  An  invitation  to  a  party  or  con- 
cert or  even  a  fashionable  ball  is  not  refused  even  if 
the  weather  may  be  such  as  to  make  it  highly  impru- 
dent for  a  young  lady  passing  through  a  catameniai 
period,  to  venture  out  of  doors,  to  say  nothing  of  the 
disturbing  influences  to  which  she  will  be  likely  to  be 
subjected,  such  as  the  violent  and  prolonged  exercise 
of  dancing,  confinement  in  a  close  and  overheated 
lecture-room,  occasioning  profuse  perspiration  to  be 
followed  by  a  chill  on  coming  out  in  the  cold,  damp 
air,  etc.  The  necessity  for  rest  and  especial  care  at 
this  period  has  long  been  recognized  among  uncivil- 
ized nations.  We  find  evidence  also,  that  this 
fact  was  duly  appreciated  among  the  ancient  Jews. 
Their  wise  law-giver,  Moses,  considered  the  matter  of 
sufficient  importance  to  place  in  his  code  of  regula- 
tions known  as  the  "  ceremonial  law,"  certain  rules  to 
govern  tfie  conduct  of  women  during  this  period. 
The  Jewish  women  were  required  to  leave  the  camp 



with  all  its  burdens,  excitements,  and  anxieties,  and 
withdraw  to  a  quiet  and  secluded  place,  where  they 
might  enjoy  quiet  and  rest  during  the  performance  of 
the  menstrual  function.  A  similar  custom  still  pre- 
vails among  Indian  women,  who,  as  is  well  known, 
suffer  very  little  at  child-birth,  a  fact  which  we  be- 
lieve is  very  closely  related  to  the  care  which  they 
exercise  when  "  unwell/' 

In  conclusion,  we  would  summarize  the  precau- 
tions to  be  observed  at  the  approach  of  puberty  and 
at  the  menstrual  period  as  follows  : — 

1.  Maintain  the  general  health  in  every  way  pos- 
sible. This  can  best  be  done  by  proper  food,  which 
means  a  simple  and  unstimulating  dietary;  abundant 
exercise  in  the  fresh  air  with  exposure  to  the  sun ; 
proper  clothing,  which  means  warmly  clothing  the 
limbs  as  well  as  the  trunk  of  the  body  and  avoiding 
stays,  corsets,  belts,  and  tightness  of  the  dress  about 
the  waist  as  well  as  suspension  of  the  skirts  from  the 
hips;  and  proper  rest  at  proper  times  with  perfect 
regularity  of  all  the  habits  of  life. 

2.  While  the  young  girl  should  not  be  allowed  to 
engage  in  any  kind  of  hard  or  taxing  labor,  it  is  much 
better  that  both  mind  and  body  should  be  occupied 
by  light  and,  if  possible,  congenial  employment.  Even 
too  much  labor  is  less  injurious  than  idleness,  but  it 
should  be  recollected  that  while  the  body  is  forming 
and  new  functions  are  being  developed  neither  mus- 
cles nor  nerves  will  bear  the  amount  of  taxation  which 
maturely  developed  tissues  are  able  to  endure. 

3.  When  the  menstrual  period  makes  its  appear- 


ance  or  a  day  or  two  before,  if  the  symptoms  are  such 
as  to  make  its  approach  apparent,  the  girl  should  be 
relieved  of  taxing  duties  of  every  description,  and 
should  be  allowed  to  yield  herself  to  the  feeling  of 
malaise  which  usually  comes  over  her  at  this  period, 
lounging  on  the  sofa  or  using  her  time  as  she  pleases 
provided  it  is  not  in  the  perusal  of  sensational  stories 
or  in  too  great  devotion  to  fancy-work,  or  any  other 
occupation  in  which  an  unhealthful  or  strained  posi- 
tion has  to  be  assumed. 

4.  The  greatest  care  should  be  taken  to  avoid  tak- 
ing cold,  as  the  most  serious  maladies  are  often 
brought  upon  women  by  exposure  at  this  time.  To 
accomplish  this,  it  is  not  necessary  that  the  person 
should  be  confined  constantly  in  a  heated  room.  The 
overheating  of  rooms  is  the  most  common  cause  of 
susceptibility  to  colds,  hence  it  is  much  better  that 
the  body  should  be  inured  to  a  certain  degree  of  cold 
so  that  very  slight  exposures  cannot  affect  the  system 
injuriously.  The  susceptibility  to  colds  may  also  be 
to  a  very  great  extent  overcome  by  the  habit  of  tak- 
ing daily  or  tri-weekly  baths.  The  bath  should  not 
be  a  hot  one,  but  its  temperature  should  not  be  so  low 
as  to  be  uncomfortable.  Water  at  eighty  degrees  is 
twenty  degrees  below  the  temperature  of  the  body, 
and  cool  enough  to  produce  tonic  effects  on  the  skin 
without  chilling  the  person  uncomfortably.  The 
clothing  of  the  feet  is  a  matter  of  very  great  impor- 
tance, as  getting  the  feet  wet  is  the  most  common  of 
all  means  by  which  women  contract  colds  at  this  pe- 
riod.    It  is  not  necessary  that  the  shoes  should  be 


saturated  in  order  to  produce  a  cold:  when  thin  shoes 
are  worn,  the  wetting  of  the  soles,  by  which  the  bot- 
toms of  the  feet  become  chilled  by  evaporation  of 
moisture  from  the  soles  of  the  shoes,  is  sufficient  to 
induce  a  severe  cold  in  a  sensitive  person. 

5.  During  the  catamenial  period,  the  mind  should 
be  kept  in  a  calm  and  undisturbed  condition.  Intense  ' 
grief,  sudden  anger,  or  even  exuberant  joy  have  been 
known  to  suddenly  check  the  menstrual  function  in 
the  midst  of  the  period.  Severe  mental  application 
sometimes  produces  the  same  results.  These  effects 
are  produced  through  the  connection  of  the  nerve  cen- 
ters of  the  brain  and  spinal  cord  with  the  uterus. 
Numerous  experiments  have  shown  that  the  circula- 
tion through  the  uterus  is  greatly  affected  by  mental 

6.  Notwithstanding  all  the  preceding  precautions 
which  we  have  given,  we  think  it  important  to  add 
that  constant  watching  of  symptoms  or  apprehension 
of  possible  or  impossible  dangers  is  quite  as  injurious 
us  inattention  to  the  points  we  have  mentioned. 
While  mothers  should  be  watchful  and  solicitous  for 
the  welfare  of  their  daughters  at  the  ushering  in  of 
the  menstrual  function  and  for  a  few  years  following, 
they  should  by  no  means  consider  it  thoir  duty  to 
yield  to  every  caprice  or  to  gratify  every  fancy  which 
may  be  manifested  by  their  daughters  at  this  period. 
This  sort  of  care  is  an  injury  rather  than  a  benefit. 
Intelligent  supervision  and  watch  care  guided  by  rea- 
son is  what  girls  require  to  enable  them  to  pass 
through  the  critical  period  of  puberty  and  early 
womanhood  with  safety. 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  185 

Education  of  Young  Ladies. — The  education  of 
young  ladies  is  a  question  which  has  been  widely  dis- 
cussed during  the  last  few  years.  A  variety  of  po- 
sitions have  been  taken  by  prominent  educators  with 
respect  to  this  question,  and  the  discussion  has  not  as 
yet  resulted  in  a  complete  and  thorough  settlement 
of  all  the  problems  involved.  We  have  not  space 
in  this  little  work  to  consider  the  subject  in  all  its 
phases,  but  we  cannot  avoid  at  least  a  brief  considera- 
tion of  the  subject  from  the  stand-point  of  its  relation 
to  health. 

Home  Training. — Of  first  importance  in  the  ed- 
ucation of  a  young  lady  is  proper  home  training  and 
education.  The  young  lady  who  has  acquired  all  the 
culture  and  accomplishments  which  can  be  secured  in 
the  schools,  but  has  no  knowledge  of  the  simple  arts 
so  necessary  to  the  making  of  a  home,  and  the  proper 
training  of  a  family  has  neglected  the  most  important 
part  of  her  education.  The  general  prevalence  of  this 
defect  is  becoming  alarming.  The  girls  of  the  pres- 
ent generation  are  as  a  rule  far  less  skillful  in  bread- 
making,  house-cleaning,  and  the  other  household  arts, 
than  in  piano-playing,  elocution,  and  similar  accom- 
plishments. This  condition  of  affairs  is  becoming 
more  and  more  common  in  this  country.  The  poor 
mother,  who  has  become  worn  out  with  arduous  toil 
in  the  rearing  of  her  family  and  in  providing  them 
with  comforts  and  luxuries,  seldom  has  a  daughter 
who  is  able  to  take  her  place  in  the  kitchen,  at  the 
wash-tub,  or  at  the  ironing-table.  Unfortunate  as  is 
this  state  of  things  for  the  broken-down  mother,  as 


for  her  imperfectly  educated  daughter,  mothers  are 
themselves  generally  responsible  for  it.  Mothers 
who  have  been  brought  up  to  a  life  of  usefulness  and 
labor,  often  become  infected  with  the  popular  notion 
that  physical  labor  is  ungenteel  and  unladylike,  and 
determine  that  their  daughters  shall  be  "  brought  up 
differently  from  what  they  were."  Imagining  that 
they  are  going  to  make  their  daughters  something 
more  than  women,  and  prepare  them  for  a  sphere 
something  above  that  of  true  womanhood,  these  silly 
mothers  toil  and  slave  in  the  kitchen  while  their 
daughters  sing  and  thrum  the  piano  in  the  parlor,  or 
simper  and  drawl  nonsense  in  the  drawing-room  with 
some  shallow-pated  fop.  The  mother  rises  at  early 
dawn  to  prepare  the  breakfast  while  her  useless 
daughters  are  sleeping  off  the  effects  of  their  midnight 
dissipation  in  the  ball-room.  Reared  in  idleness  to 
habits  of  uselessness,  the  hard  earnings  of  father  and 
mother  are  spent  in  lavishing  upon  them  accomplish- 
ments which  can  be  of  no  service  to  them  in  after  life. 
Such  daughters  are  unfit  to  meet  the  realities  of  life, 
and  are  utterly  devoid  of  the  real  accomplishments 
which  go  to  make  up  womanly  character  and  which 
would  fit  them  for  the  performance  of  the  duties  of 
wife  and  mother  in  their  mature  years. 

The  fact  is  that  the  average  modern  young  wo- 
man is  accomplished  to  the  point  of  actual  uselessness. 
What  women  as  a  rule  need  is  a  more  solid  education. 
We  do  not  object  to  accomplishments  if  they  are  not 
acquired  at  the  expense  of  that  thorough  training 
which  lies  at  the  very  foundation  of  real  refinement 


and  usefulness.  How  many  young  women  fritter 
away  their  time  and  waste  their  lives  in  devotion  to 
nothings.  A  young  woman  who  is  able  to  sing  and 
play  the  piano  skillfully,  to  dance  gracefully,  to 
talk  "small  talk"  fluently,  to  dress  "to  kill,"  to 
sketch  a  landscape  passably,  to  embroider,  to  knit 
lace  collars,  to  jabber  a  little  French  and  German, 
may  be  able  to  satisfy  the  demands  of  society,  but 
may  be  utterly  wanting  in  that  kind  of  culture  which 
contributes  to  the  real  happiness  of  life.  Such  a  per- 
son, as  a  quaint  writer  once  said,  is  "  all  ruffle  and  no 

-  Nothing  contributes  more  to  the  formation  of  a 
sound  character  than  a  knowledge  of  the  humble  in- 
dustries which  contribute  to  the  making  of  a  happy 
home.  A  long  stride  will  be  made  toward  the  mil- 
lenium  for  which  so  many  long  and  which  some 
fondly  believe  to  be  approaching,  when  a  training  in 
useful  labor  shall  be  considered  as  the  first  and  most 
important  part  of  a  young  lady's  education;  when 
girls  are  taught  to  do  their  part  in  the  world's  work, 
and  that  to  be  able  to  do  it  well  is  the  highest  posi- 
tion and  the  greatest  happiness  to  which  they  may 
hope  to  attain. 

A  mother  cannot  do  her  daughter  greater  injury 
than  to  allow  her  to  grow  up  ignorant  of  household 
duties  and  unaccustomed  to  useful  labor,  yet  mothers 
are  so  utterly  blind  to  their  duties  in  this  respect 
that  it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  the  rising  gener- 
ation of  girls  is  vastly  inferior  to  their  predecessors. 
An  omen  for  good  is  the  establishment  in  many  large 


cities  of  cooking-schools  and  schools  for  training 
nurses ;  and  there  is  some  prospect  that  this  country 
will  soon  possess  institutions  similar  to  those  already 
established  in  England  in  which  girls  can  learn  a  va- 
riety of  useful  employments,  and  also  receive  training 
in  domestic  duties. 

Popular  sentiment  needs  to  be  educated  in  the 
right  direction,  and  we  believe  that  in  the  better 
classes  of  society  at  least  some  little  advancement  is 
being  made,  thanks  to  the  labors  of  such  noble  and 
talented  women  as  Mrs.  Livermore,  and  Mrs.  Jane 
Swisshelm,  whose  eloquent  words  in  popular  lectures 
and  magazine  articles  have  so  graphically  portrayed 
the  follies  of  fashionable  education,  and  the  advan- 
tages of  practical  training  as  to  convict  thousands  of 
mothers  of  the  wickedness  and  folly  of  the  popular 
methods  of  educating  daughters,  and  have  thus  given 
an  impulse  to  a  reform  the  influence  of  which  we 
trust  may  widen  and  deepen  until  the  tide  of  fash- 
ionable folly  is  checked.  The  national  Woman's 
Christian  Temperance  Union  under  the  masterly  lead- 
ership of  Miss  Francis  E.  Willard  has  recently  organ- 
ized a  work  in  this  direction  the  influence  of  which 
eternity  alone  can  tell.  The  introduction  of  the 
" health  plank"  into  the  platform  of  this  organization, 
which  we  regard  as  the  very  backbone  of  the  present 
wonderful  temperance  movement,  was  an  epoch  of 
most  momentous  significance.  Women  are  of  all  oth- 
ers the  very  ones  to  institute  and  carry  forward  this 
great  reform,  and  the  same  indomitable*  energy,  un- 
flagging perseveranoe,  and  irresistible  determination 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  189 

which  has  marked  the  work  of  the  leaders  of  this  or- 
ganization will  secure  the  same  happy  results  which 
have  followed  their  efforts  in  behalf  of  temperance 

School  Education. — There  is  no  doubt  but  that 
school-life  has  an  important  influence  on  the  health  of 
young  ladies,  particularly  those  just  entering  woman- 
hood. School-girls  between  the  ages  of  twelve  and 
twenty  ofteitt  suffer  life-long  injury  as  the  result  of 
too  close  amplication  to  their  studies.  They  are  stim- 
ulated by  Jne  spirit  of  competition  Which  is  fostered 
in  most  Aiools,  or  compelled  by  the  rigorous  disci- 
pline tonrhich  they  are  subjected  in  some  schools, 
particiwly  young  ladies'  seminaries,  and  the  ambition 
of  teacftrs  and  parents  to  prepare  them  for  gradua- 
tion inj;he  shortest  possible  space  of  time.  The  ap- 
pearance on  the  stage,  at  the  commencement  exer- 
cises of  some  of  our  schools,  of  "  young  girl  gradu- 
ates" with  frail  forms  and  a  hectic  flush  on  their 
cheeks  and  a  weak  and  overstimulated  nervous  sys- 
tem, is  an  exceedingly  common  spectacle.  Soon 
after  graduation,  if  not  before,  these  overworked  girls, 
having  escaped  from  the  cramming  process  to  which 
they  have  been  subjected  for  years,  are  turned  over 
to  the  physician  to  be  put  in  repair  physically.  Not 
infrequently  the  physician  finds  this  by  no  means  an 
easy  task.  The  physical  education  has  been  so  ut- 
terly neglected,  while  the  nervous  system  has  been 
overstimulated  and  overworked  with  the  artificial 
educational  process  to  which  the  patient  has  been 
subjected  almost  from  early  girlhood,  that  there  is  no 
foundation  upon  which  to  build  the  superstructure  of 

190  THE  LADIES'    GUIDE. 

health.  Such  girls  go  through  life  weakly  from  suf- 
fering, and  unable  to  make  any  use  of  the  knowledge 
which  they  have  obtained,  even  if  some  portion  of  it 
may  have  been  of  a  character  likely  to  be  of  use,  and 
too  often  the  prospects  for  health  and  usefulness  have 
been  blighted  by  devotion  to  accomplishments  of  little 
or  no  practical  value  in  life. 

Girls  have  been  charged  with  being  unequal  to 
boys  in  mental  calibre,  and  their  breakdowns  in  the 
midst  of  a  course  of  study  or  just  after  its  completion 
have  been  attributed  to  a  natural  mental  inferiority. 
We  believe,  however,  that  the  female  brain  is  equally 
as  capable  of  mastering  the  studies  usually  pursued 
in  our  schools  and  colleges  when  the  education  of  the 
boy  and  girl  have  been  the  same  from  early  childhood. 
Unless  the  young  lady's  early  training  has  been  such 
as  to  dwarf  her  intellect  and  check  the  development 
of  her  mental  faculties,  she  ought  to  be  in  every  way 
the  intellectual  peer  of  her  brother. 

An  argument  for  the  mental  inferiority  of  women 
has  been  based  on  the  fact  that  the  brain  of  man  is 
larger  than  that  of  woman.  A  comparison  of  a  ft 
large  number  of  brains  of  both  sexes  has  shown  that 
in  males  the  average  weight  is  49  i  ounces,  and  in  fe- 
males 44  ounces,  a  difference  of  5  i  ounces,  or  about 
ten  per  cent  in  favor  of  the  maie  brain.  This  fact 
has  been  used  until  it  has  become  threadbare  by. 
those  who  oppose  the  coeducation  of  the  sexes  and 
the  granting  to  woman  an  equal  share  with  man  in 
the  various  walks  of  life.  There  is  a  certain  class  of 
men,  and  now  and  then  a  woman  also,  who  delight  to 
descant  on  the  inferiority  of  woman,  and  dilate  upon 

THE   YOUNG  LADT.  191 

the  asserted  fact  that  she  is  a  "  weaker  vessel "  and 
hence  unqualified  to  fill  most  of  the  positions  of  trust, 
responsibility,  and  honor  after  which  men  aspire. 
Some  little  time  ago,  a  specious  article  upon  this  sub- 
ject appeared  in  one  of  the  popular  monthlies  under 
the  heading  "  Science  and  the  Woman  Question,"  in 
which  the  author — a  woman — took  strong  ground  in 
favor  of  the  position  that  woman  is  decidedly  inferior 
to  man  in  mental  capacity.  The  general  interest 
taken  in  this  subject  by  both  sides  warrants  us  in  de- 
voting to  its  consideration  a  larger  amount  of  space 
than  would  be  otherwise  justifiable.  Let  us  consider 
some  of  the  arguments  advanced  in  favor  of  the  posi- 
tion named.  It  is  undoubtedly  true  that  the  average 
female  brain  is  some  5  J  ounces  less  in  weight  than 
the  male  brain ;  but  those  who  use  this  argument  with 
so  much  force,  carefully  conceal  the  fact  that  the 
proper  measure  of  brain  capacity  is  not  its  absolute 
size,  but  rather  its  proportionate  size,  or  the  size  or 
weight  of  the  brain  compared  with  the  bulk  or  weight 
of  the  individual.  The  element  of  quality  must  also 
be  taken  into  consideration,  as  we  shall  show  pres- 

Now  while  it  is  true  that  the  female  brain  is  five 
ounces  lighter  than  the  male  brain,  it  is  also  true  that 
the  average  woman  is  something  like  twenty-five 
pounds  lighter  in  weight  than  the  average  man,  the 
average  man  weighing  145  pounds,  and  the  average 
woman  125  pounds.  Dividing  the  weight  of  the 
average  man  by  the  average  weight  of  his  brain, 
we  very  readily  ascertain  the  weight  of  the  male 
brain  to   be  1-47  that  of  the  body.     By  a  similar 

192  THE  LADIEff  GUIDE. 

process  we  find   that  the   average   female   brain   is 
a  little  less  than  1-45  of  the  weight  of  the   aver- 
age female.     It  thus  appears  at  once,  that  if  the  argu- 
ment respecting  the  size  of  the  brain  amounts  to  any- 
thing, it  proves  that  the  female  brain  is  superior  to 
that  of  the  male.     The  above  conclusion  would  not  be 
a  just  one,  however,  for,  as  all  close  students  of  psy- 
chology are  well   aware,  the  element  of  quality,  as 
before  remarked,  must  be  considered  as  well  as  that 
of  quantity   in   making  a  comparison   between   the 
brains   of  persons   of  different  race  or  of  different 
sex.     The  great  naturalist  Cuvier,  carried  a  brain 
weighing  64  i  ounces — 15  ounces  more  than  that  of 
the  average  male  brain.     Some  years  ago,  a  brick- 
layer died  in  London  whose  brain  was  found  to  weigh 
67  ounces.     Notwithstanding  the  enormous  size  of 
his  brain,  this  individual  never  manifested  during  his 
life  any  unusual  degree  of  intelligence  or  mental  ca- 
pacity.    Dr.  Morris,  who  made  the  autopsy  at  Uni- 
versity  College   Hospital  in   1849,  states   that   the 
man's  height  was  five  feet  and  nine  inches,  his  frame 
robust,  that  he  had  a  good  memory,  and  was  fond  of 
politics,  but  could  neither  read  nor  write.     Dr.  Biich- 
ner  records  the  brain  weight  of  a  man  who  was  an 
epileptic  and  whose  brain  weighed  64  £    ounces — ex- 
actly the  same  as  that  of  Cuvier.     The  largest  female 
brain  of  which  we   have   any  record  weighed    61  i 
ounces.     It  was  possessed  by  a  woman  who  was  a 

Some  recent  studies  in  the  subject  of  brain  weiglit 
in  the  Chinese  race  show  very  interesting  results 
which  have  a  direct  bearing  on  this  subject.     The  ob- 


servations  were  made  by  Dr.  Clapham,  and  reported 
by  him  in  the  Journal  of  the  Anthropological  Insti- 
tute. Dr.  Clapham  found  the  average  weight  of  the 
brains  which  he  examined  to  be :  in  males,  50  J 
ounces;  in  females,  45  ounces.  The  possessors  of 
these  brains  were  not  in  the  higher  classes  of  Chinese, 
but  were  Coolies,  who  are  the  lowest  class  of  Chinese 
society.  Notwithstanding  this  fact,  the  average  weight 
of  the  brain  in  the  males  was  one  ounce  greater  than 
that  of  the  average  European  man,  and  in  the  females 
one  and  one  half  ounces  greater  than  that  of  the  aver- 
age European  woman.  Now  if  the  premises  upon 
which  the  arguments  for  the  supposed  mental  inferi- 
ority of  women  are  based,  are  good  for  anything,  they 
will  prove  beyond  a  possibility  of  doubt  that  the  av- 
erage Chinaman  is  greatly  superior,  intellectually,  to 
the  average  European  male,  and  the  same  for  Chinese 

The  investigations  of  physiologists  have  shown 
that  the  brain  weight  of  the  average  negro  is  precisely 
the  same  as  that  of  the  brain  of  the  average  European 
woman.  As  the  intellectual  inferiority  of  the  negro 
male  to  the  European  male  is  universally  acknowl- 
edged, it  would  follow,  allowing  the  premises  to  be 
correct,  that  the  average  European  woman  must  be 
intellectually  inferior  to  the  average  European  man ; 
but  the  facts  stated  in  the  preceding  paragraph  con- 
clusively prove  that  this  method  of  reasoning  is  an 
incorrect  one.  As  stated  before,  the  element  of  qual- 
ity must  be  taken  into  consideration,  in  investiga- 
tions of  this  subject.  The  relation  of  brain  qual- 
ity to  the  brain  function  is  well  recognized  by  biolo- 


gists  in  the  study  of  the  mental  functions  in  lower 
animals,  and  why  should  not  the  same  principle  be 
applied  to  the  study  of  mind  in  human  beings? 
Dr.  W.  Lauder  Lindsay,  in  his  admirable  and  ex- 
haustive work  on  "  Mind  in  the  Lower  Animals,"  calls 
attention  to  this  fact  by  numerous  examples,  one  of 
the  most  striking  of  which  we  present  in  his  own 
language : — 

"  The  Nuehr  and  other  savages  depend  for  sub- 
sistence solely  on  what  nature  produces,  therefore  nei- 
ther sow  nor  plant,  and  consequently  are  frequently 
on  the  verge  on  starvation.  The  Veddas  of  Ceylon 
live  without  any  system  of  cultivation,  and  the  Bush- 
men of  Southern  Africa  have  neither  flocks  nor  culti- 
vated grounds.  On  the  other  hand,  according  to  the 
observations  of  Dr.  Lincecum,  who  has  carefully  stud- 
ied its  habits  since  1848,  there  is  in  Mexico,  Texas, 
and  other  parts  of  North  America,  an  ant  which  has 
been  distinctively  called  the  i  agricultural '  or  '  har- 
vesting '  ant.  It  not  only  stores  up  seed,  but  culti- 
vates the  plants  which  are  to  provide  it,  and  carefully 
gathers  in  its  crop  at  the  right  season.  ...  In 
the  wet  season  the  seeds  in  the  ant  granaries  are  apt 
to  get  wet  and  sprout ;  and,  accordingly,  on  the  first 
fine  day  the  ants  bring  out  all  the  damaged  grain  and 
set  it  in  the  sun  to  dry,  returning  to  the  store  only 
such  as  is  uninjured.  These  ants  may  truly  be  said 
to  cultivate  their  estates.  They  have  grass  paddocks 
around  their  estate  nests,  and  they  weed  these  pad- 
docks. From  their  fields  they  bear  off  all  herbage 
save  Aristida  Strigia,  a  grain-bearing  grass,  called  by 
Dr.  Lincecum  '  ant  rice,'  and  they  sow  the  seeds  of 

THE    YOUNG  LADY.  195 

the  same  grass.  When  ripe,  the  grain  is  harvested 
and  the  chaff  removed.  Several  other  grains  or  seeds 
of  grasses  and  other  plants  are  gathered  and  garnered 
in  a  similar  way.  These  ants,  therefore,  sow,  reap, 
and  store  grain  for  winter  use.  If  the  grain  is  set 
sprouting  by  damp  from  inundations  it  is  dried  in  the 
sun  on  fine  days — it  is  exposed,  that  is,  only  during 
the  day  and  during  sunshine,  being  taken  in-doors  at 
night.  According  to  Belt,  certain  leaf-cutting  ants  of 
Nicaragua  cultivate  fungi  on  decomposing  leaves  in 
their  subterranean  nests, '  the  ants  cutting  and  storing 
the  leaves  for  the  sake  of  the  fungi  which  are  subse- 
quently developed  in  the  debris.'" 

It  will  not  be  disputed  that  the  ants  above  de- 
scribed are  in  some  respects  superior  to  the  tribes  of 
savages  with  whom  they  are  compared,  notwithstand- 
ing that  the  brain  of  the  ant,  such  as  it  possesses,  is ' 
a  mere  atom  compared  with  that  of  a  Bushman. 

Bastian,  in  the  exhaustive  work  to  which  we  have 
previously  referred,  gives  the  weight  of  the  brain  in 
a  large  number  of  distinguished  men,  among  others 
those  of  Tiedmann,  the  celebrated  anatomist,  and 
Hausemann,  the  eminent  mineralogist;  the  brain  of 
the  former  weighing  44.2  ounces,  barely  above  that 
of  the  average  woman,  and  that  of  the  latter  43.2 
ounces,  considerably  below  the  weight  of  the  average 
female  brain.  Speaking  of  the  relation  of  brain  weight 
to  intelligence,  Bastian  says,  "It  seems  perfectly 
plain  from  the  facts  recorded  that  there  is  no  neces- 
sary or  invariable  relation  between  the  degree  of  intel- 
ligence of  human  beings  and  the  mere  size  and  weight 
of  a  brain.     Looking  in  fact  to  the  mere  size  nnd 


weight  of  a  brain,  it  must  never  be  forgotten  .  .  . 
that  an  organ  of  a  large  size  or  weight  may  yet  be  a 
more  or  less  inferior  perceptive  or  thinking  instrument 
by  reason  of  its  inner  and  finer  developments  being 
defective  and  badly  attuned  for  harmonious  action. 
Or  again,  it  may  be  a  defective  instrument  by  reason 
of  some  still  more  subtle  and  mere  molecular  pecul- 
iarities of  the  nerve  elements  of  which  it  is  composed  \ 
whereby  these  are  perhaps  both  less  receptive  and 
less  '  retentive '  of  those  sensorial  impressions  which 
constitute  the  raw  material  of  intelligence,  and  also 
less  capable  than  they  might  be  of  taking  part  in 
higher  mental  operations.  There  is,  therefore,  no  in- 
variable or  necessary  relation  between  the  mere  brain- 
weights  of  individuals  and  their  degrees  of  intelli- 

Bastian  also  mentions  the  fact  that  "  the  male 
brain  actually  attains  5-6ths,  and  the  female  brain 
10-llths  of  its  total  ultimate  weight  by  the  end  of 
the  seventh  year,  although  at  this  time  the  inner 
and  finer  structural  development  of  the  organ  is,  in  all 
its  higher  tracts,  still  in  a  comparatively  embryonic 
condition."  This  eminent  author  draws  from  this 
fact  the  following  conclusion  : — 

"Even  such  data  might,  therefore,  be  considered 
to  show,  in  the  strongest  manner,  how  comparatively 
unimportant  is  mere  bulk  or  weight  of  brain  in  refer- 
ence to  the  degree  of  intelligence  of  its  owner,  when 
considered,  as  it  often  is,  apart  from  the  much  more 
important  question  of  the  relative  amount  of  its  gray 
matter,  as  well  as  of  the  amount  and  perfection  of  the 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  197 

minute  internal  development  of  the  organ  either  act- 
ual or  possible." 

It  thus  appears  that  no  less  eminent  authority 
than  Dr.  Bastian  recognizes  the  fact  that  the  quality 
of  brain  structure  is  of  far  greater  importance  than 
quantity,  while  he,  as  well  as  all  other  investigators 
in  this  line,  hold  to  the  position  that  average  brain 
size  is,  all  other  things  being  taken  into  considera- 
tion, a  fair  measure  of  the  average  intelligence  of  a 
race  or  class  of  people.  It  is  reasonable  to  suppose 
that  more  extended  investigations  and  deeper  research 
into  the  finer  elements  of  brain  structure  may  only 
establish  the  fact  that  differences  in  mental  capacity 
observed  in  different  races  and  classes  result  as  much 
from  differences  in  the  quality  of  the  structure  as  in 
the  quantity  of  the  brain  matter. 

Use  has  also  been  made  of  the  fact  that  the  lower 
limit  of  brain  power  in  women,  that  is,  the  point  at 
which  human  intelligence  vanishes,  is  below  that  of 
males.  Broca,  as  quoted  by  Bastian,  places  the 
lowest  limit  at  which  ordinary  intelligence  may  be 
manifested  in  females  at  32  ounces,  and  in  males  at 
37  ounces.  A  recent  writer*  in  a  popular  magazine 
concludes  from  this  fact  that  the  male  brain  is  supe- 
rior to  that  of  the  female,  although  to  persons  of  "or- 
dinary intelligence"  it  would  seem  to  be  apparent 
that  the  female  brain-matter  must  be  superior  to  the 
cerebral  tissue  of  males  since  a  smaller  amount  of  it  is 
capable  of  manifesting  intelligence.     But  we  consider 

*  Miss  Emma  Hardaker,  Popular  Science  Monthly,  March, 



it  doubtful  whether  any  correct  conclusion  can  be 
drawn  from  such  data  as  this,  owing  to  the  fact  to 
which  we  previously  called  attention,  that  in  these 
investigations  no  account  was  taken  of  the  propor- 
tionate weight  of  the  brain  as  compared  with  the  rest 
of  the  body,  which  seems  to  us  too  important  a  mat- 
ter to  be  ignored.  We  ate  by  no  means  prepared  to 
accept  the  arguments  offered  by  the  writer  above  men- 
tioned, who  says,  "It  is  most  probable  that  we  may 
at  some  time  establish  an  exact  correspondence  be- 
tween brain  substance  and  intelligence,  as  the  size 
and  condition  of  the  lungs  yield  an  exact  measure 
of  the  breathing  power  and  as  the  contractile  muscle 
of  the  heart  measures  the  amount  of  blood  ejected  at 
each  pulsation." 

This  is  but  a  partial  view  of  the  case.  Breathing 
power,  as  we  have  often  demonstrated,  depends  as 
much  upon  the  quality  of  the  respiratory  apparatus 
as  upon  its  size.  We  have  frequently  met  cases  of 
very  great  lung  capacity  in  persons  much  below 
the  average  stature.  The  same  is  true  of  the  work- 
ing power  of  the  heart.  The  amount  of  blood  which 
the  heart  can  eject  depends  as  much  upon  the  quality 
of  the  muscle  and  its  nervous  connections  as  upon  the 
size  of  the  heart.  The  same  is  true  of  the  stomach 
and  other  organs.  The  amount  of  food  which  the  in- 
dividual can  digest  depends  not  alone  upon  the  size 
of  the  stomach,  but  upon  the  quality  of  the  stomach 
and  the  digestive  juices  secreted  by  it. 

While  it  may  be  true,  as  the  writer  referred  to 
states,  that  the  average  man  eats  and  assimilates  one- 
fifth  more  food  than  the  average  woman,  there  is  no 


good  ground  for  the  conclusion  that  because  a  man 
eats  more  he  thinks  more.  Again,  it  is  undoubtedly 
true  that  a  larger  amount  of  muscle  enables  him  to 
make  a  greater  expenditure  of  force,  but  this  can 
readily  be  accounted  for  by  the  greater  amount  of 
muscular  activity  in  man  as  compared  with  woman. 
The  author  reasons  on  the  supposition  that  "  the  brain 
of  man  has  the  same  proportion  to  the  weight  of  his 
body  that  the  brain  of  woman  has  to  the  weight  of 
her  body,"  which  we  have  previously  shown  to  be  in- 
correct, the  average  female  brain  being  greater  in  pro- 
portion to  the  weight  of  the  body  than  the  average 
male  brain.  It  thus  appears  that  while  the  brain  of 
woman  might  not  be  equal  in  absolute  size,  it  might 
still  receive  as  large  an  amount  of  blood  and  utilize 
as  great  an  amount  of  force  on  account  of  its  greater 
proportionate  size. 

The  same  writer  also  bases  an  argument  on  the 
fact  that  woman  expends  a  large  amount  of  force  in 
the  functions  of  motherhood,  which  he  assumes  as 
about  one-twentieth  part  of  the  total  amount  of  vital 
force  during  the  child-bearing  period.  In  this  argu- 
ment an  important  fact  is  overlooked,  namely,  that 
during  the  period  of  pregnancy,  when  the  mother's 
vital  powers  are  taxed  in  an  extraordinary  degree,  a 
more  than  commensurate  increase  occurs  in  the  force- 
producing  capacities  of  the  mother.  This  fact  is  well 
recognized  by  physiologists,  and  ought  not  to  be  ig- 
nored in  this  discussion.  It  is  well  known  that  a 
woman  usually  gains  in  flesh  during  the  period  of 
pregnancy,  and  women  often  enjoy  a  higher  degree  of 
health  at  this    period    than   when  in    their    usual 


conditions.  In  view  of  this  fact,  it  appears  to 
be  fair  to  draw  the  conclusion  that  motherhood  is 
really  a  gain  to  an  individual  in  the  ability  to  mani- 
fest force  rather  than  a  loss,  at  any  rate,  during  the 
period  in  which  the  functions  of  maternity  may  be 

Another  fact  is  worifcy  of  attention  in  this  con- 
nection, namely,  that  the  transmission  of  character- 
istics from  the  mother  to  the  daughter  by  heredity  is 
scarcely  if  any  greater  than  from  the  father  to  the 
daughter.  If  woman's  training  and  education  through 
generations  has  been  such  as  to  develop  her  mental 
faculties  less  than  those  of  man,  the  deteriorating  influ- 
ences of  these  circumstances  must  be  neutralized  by 
heredity,  since  mothers  are  as  likely  to  transmit  their 
enfeebled  mental  qualities  to  their  sons  as  to  their 
daughters,  and  fathers  as  likely  to  transmit  their  su- 
perior mental  development  to  their  daughters  as  to 
their  sons.  The  seeming  contradictions  to  this  state- 
ment may  be  readily  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that 
girls  have  not,  at  least  until  recently,  enjoyed  the 
same  opportunities  for  developing  the  mental  powers 
which  they  might  possess  as  have  boys,  so  that  supe- 
rior inherited  mental  qualifications  have  undoubtedly 
in  thousands  of  instances  lain  dormant  in  women  be- 
cause their  circumstances  were  not  such  as  to  expand 
and  develop  them. 

But  suppose  that  those  who  so  arduously  seek  to 
demonstrate  the  mental  inferiority  of  woman  were 
able  to  establish  their  point,  what  conclusion  has  been 
reached  ?  Simply  the  fact  that  through  a  long  course 
of  injudicious  training,  woman  has  become  mentally  as 


well  as  physically  inferior  to  man.  That  such  a  dif- 
ference, if  it  exists,  is  simply  the  result  of  education, 
cannot  be  doubted.  All  the  evidence  necessary  for 
the  demonstration  of  this  fact  is  afforded  by  an  ob- 
servation made  by  Vogt,  as  quoted  by  Bastian  in  his 
recent  admirable  work  entitled  "  The  Brain  as  an  Or- 
gan of  Mind,"  that  the  difference  between  the  size  of 
the  brain  in  males  and  females  is  much  less  in  unciv- 
ilized than  in  civilized  nations.  This  is  undoubtedly 
due  to  the  fact  that  in  races  which  are  in  a  low  state 
of  culture  the  occupations  for  physical  and  mental 
labor  are  more  nearly  alike.  As  Vogt  remarks, 
"  Among  the  Australians,  the  Bushmen,  and  other  low 
races  possessing  no  fixed  habitations,  the  wTife  par- 
takes of  all  her  husband's  toils,  and  has,  in  addition, 
the  care  of  the  progeny.  The  sphere  of  occupation 
is  the  same  for  both  sexes ;  whilst  among  civilized 
nations  there  is  a  division  both  in  physical  and  men- 
tal labor.  If  it  be  true  that  every  organ  is  strength- 
ened by  exercise,  increasing  in  size  and  weight,  it 
must  equally  apply  to  the  brain,  which  must  become 
more  developed  by  proper  mental  exercise." 

The  observations  made  by  Le  Bon,  also  quoted  by 
Bastian,  show  that  the  difference  between  the  capac- 
ity of  the  skulls  of  males  and  females  among  modern 
Parisians  is  about  double  that  of  the  ancient  Egyp- 
tians. From  these  facts  we  may  legitimately  draw  the 
conclusion  that  the  difference  in  the  mental  develop- 
ment of  men  and  women  is  wholly  the  result  of  differ- 
ences in  training  and  education  which  have  been  oper- 
ating through  many  generations.  If  this  is  the  case, 
certainly  it  is  about  time  that  woman  had  a  chance  to 


regain  her  lost  capacity ;  and  instead  of  being  an  argu- 
ment against  the  demands  made  for  woman  for  wider 
opportunities  for  culture,  it  is  the  best  possible  argu- 
ment which  could  be  urged  in  favor  of  affording  her 
such  opportunities.  Indeed,  it  is  evident  that  she 
ought  to  be  provided  with  better  opportunities  for 
culture  and  development  than  man,  who  has  so  long 
enjoyed  a  monopoly  of  these  advantages. 

Coeducation  of  the  Sexes. — The  question  of  the 
coeducation  of  young  men  and  young  women  has  been 
much  discussed  during  recent  years.  The  question 
is  important,  but  we  have  not  here  space  to  give  it 
more  than  a  very  brief  consideration.  Under  proper 
restrictions  as  to  intercourse  with  each  other,  we  re- 
gard the  coeducation  of  boys  and  girls  as  beneficial  to 
both,  in  accustoming  each  to  the  society  of  the  other, 
and  conducive  to  the  development  of  desirable  traits 
and  the  repression  of  undesirable  ones  in  both  sexes. 
The  difficulties  in  preventing  too  intimate  associations 
of  the  sexes  during  school-life  are  sometimes  so  great, 
or  the  necessary  restrictions  so  imperfectly  main- 
tained, that  whatever  advantages  might  be  derived 
from  proper  associations  are  much  more  than  neu- 
tralized by  the  evil  results  of  too  great  intimacy 
between  the  sexes.  A  school  at  which  boys  and 
girls  or  young  men  and  young  women,  are  allowed 
to  associate  without  the  restraint  of  rigorous  discipline 
and  the  enforcement  of  wholesome  regulations,  is  a 
dangerous  place  for  either  sex ;  and  schools  in  which 
the  sexes  are  strictly  isolated  are  decidedly  preferable 
to  such  schools  as  these,  which  are,  unfortunately,  far 
too  common.     It  may,  in  fact,  be  regarded  as  abso- 


lutely  impossible  for  a  faculty  or  board  of  trustees,  in 
a  school  for  both  sexes,  to  prevent  serious  evils  from 
growing  out  of  the  close  associations  of  school-life  and 
the  opportunities  for  improper  and  injurious  alliances, 
without  the  thorough  cooperation  of  the  parents  of  the 
students  and  of  the  community  in  which  the  school  is 
located.  This  fact  is  well  evidenced  by  the  frequent 
occurrence  of  scandals  in  connection  with  colleges  and 
seminaries  and  the  numerous  elopements  and  prema- 
ture marriages  which  originate  in  the  too  intimate  as- 
sociation of  the  sexes  during  school-life. 

The  great  objection  which  is  urged  against  the 
coeducation  of  the  sexes  is  that  women  have  no 
practical  use  for  the  scientific  and  classical  studies  to 
the  acquirement  of  which  a  great  portion  of  the  period 
of  study  in  our  colleges  is  devoted.  It  should  be 
borne  in  mind,  however,  that  the  discipline  derived 
from  a  thorough  course  of  training  in  the  classics  and 
sciences  is  really  of  far  greater  value  than  the  mere 
knowledge  obtained.  The  Iliad  and  the  Odyssey 
may  be  forgotten ;  the  abstractions  of  mental  philos- 
ophy may  sink  into  oblivion ;  time  may  efface  almost 
the  last  trace  of  the  knowledge  of  facts  so  laboriously 
acquired ;  but  the  acumen  of  thought,  the  power  of 
critical  analysis,  the  strength  and  independence  of  char- 
acter gained  by  the  labor  put  forth  in  the  acquisition 
of  knowledge,  can  never  be  lost  while  reason  remains 
enthroned.  The  majority  of  men  who  graduate  from 
colleges  do  not  spend  their  lives  in  translating  Greek 
poems  nor  in  solving  the  problems  of  Euclid.  Proba- 
bly two-thirds  or  three-fourths  never  look  into  their 
Greek  or  Latin  text-books  six  months  after  they  re- 


ceive  their  diplomas.  Their  school  studies  are  for- 
saken and  soon  forgotten ;  but  the  mental  discipline 
which  they  received  in  their  pursuit  remains  with 
them  as  valuable  capital  to  be  invested  in  any  enter- 
prise in  which  they  may  embark. 

A  sensible  woman  who  has  been  thoroughly  edu- 
cated in  the  classics,  mathematics,  chemistry,  and  ge- 
ology, need  not  necessarily  make  herself  ridiculous 
by  quoting  Latin  or  Greek  passages  to  her  visitors,  or 
spend  her  whole  time  in  the  collection  of  specimens 
of  rocks  and  minerals,  or  in  chemical  investigations 
for  the  detection  of  some  new  metal,  or  in  midnight 
observations  for  the  discovery  of  a  comet  or  a  new 
planet.  The  mental  training,  the  habits  of  close 
thought,  the  power  of  independent  reasoning  and  in- 
vestigation which  the  woman  of  sound  mind  acquires 
in  a  thorough  college  course  are  of  as  great  benefit  to 
her  in  the  performance  of  household  duties  as  to  her 
equally  well  educated  brother  engaged  in  the  various 
departments  of  business  life. 

Overstudy  at  Critical  Periods. — The  only  real 
evil  result  to  woman  which  can  be  made  to  appear  as 
growing  out  of  the  coeducation  of  the  sexes  is  the 
possibility  of  overstudy  when  the  system  requires 
tranquility  of  mind  and  rest  of  body.  As  previously 
remarked,  the  girl  who  is  approaching  puberty  should 
be  relieved  of  severe  burdens  of  any  kind.  She  is 
not  prepared  to  sustain  any  severe  tax  of  either  mind 
or  body,  and  if  at  this  time  she  is  compelled  to  keep 
pace  with  others  whose  conditions  are  not  such  as  to 
demand  shorter  lessons  and  less  severe  mental  taxa- 
tion, the   exhaustion   of  the  nervous   system  which 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  205 

may  result  may  interfere  seriously  with  the  proper 
completion  of  the  approaching  changes  in  her  physi- 
cal system  intended  to  result  in  the  establishment  of 
an  important  function.  There  is  no  doubt  that  girls 
have  sometimes  been  injured  by  overstudy  at  this 
critical  period. 

What  is  true  of  the  few  months  preceding  the  es- 
tablishment of  the  menstrual  function  is  also  true  of 
the  few  days  attending  each  subsequent  occurrence  of 
the  flow  during  the  first  years  after  the  establishment 
of  this  function,  especially  the  first  two  or  three. 
Girls  require  rest  of  both  body  and  mind  at  the  men- 
strual period.  This  should  not  be  absolute,  but  noth- 
ing taxing  should  be  imposed  upon  them.  They  are 
not  able  to  do  their  best  physically  nor  mentally  at 
this  period,  as  the  forces  of  the  system  are  in  part  oc- 
cupied in  the  performance  of  vital  functions  not  un- 
der the  control  of  the  will. 

From  these  facts  it  appears  that  girls  between  the 
ages  of  twelve  and  eighteen  should  not  be  expected 
to  do  so  large  an  amount  of  work  as  boys  of  equal 
mental  capacity,  and  hence  it  appears  that  certain 
dangers  may  arise  from  the  competition  of  the  sexes 
in  a  school  in  wThich  they  are  educated  together. 
This  danger  is  by  no  means  so  great,  however,  as  has 
been  claimed,  since,  as  is  well  known  to  physiologists 
and  to  all  acute  observers,  girls  develop  mentally 
more  rapidly  than  boys.  The  mental  capacity  of  a 
girl  at  sixteen  is  usually  equal  to  that  of  a  boy  at 
eighteen,  so  that  as  a  rule  girls  are  able  to  accomplish 
their  school  tasks  much  more  rapidly  than  boys  of 
the  same  ages  and  with  a  less  expenditure  of  vital 


force.  This  being  the  case,  the  teacher  who  under- 
stands the  matter  will  readily  obviate  the  liability  to 
injury  which  the  young  lady  members  of  his  classes 
might  otherwise  suffer  by  showing  them  greater  len- 
iency during  the  week  of  the  menstrual  period,  know- 
ing that  they  will,  if  properly  encouraged,  readily 
make  up  during  the  three  following  weeks  the  little 
they  may  have  dropped  behind. 

Those  who  use  this  argument  against  the  coedu- 
cation of  the  sexes  seem  to  have  lost  sight  of  the  fact 
that  it  tells  fully  as  much  against  the  education  of 
girls  together  as  against  the  coeducation  of  girls 
and  boys.  If  a  girl  cannot  be  educated  in  connec- 
tion with  a  boy  on  account  of  her  diminished  ability 
to  study  during  the  menstrual  week,  it  is  evident  that 
she  cannot  be  educated  with  other  girls,  except  those 
whose  menstrual  week  may  happen  to  occur  at  the 
same  time  as  her  own.  The  carrying  out  of  this 
principle  would  require  that  girls  should  be  classified 
according  to  the  time  of  the  occurrence  of  the  men- 
strual function  as  well  as  according  to  their  mental 
acquirements  or  ability.  But  we  hope  no  one  will 
attempt  to  carry  out  this  suggestion,  as  such  a  proj- 
ect would  certainly  prove  a  failure  on  account  of  the 
great  variation  of  the  time  of  the  occurrence  of  the 
menstrual  function  during  the  first  few  years  after  it 
is  established,  the  only  time  when  it  interferes  to 
any  great  extent  with  the  other  functions  of  the 
body,  mentally  or  physically. 

From  some  considerable  observation  with  refer- 
ence to  this  subject  we  are  convinced  that  the  injury 
which  girls  suffer  from  the  system  of  coeducation  is 


not  so  much  due  to  their  sexual  peculiarities  as  to  the 
improper  methods  to  which  they  are  subjected.  The 
process  of  cramming,  so  common  in  nearly  all  of  our 
popular  schools,  and  particularly  in  young  ladies'  sem- 
inaries, is  really  the  cause  of  the  greatest  injury  to 
young  girls.  They  suffer  more  than  boys  from  this 
"  stuffing  "  process  because  of  the  diminished  ability 
to  endure  it  to  which  they  are  subject  at  certain  pe- 
riods. We  firmly  believe  that  girls  are  fully  able  to 
compete  with  boys  of  the  same  age  in  the  study  of  any 
of  the  subjects  pursued  in  our  schools  and  colleges, 
provided  natural  and  proper  methods  of  instruction 
are  employed. 

We  ought  not  to  leave  this  part  of  the  subject 
without  calling  attention  to  the  fact  that  much  of  the 
weakness  and  failure  of  girls  during  school-life  is  due 
to  improper  habits  of  dress,  improper  food,  want  of 
regular  habits  of  rest,  attendance  at  theaters,evening 
parties,  dances,  etc.,  too  little  physical  exercise,  con- 
finement in  close  and  unventilated  schoolrooms,  sit- 
ting upon  hard  and  improperly  made  seats,  bending 
over  desks  which  are  equally  improper  and  unsuitable 
in  construction, — all  of  these  causes  and  many  more, 
among  which  may  be  included  the  vicious  habit  to 
which  we  have  called  attention  in  a  previous  section, 
are  really  the  chief  causes  of  the  numerous  break- 
downs which  are  so  common  among  school  girls. 

Novel- Reading. — The  reading  of  works  of  fiction 
is  one  of  the  most  pernicious  habits  to  which  a  young 
lady  can  become  devoted.  When  the  habit  is  once 
thoroughly  fixed,  it  becomes  as  inveterate  as  the  use 
of  liquor  or  opium.     The  novel-devotee  is  as  much  a 


slave  as  the  opium-eater  or  the  inebriate.  The  read- 
ing of  fictitious  literature  destroys  the  taste  for  sober, 
wholesome  reading  and  imparts  an  unhealthy  stimulus 
to  the  mind  the  effect  of  which  is  in  the  highest  de- 
gree damaging. 

When  we  add  to  this  the  fact  that  a  large  share 
of  the  popular  novels  of  the  day  contain  more  or  less 
matter  of  a  directly  depraving  character,  presented  in 
such  gilded  form  and  specious  guise  that  the  work  of 
contamination  may  be  completed  before  suspicion  is 
aroused,  it  should  become  apparent  to  every  careful 
mother  that  her  daughters  should  be  vigilantly 
guarded  against  this  dangerous  source  of  injury  and 
possible  ruin.  We  have  dilated  quite  fully  upon  this 
subject  in  a  preceding  section  and  will  not  enlarge 
upon  it  here.  We  wish,  however,  to  put  ourself  upon 
record  as  believing  firmly  that  the  practice  of  novel 
reading  is  one  of  the  greatest  causes  of  uterine  dis- 
ease in  young  women.  There  is  no  doubt  that  the 
influence  of  the  mind  upon  the  sexual  organs  and 
functions  is  such  that  disease  may  be  produced  in  this 
way.  As  remarked  in  the  consideration  of  the  physi- 
ology of  the  reproductive  organs,  it  is  a  common  ob- 
servation that  the  menstrual  function  may  be  sus- 
pended suddenly  as  the  result  of  grief  or  some 
other  strong  emotion  experienced  by  the  individual. 
Hemorrhage  or  profuse  menstruation  may  result  from 
a  similar  cause.  These  facts  demonstrate  beyond  the 
possibility  of  question  that  the  circulation  in  the 
uterus  and  its  appendages  is  greatly  subject  to 
changes  through  the  influence  of  the  mind.  Reading 
of  a  character  to  stimulate  the  emotions  and  rouse 


the  passions  may  produce  or  increase  a  tendency  to 
uterine  congestion,  which  may  in  turn  give  rise  to  a 
great  variety  of  maladies,  including  all  the  different 
forms  of  displacement,  the  presence  of  which  is  indi- 
cated by  weak  backs,  painful  menstruation,  leucor- 
rhoea,  etc. 

We  do  not  insist  that  nothing  should  ever  be  read 
but  history,  biography,  or  perfectly  authentic  accounts 
of  experiences  in  real  life.  There  are  undoubtedly 
novels,  such  as  Uncle  Tom's  Cabin,  and  one  or  two 
others  which  we  might  mention,  which  have  been 
active  agents  in  the  accomplishment  of  great  and 
good  results.  Such  novels  are  not  likely  to  do  any- 
body any  harm ;  but  the  number  of  harmless  works 
of  fiction  is  very  limited  indeed.  Many  works  which 
are  considered  among  the  standards  of  literature  are 
wholly  unfit  for.  the  perusal  of  young  ladies  who  wish 
to  retain  their  simplicity  of  mind  and  purity  of 
thought.  We  have  felt  our  cheeks  burn  more  than 
once  when  we  have  seen  young  school-girls  intently 
poring  over  the  vulgar  poems  of  Chaucer  or  the  amor- 
ous ditties  of  Burns  or  Byron.  Still  worse  than  any 
of  these  are  the  low  witticisms  of  Rabelais  and  Boc- 
caccio ;  and  yet  we  have  not  infrequently  seen  these 
volumes  in  the  book-cases  of  family  libraries  readily 
accessible  to  the  young  daughters  or  growing  sons  of 
the  family.  The  growing  influence  of  this  kind  of 
literature  is  far  more  extensive  than  can  be  readily 
demonstrated.  Thousands  of  women  whose  natural 
love  for  purity  leads  them  to  shun  and  abhor  every- 
thing of  an  immoral  tendency,  yet  find  themselves 
obliged  to  wage  a  painful  warfare  for  years  to  banish 


from  their  minds  the  impure  imagery  generated  by 
the  perusal  of  books  of  this  character.  We  have  met 
cases  of  disease  in  which  painful  maladies  could  be 
traced  directly  to  this  source. 

Impurity  of  Speeeh. — It  is  not  to  be  supposed 
that  young  ladies  are  by  any  means  so  remiss  in  this 
particular  as  the  majority  of  young  men,  and  yet  we 
have  had  painful  evidence  of  the  fact  that  too  often 
even  young  ladies  who  are  looked  upon  as  in  the 
highest  degree  respectable  allow  themselves  to  indulge 
in  conversation  of  a  character  which  they  would  not 
like  to  have  overheard  by  their  mothers.  We  would 
not  say  that  every  young  woman  who  indulges  in 
loose  conversations  is  guilty  of  vicious  habits ;  but  it 
is  certain  that  a  young  woman  who  allows  herself  to 
utter  unchaste  words  and  joins  with  others  in  conver- 
sation upon  impure  subjects,  if  not  already  impure,  is 
in  a  way  to  become  so  should  a  strong  temptation 
present  itself  under  favorable  circumstances. 

The  habit  which  many  girls  have  of  talking  famil- 
iarly about  the  boys,  is  an  exceedingly  detrimental 
one.  It  leads  in  the  same  direction  as  the  habit  in- 
dulged in  by  many  coarse  and  vulgar  young  men  who 
stand  upon  the  street  corners  making  lewd  criticisms 
upon  every  passing  female.  "  Out  of  the  abundance 
of  the  heart  the  mouth  speaketh,"  are  the  words  of  an 
inspired  writer,  and  it  is  fair  to  conclude  that  a  young 
woman  who  delights  in  conversation  upon  unchaste 
subjects  is  poorly  fortified  against  the  temptation  to 
overt  acts  of  unchastity. 

Women  of  mature  age  as  well  as  young  girls  are 
often  guilty  of  this  same  practice.     In  one  form  or 


another  this  "  ghost  of  vice  "  often  haunts  the  sewing- 
circle  and  the  boudoir.  Women  who  consider  them- 
selves immaculate  often  seem  to  enjoy  nothing  more 
thoroughly  than  the  retailing  of  scandal  and  gossiping 
about  the  lapses  from  virtue  of  the  sons  and  daughters 
of  their  neighbors. 

Lapses  from  virtue,  in  women  as  well  as  men,  be- 
gin with  mental  impurity.  A  young  woman  who 
allows  her  imagination  to  run  riot  in  lewdness  is  in  a 
fair  way  to  become  impure  in  deed  as  well  as  thought. 
Man,  even  when  most  debased,  loves  to  regard  woman 
as  chaste  and  pure  in  mind  as  well  as  body,  and  a 
woman  cannot  consider  herself  in  the  strictest  sense 
pure  unless  she  reaches  this  high  ideal.  Even  listen- 
ing to  impure  conversation  without  participation  in  it 
is  demoralizing  and  destructive  to  purity,  as  the  mind 
accustomed  to  hear  words  of  unchaste  and  impure 
meaning  unconsciously  acquires  some  tolerance  not 
only  of  the  language  but  of  the  actions  which  it  signi- 
fies. The  society  of  women  either  young  or  old  who 
indulge  in  unchaste  conversation,  should  be  shunned 
as  one  would  avoid  the  vicinity  of  a  rattlesnake  or  a 
man  sick  with  the  plague.  The  moral  disease  engen- 
dered by  this  contagion  of  vice  is  far  more  deadly 
than  any  physical  malady  from  which  the  body  can 
suffer,  yet  these  inoculators  of  vice  are  often  admitted 
to  the  best  circles  of  society,  and  the  moral  vaccina- 
tion to  which  girls  and  young  women  who  come  un- 
der their  influence  are  subjected,  is  much  more  cer- 
tain to  "work"  and  to  develop  in  some  foul  disease  in 
the  victims  than  a  vaccine  inoculation  for  kine-pox. 


The  Immoral  Dance. — Notwithstanding  the  apol- 
ogies which  have  been  made  for  dancing  by  clergy- 
men in  high  positions,  the  impression  is  becoming 
each  year  more  and  more  fixed  in  the  minds  of 
thoughtful  people  that  dancing  is  in  the  highest  degree 
demoralizing  in  its  tendency.  This  is  especially  true 
of  what  is  known  as  round  dancing,  and  particularly 
of  the  different  varieties  of  the  waltz.  Recently, 
Prof.  Welch,  a  popular  dancing-master  of  Philadel- 
phia, after  having  been  for  many  years  engaged  in 
his  profession  and  having  the  widest  opportunities  for 
observation  of  the  effects  of  the  waltz,  speaks  out 
against  it  in  the  following  decided  terms  : — 

"  I  have  watched  closely  and  thought  deeply  on 
the  subject,  and  now  I  have  no  hesitation  in  say- 
ing that  the  waltz,  under  whatsoever  name  it  may  go 
for  the  time  being,  is  immoral.  It  is  the  only  dance 
that  decent  people  protest  against,  and  I  am  happy  to 
say  that  there  still  remain  numbers  of  careful  fathers 
who  will  not  allow  their  daughters  to  dance  it,  although 
a  vast  proportion  of  the  fashionable  and  a  majority  of 
the  middle  and  lower  classes  do  not  seem  as  yet 
awakened  to  its  iniquity.  Ten  or  fifteen  years  ago 
the  waltz  was  not  so  objectionable  as  at  present. 
Dancers  of  to-day  come  in  altogether  too  close  con- 
tact. In  the  old  time  a  gentleman  merely  touched  a 
lady's  waist,  at  the  same  time  holding  her  right  hand 
in  his  left.  Now  he  throws  his  arm  clear  around  her 
form,  pulls  her  closely  to  him,  as  though  fearful  of 
losing  her,  brings  his  face  into  actual  contact  with  her 
soft  cheek,  and,  in  a  word,  hugs  her.  Such  action  is 
altogether  too  familiar,  but  still  custom  and  society 


sanction  it,  and  instead  of  improvement  for  the  better, 
we  see  year  after  year  a  marked  advance  in  the  im- 
proprieties of  the  dance.  In  the  old  days  the  waltz 
was  comparatively  modest ;  now  it  is  just  the  reverse, 
and  the  waltz  is  calculated  to  do  more  injury  to  the 
young  than  many  of  the  vices  that  are  preached 
against  from  the  pulpit  and  deeply  deplored  in  pri- 
vate life. 

"  I  have  made  it  my  practice  for  years  to  attend 
parties  in  order  to  keep  pace  in  my  teachings  with 
the  popular  demand.  I  have  no  hesitation  in  saying 
that  I  attribute  much  of  the  vice  and  immorality  now 
prevailing  to  the  insidious  influences  of  the  waltz. 
This  may  seem  an  overstraining  of  the  point,  but  it 
is  my  honest  conviction.  I  tell  you  that  in  the  higher 
circles,  young  ladies  at  parties  and  balls  are  absolutely 
hugged— embraced  would  be  too  weak  to  express  my 
meaning — by  men  who  were  altogether  unknown  to 
them  before  the  waltz  began  to  inspire  tho  toes  of  the 
dancers.     Is  this  a  pleasant  sight  to  contemplate? 

"  Then  in  the  lower  classes,  the  license  of  the 
dance  is  much  more  shocking.  I  have  seen  couples 
so  closely  interlocked  that  the  face  of  the  man  was 
actually  in  contact  with  that  of  the  palpitating  girl 
in  his  arms.  I  have  seen  kisses  interchanged  amid 
the  whirl  of  the  maddening  waltz." 

The  writer  of  the  above   raises   no   objection  to 

other  dances  than  those  characterized    by  what   he 

terms  "  hugging,"  but  in  our  opinion  there  is  no  place 

where  the  line  can  be  drawn  between  harmless  and 

harmful  dancing  when  both  sexes  participate  in  the 

exercise.     As  a  mode  of  exercise,  we  have  no  objec- 

■214  THE  LADIES9   GUIDE. 

tion  to  dancing  itself  any  more  than  to  calisthenics 
or  parlor  gymnastics ;  but  like  card-playing,  this  form 
of  exercise  has  been  rendered  dangerous  and  per- 
nicious by  the  demoralizing  influences  with  which  it 
has  been  so  long  associated.  We  do  not  approve  of 
even  parlor  dances  when  the  participants  are  members 
of  the  same  family.  This  may  justly  be  compared  to 
tippling  or  moderate  drinking,  which  is  pretty  certain, 
sooner  or  later,  to  result  in  drunkenness.  So  parlor 
dancing  eventually  leads  to  public  balls  and  all  the 
ovil  associations  connected  therewith. 

Some  little  time  ago,  the  Chief  of  Police  in  Ne\f 
York  City  made  the  astounding  statement  that  "three- 
fourths  of  the  abandoned  girls  in  that  city  are  ruined 
by  dancing."  We  might  recount  a  large  number  of 
•cases  which  have  come  to  our  knowledge  in  which  in- 
nocent girls  and  young  women  have  begun  the  down- 
ward course  to  shame  and  utter  moral  ruin  in  the 
dancing-school.  In  our  opinion,  this  form  of  amuse- 
ment ought  to  be  discountenanced*  by  respectable 
Christian  people  everywhere.  Not  only  is  it  harmful 
on  account  of  its  immoral  tendencies,  but  on  account 
of  the  physical  injury  which  frequently  results. 
Thousands  of  young  women  in  blooming  health  have 
laid  the  seeds  of  consumption  in  a  cold  contracted  by 
going  out  of  an  over-heated  ball-room  in  a  light,  fash- 
ionable dress,  reeking  with  perspiration  from  the  ex- 
haustive heat  and  the  vigorous  exercise,  into  the  cold 
air  of  a  wintry  night.  Many  cases  of  serious  uterine 
disease  have  come  under  our  care  which  were  directly 
traceable  to  indulgence  in  midnight  dancing  with  hips 
-and  waist  burdened  with  heavy,  trailing  skirts,  often 

THE   YVUNG  LADY.  215 

at  a  time  when  complete  mental  and  physical  rest 
should  have  been  taken. 

It  is  true  that  dancing  is  a  healthful  exercise.  We 
do  not  object  to  it  on  the  ground  that  when  taken  at 
proper  hours  and  not  too  greatly  prolonged  it  may 
not  be  harmless  as  a  form  of  exercise  ;  but  these  con- 
ditions are  seldom  secured,  and  dancing  offers  no 
advantages  whatever  over  calisthenics  or  parlor  gym- 
nastics, which  are  wholly  free  from  the  dangers  and 
evil  consequences  of  the  dance. 

Diet. — As  a  rule,  girls  are  more  delicate  in  their 
tastes  than  boys.  Taking  less  vigorous  out-of-door 
exercise,  their  appetites  are  less  keen  and  more  fas- 
tidious. They  are  more  fond  of  pastry  and  knick- 
knacks  and  care  less  for  the  substantial  of  diet.  By 
the  indulgence  of  this  morbid  taste,  a  large  share  of 
the  young  ladies  of  the  day  either  actually  become 
dyspeptics  or  lay  the  foundation  for  this  disease  while 
yet  in  their  teens.  We  have  no  doubt  that  a 
large  share  of  tne  nervousness  which  is  so  character- 
istic of  American  women  has  its  foundation  in  these 
depraved  appetites  and  the  consequent  impaired  di- 
gestion. Imperfect  elaboration  of  food  leaves  the 
blood  deficient  in  nutritive  elements  and  more  or  less 
impaired  in  quality  by  the  addition  of  the  crude  prod- 
ucts of  impaired  digestion.  The  impoverished  blood 
is  deficient  in  the  elements  which  go  to  rebuild  the 
brain  and  nervous  system,  and  this  portion  of  the 
body  soon  manifests  its  diseased  condition  by  a  weak 
and  disordered  action  which  is  termed  nervousness. 
Most  of  the  neuralgia  which  is  the  bane  of  so  many 
women's  lives  is  but  the  cry  of  tired,  impoverished 


nerves  for  more  and  better  food.  The  same  impover- 
ished condition  of  the  nervous  system  is  undoubtedly 
responsible  for  much  of  the  hysteria  as  well  as  other 
forms  of  nervousness  with  which  the  young  women  of 
the  present  day,  especially  the  daughters  of  fashion- 
able parents,  are  afflicted. 

The  habit  some  young  ladies  have  of  drinking 
vinegar  in  large  quantities  for  the  purpose,  as  they 
say,  of  making  their  complexions  white,  is  in  the 
highest  degree  detrimental  to  health.  In  fact,  it  is 
through  the  injury  to  the  digestive  organs  that  the 
supposed  desirable  results  are  obtained,  the  effect  of 
the  vinegar  being  to  impoverish  the  blood  and  so  pro- 
duce an  unnatural  paleness  of  the  countenance. 

Tea  and  Coffee. — Some  time  ago,  a  friend  sent  us 
a  clipping  from  a  popular  newspaper,  consisting  of  an 
extract  from  a  lecture  delivered  at  Sheffield,  Eng.,  in 
which  a  professor  said,  "  The  domestic,  quiet  life  and 
habits  of  the  Chinese  owe  much  of  tijeir  strength  to 
the  constant  use  of  this  beverage  (tea)."  This  asser- 
tion, the  gentleman  sending  the  clipping  made  the 
basis  of  an  argument  in  favor  of  the  general  use  of 
tea;  but  who  ever  heard  before  that  the  Chinese 
were  particularly  noted  for  placable,  quiet  tempers 
and  domestic  habits  ?  About  the  first  Chinaman  we 
ever  saw  threw  his  flat-iron  through  a  window,  break- 
ing two  sashes  of  glass,  because  some  little  boys  in 
the  street  were  gazing  in  astonishment  to  see  him 
sprinkle  clothes  with  his  mouth.  The  testimony  of 
the  eminent  Dr.  Bock,  of  Leipsic,  is  that  "  the  snap- 
pish, petulant  humor  of  the  Chinese  can  certainly  be 
ascribed  to  their  immoderate  fondness  for  tea." 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  217 

Not  long  ago  a  lady  patient  said  to  us  while  un- 
dergoing an  examination,  "  Now,  Doctor,  do  tell  me 
what  makes  me  so  cross !  I  did  not  use  to  be  ir- 
ritable ;  but  for  two  or  three  years  I  have  been  get- 
ting so  cross  and  disagreeable  that  I  do  not  see  how 
my  friends  can  endure  me.  I  scold  and  fret  without 
any  cause  whatever,  and  get  out  of  patience  with 
every  little  thing.  Do  tell  me  what  is  the  matter." 
Having  learned  that  the  lady  was  in  the  habit  of  us- 
ing strong  tea,  we  attributed  the  irritability  to  that 
cause.  She  gave  up  the  use  of  tea  in  a  short  time, 
and  soon  recovered  her  former  equanimity  of  temper. 

The  use  of  strong  tea  and  coffee  by  young  ladies 
undoubtedly  has  much  to  do  with  the  depraved  con- 
dition in  which  the  nervous  system  is  found  in  at  least 
nine  out  of  ten  of  the  fashionable  young  ladies  of  the 
present  day.  The  use  of  these  beverages  not  only 
directly  impairs  the  nervous  system  through  the 
narcotic  principle  which  they  contain,  but  creates  a 
demand  for  otWer  stimulants  and  narcotics,  as  alcohol, 
chloral,  and  morphine,  which  are  frequently  re- 
sorted to. 

The  use  of  these  articles  is  so  very  common  and 
their  injurious  effects  so  little  appreciated,  that  we 
feel  justified  in  introducing  here  a  somewhat  extended 
consideration  of  their  character  and  influence  on  the 
human  body,  hoping  thereby  to  cause  a  few  of  those 
who  peruse  these  pages  to  take  a  resolute  stand 
against  them. 

A  correspondent  writes  that  one  of  his  neighbors 
daily  drinks  ic  four  cups  of  tea  at  breakfast,  four  at 
dinner,  and  four  or  five  at  supper."     lie  raises  the 


question  whether  his  neighbor  is  not  as  bad  a  man 
from  the  stand-point  of  temperance  as  himself,  who 
uses  tobacco.  The  query  is  certainly  a  pertinent 
one,  and  there  can  be  no  question  that  the  use  of 
tea  in  the  quantities  described  is  quite  as  bad  as  the 
use  of  tobacco  in  the  quantities  in  which  it  is  usually 
taken.  It  does  not  seem  to  be  generally  understood 
that  tea  and  coffee  are  poisons ;  but  the  experiments 
of  a  large  number  of  scientists  show  most  conclusively 
that  they  both  contain  a  substance  known  as  caffeine 
or  theine  which  is  capable  of  producing  death  in 
lower  animals  and  human  beings.  One  observer 
found  that  one-seventh  of  a  grain  killed  a  frog  in  a 
very  short  time.  Five  grains  killed  a  good  sized  cat 
and  also  a  rabbit.  Death  occurs  in  lower  animals  in 
a  manner  almost  the  same  as  that  in  which  death  oc- 
curs in  poisoning  from  strychnia.  Strong  convulsions 
are  produced  with  the  arrest  of  respiration,  and  in  a 
short  time  the  heart  ceases  to  beat.  Tea  contains 
about  three  per  cent  of  theine,  or  more  than  thirteen 
grains  to  the  ounce.  Every  pound  of  tea  contains 
enough  of  this  poison  to  kill  fifteen  hundred  frogs  or 
more  than  forty  cats.  One  case  is  on  record  in  which 
a  fine  horse  belonging  to  an  English  army  officer  was 
killed  by  eating  accidentally  a  small  quantity  of  tea. 
The  largest  dose  of  theine  which  is  recorded  as 
being  taken  by  a  human  being,  is  twelve  grains, 
which  produced  very  dangerous  symptoms,  and  with 
the  addition  of  a  few  grains  more  would  undoubtedly 
have  proved  fatal.  Yet  it  is  perfectly  well  known 
that  half  an  ounce  of  tea  containing  six  and  one- 
half  grains  of  the  poison  is  often  used  in  making  a 


strong  cup  of  tea.  Thirteen  cups  of  strong  tea  would 
contain  a  little  more  than  eighty-four  grains  of  th<v 
poison  theine,  or  an  amount  sufficient,  in  all  probabil- 
ity, to  kill  three  or  four  men. 

If  tea  contains  such  a  poison,  why  does  it  not 
produce  fatal  results  more  frequently  than  it  does? 
may  be  inquired.  We  answer,  simply  because  a  tol- 
erance for  the  drug  is  established  by  use,  just  as  in 
the  case  of  tobacco.  One-tenth  of  a  grain  of  nicotine 
will  kill  a  frog,  and  so  small  a  dose  as  one-sixteenth 
of  a  grain  has  produced  dangerous  symptoms  in  a 
man ;  it  has  also  been  shown  that  the  smoke  from  a 
half  ounce  of  tobacco  contains  sufficient  nicotine  to 
produce  death,  yet  sudden  death  from  tobacccnsmok- 
ing  is  not  a  very  common  result  of  the  almost  uni- 
versal use  of  this  poisonous  drug.  The  wakefulness 
and  increased  mental  activity  which  many  persons  ex- 
perience from  the  use  of  tea  are  evidences  of  its  poison- 
ous character.  The  same  thing  is  observed  in  cats 
and  other  lower  animals  when  tea  is  administered  to 
them  in  a  little  less  than  the  fatal  dose,  or  when  a. 
fatal  dose  has  been  given,  and  before  the  fatal  effects 
make  their  appearance.  The  poor  creatures  manifest 
sometimes  the  wildest  excitement. 

These  facts  ought  to  be  more  widely  known  tharr 
they  are,  and  if  duly  appreciated  must  have  some  in- 
fluence in  lessening  the  use  of  a  beverage  which  un- 
der the  guise  of  "  the  cup  that  cheers  and  not  in- 
ebriates" has  captivated  almost  the  entire  English- 
speaking  world. 

Late  Suppers,  lees,  etc. — One  of  the  most  dam- 
aging' of  all   dietetic  digressions  is   the  fashionable 


custom  introduced  into  this  country  from  abroad  of 
taking  supper  at  a  late  hour,  some  time  between  nine 
and  twelve  p.  m.  The  articles  eaten  at  this  late  meal 
are  usually  those  of  a  highly  indigestible  character, 
such  as  pastry,  ices,  wines,  confectionery,  etc.  The 
person  who  indulges  in  such  midnight  feasting  on 
such  unhealthful  viands  is  certain  to  suffer  the  penalty 
of  such  transgression  sooner  or  later  in  the  pangs  of 
indigestion  or  the  remorse  of  a  remonstrating  stomach. 
A  young  lady  whose  digestive  organs  are,  from  her 
habits  of  life,  less  vigorous  than  those  of  a  man,  can- 
not with  impunity  indulge  in  such  indiscretions  Us 
these.  Her  health  will  sooner  or  later  become  seri- 
ously impaired,  and  she  will  thereby  become  utterly 
unqualified  fbr  the  performance  of  the  arduous  duties 
which  devolve  upon  a  wife  and  mother. 

Too  Much  Meat — The  usual  prescription  which 
a  young  lady  suffering  from  nervousness,  impover- 
ished blood,  and  general  debility,  gets  upon  going  to  a 
physician  is,  "  Eat  more  meat ;  live  upon  beef-steak, 
mutton-chops,  and  roast  beef."  We  consider  such 
advice  not  only  unnecessary  but  mischievous.  A 
young  lady  who  has  ruined  her  digestion  by  late  sup- 
pers, the  use  of  strong  tea  and  coffee  and  condiments, 
does  not  want  more  meat,  but  less  knick-knacks.  She 
does  not  require  more  beef-steak,  but  more  oat-meal 
and  less  pastry.  It  is  wholly  unnecessary  that  she 
should  consume  a  large  quantity  of  roast-beef  or 
mutton  chop,  but  it  is  of  the  first  importance  that  she 
should  take  a  liberal  supply  of  well-cooked  fruits  and 
grains  and  other  simple  articles  of  food.  A  young  lady 
who  is  nervous  alreadv  from  overstimulation  does  not 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  221 

want  further  excitation.  Meat  of  all  kinds,  as  every 
physiologist  and  observing  physician  knows,  is  stimu- 
lating, and  should  not  be  freely  used  by  anyone  whose 
nervous  system  is  already  overexcited  and  irritable. 

The  Use  of  Opium,  Liquor,  Chloral,  and  other 
Drugs. — On  this  subject  we  cannot  do  better  than  to 
quote  a  few  paragraphs  from  another  work  by  the 
author*  in  which  the  whole  subject  of  stimulants 
and  narcotics  is  considered  at  greater  length  than 
would  be  proper  here. 

.  "Within  the  last  few  years  the  consumption  of 
this  narcotic  drug  has  been  increasing  in  this  country 
to  an  alarming  extent.  Thirty  years  ago  the  amount 
of  opium  imported  was  about  130,000  pounds  annually. 
To-day,  according  to  the  report  of  the  chief  of  the 
Bureau  of  Statistics,  it  is  not  less  than  400,000 
pounds.  Of  this  amount  not  more  than  one-fifth  is 
used  for  medicinal  purposes,  leaving  the  enormous 
amount  of  320,000  pounds  to  be  disposed  of  by  habit- 
ual users  of  the  drug.  The  exact  number  of  opium 
consumers  cannot  be  determined  with  any  degree  of 
accuracy,  as  the  devotees  of  the  drug  usually  avoid 
disclosing  the  habit  as  much  and  as  long  as  possible. 
Careful  inquiries  of  druggists,  and  others  likely  to  be 
the  best  posted,  have  elicited  facts  upon  which  it  is 
perfectly  safe  to  base  the  estimate  that  there  are  not 
less .  than  100,000,  and  very  probably  as  many  as 
200,000,  habitual  opium-takers  in  the  United  States. 

"  The  amount  of  opium  consumed  by  an  old  opium- 

*  The.  Home  Hand-Book  of  Domestic  Hygiene  and  Ra- 
tional Medicine. 


eater  is  sometimes  enormous.  We  have  had  cases  in 
which  twenty  grains  of  morphia,  equal  to  320  grains 
of  opium,  were  taken  as  a  single  dose,  with  no  more 
effect  than  would  follow  the  administration  of  one- 
fourth  of  a  grain  to  a  person  unaccustomed  to  its  use. 
One  of  the  most  recent  cases  which  have  come  under 
our  care  at  the  Medical  and  Surgical  Sanitarium  at 
Battle  Creek,  Michigan,  was  that  of  a  woman  who  had 
been  addicted  to  the  drug  for  nine  or  ten  years,  and 
had  increased  the  quantity  from  less  than  a  grain  a 
day  to  ninty-six  grains  in  the  twenty-four  hours,  , 
equivalent  to  more  than  three  ounces  of  opium,  to- 
gether with  a  pint  and  a  half  of  brandy. 

"  In  addition  to  this  enormous  consumption  of 
opium  by  those  addicted  to  its  use,  immense  quanti- 
ties are  used  in  various  quack  nostrums  and  in  so- 
called  '  antidotes.'  Probably  the  most  widely  used 
nostrum  containing  opium  is  Mrs.  Winslow's  Soothing 
Syrup,  of  which  no  less  than  750,000  bottles,  contain- 
ing about  one  grain  of  morphia  each,  have  been  sold 
in  a  single  year.  This  quantity  is  sufficient  to  de- 
stroy the  lives  of  many  thousands  of  infants,  who  are 
very  susceptible  to  the  influence  of  the  drug,  as  no 
doubt  it  has  done. 

"Probably  the  greatest  of  all  causes  of  this  enor- 
mous increase  in  the  habit  within  the  last  few  years 
is  its  reckless  and  uncalled-for  use  in  medicine.  It  is 
the  custom  of  many  physicians  to  prescribe  opium  in 
some  form  for  almost  every  ache  or  pain  which  they 
encounter  in  practice.  If  they  find  a  patient  suffering 
pain,  whether  from  an  acute  attact  of  colic,  a  chronic 
neuralgia,  a  face-ache  from  a  decayed  tooth,  a  back- 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  223 

ache  from  some  uterine  disease,  or  a  fractured  limb, 
an  opiate  is  at  once  prescribed,  and  often  before  ascer- 
taining what  may  be  the  patient's  condition.  We 
have  treated  quite  a  number  of  persons  suffering  from 
the  opium  habit,  and  have  never  met  a  case  in  which 
we  were  not  informed  by  the  patient  that  the  habit 
began  with  a  physician's  prescription.  This  is  the 
general  testimony  of  all  who  have  examined  this 
question.  We  have  had  patients  who  have  been 
taught  by  their  physician  to  take  morphia  by  means 
of  the  hypodermic  method  (injection  beneath  the 
skin),  whose  bodies  were  so  completely  covered  with 
scars  that  it  was  scarcely  possible  to  find  a  spot  with- 
in reach  of  the  patient's  own  hands,  and  not  uncov- 
ered by  the  clothing,  which  had  not  been  punctured 
by  the  needle  of  the  hypodermic  syringe  one  or  more 
times.  In  one  case,  a  patient  was  actually  driven  to 
seek  relief  from  the  terrible  habit  by  sheer  inability 
to  find  new  places  for  puncturing  the  skin.  The 
most  common  method  of  taking  the  drug,  however,  is 
by  the  mouth.  The  physician  gives  a  prescription 
which  the  patient  has  filled  and  refilled,  until  the 
habit  is  firmly  fixed.  We  have  many  times  heard  pa- 
tients condemn  in  no  stinted  terms  the  physicians 
who  first  introduced  them  to  the  fascinating  drug, 
apparently  forgetting  that  they  may  have  been  them- 
selves in  a  large  measure  to  blame,  since  it  is  a  most 
common  thing  for  patients  to  demand  of  physicians 
medicines  which  will  produce  immediate  palliative 
effects,  not  once  thinking  that  nature  must  effect  the 
cure,  and  that  time  will  be  required  to  remove  the 


cause  of  the  disturbance  so  as  to  obtain  relief  in  a 
natural  way. 

"The  continued  use  of  opium  is  followed  by  effects 
far  more  serious  than  those  from  the  use  of  tea,  coffee, 
tobacco,  or  alcohol.  It  is  an  evil  that  every  physi- 
cian ought  to  do  his  utmost  to  expose,  warn  against, 
and  prevent.  Probably  physicians  can  do  more  than 
any  or  all  other  persons  combined  to  cure  the  habit, 
by  exercising  care  to  avoid  in  every  possible  way  and 
under  all  possible  circumstances  the  use  of  opium  as 
a  medicine.  There  are  numerous  other  measures  of 
relieving  pain,  and  all  available  means  should  be  tried 
before  resorting  to  this  drug,  so  likely  to  make  the 
sufferer  whom  it  temporarily  relieves  a  greater  suf- 
ferer in  the  end. 

"  The  government  of  Pekin  has  taken  measures  to 
check  the  enormous  consumption  of  opium  in  that 
country  by  interdicting  its  use  after  the  beginning  of 
the  present  year,  under  a  most  severe  penalty.  If 
there  is  need  of  prohibitory  legislation  respecting  any 
form  of  intemperance,  this  certainly  is  the  one  of  all 
others  requiring  it,  and  the  one  for  which  there  seems 
to  be  the  best  chance  for  success. 

"  Of  the  fascinating  powers  of  this  drug  and  the 
extreme  difficulty  of  overcoming  the  habit,  so  much 
has  been  written  that  we  need  say  nothing.  The 
confessions  of  the  opium  eater,  De  Quincey,  portray 
in  far  more  graphic  lines  than  could  we,  the  terrible 
bondage  of  an  opium  slave.  We  should  say  a  word, 
however,  with  reference  to  its  cure.  The  numerous 
antidotes  for  the  opium  habit  advertised  in  the  news- 
papers are  the  basest  frauds  imaginable.     The  exam- 


ination  of  a  large  number  of  them  by  Dr.  Prescott,  of 
the  Medical  Department  of  the  University  of  Michi- 
gan, a  few  years  ago,  showed  them  to  be,  without 
exception,  compounds  of  opium.  In  this  case  the 
remedy  is  not  worse  than  the  disease,  but  identical 
with  it.  The  habit  is  not  incurable,  however,  as 
many  suppose.  With  proper  treatment  all  can  be 
cured,  and  in  a  comparatively  brief  space  of  time.  In 
the  case  mentioned,  in  which  ninety-six  grains  of 
opium  were  taken  daily,  the  patient,  although  suffer- 
ing with  an  acutely  painful  disease,  was  completely 
cured  in  less  than  six  weeks,  though  she  had  been 
addicted  to  the  use  of  the  drug  for  many  years,  and 
in  addition  was  addicted  to  the  use  of  liberal  quanti- 
ties of  alcohol,  a  combination  much  more  difficult  of 
cure  than  either  habit  alone.  Other  patients  have 
been  cured  in  three  or  four  weeks,  or  in  shorter  pe- 
riods. The  method  of  treatment  is  described  else- 

The  fact  that  by  far  the  greatest  number  of  opium- 
users  are  women  adds  immense  importance  to  the 
above  statements  and  figures  in  this  connection.  We 
have  become  thoroughly  convinced  by  wide  observa- 
tion that  the  use  of  this  drug  together  with  other 
opiates  is  one  of  the  most  prolific  causes  of  the  pro- 
verbial nervousness  of  American  women,  to  say  noth- 
ing of  more  serious  mental  and  nervous  disorders 
which  grow  out  of  the  depraved  condition  established 
by  the  habit. 

There  is  also  evidence  for  believing  that  although 
women  are  much  less  addicted  to  the  use  of  alcoholic 
stimulants  than  are  men,  the  alcohol  habit  is  steadily 


gaining  ground  among  them,  especially  in  what  are 
supposed  to  be  the  higher  circles  of  society.  The 
jaded  belle,  worn  out  with  the  excesses  of  fashionable 
dissipation,  seeks  a  renewal  of  her  wasted  energies  in 
the  deceptive  influence  of  a  "  pick-me-up,v  and  soon 
the  habit  is  formed  too  strongly  to  be  resisted. 
Every  large  city  contains  numerous  places  where 
women  can  obtain  all  kinds  of  liquor  without  letting 
the  public  into  the  secret.  Often  these  "  bars "  for 
the  special  accommodation  of  women  are  ingeniously 
hidden  behind  a  milliner's  sign,  or  placed  in  a  side 
room  in  connection  with  some  fashionable  dress-mak- 
er's establishment. 

But  the  use  of  liquor  among  women  is  by  no 
means  in  all  cases  so  carefully  secluded  from  the 
notice  of  the  public.  When  residing  in  New  York 
City,  we  as  often  met  the  sight  of  a  drunken  woman 
upon  the  streets  as  that  of  drunken  men.  One  of  the 
most  distressing  spectacles  we  .ever  beheld  was  that 
of  a  man  dragging  from  a  saloon  his  drunken  and  be- 
sotted wife,  who  in  her  maudlin  delirium  was  shout- 
ing the  most  horrible  oaths  and  language  too  vile  for 

A  few  years  ago  the  report  of  the  Board  of  Char- 
ities and  Corrections  for  New  York  City  contained 
some  most  astounding  facts  which  are  of  interest  in 
this  cofinectionf.  From  this  report  it  appeared  that 
during  the  previous  three  years  there  had  been  ar- 
rested for  drunkenness  more  females  than  males,  and 
of  the  female  drunkards,  twenty-nine  had  been  re- 
arrested one  hundred  or  more  times. 

In  looking  for  the  causes  of  the  appalling  increase 


in  female  intemperance,  we  have  been  led  to  ,believe 
that  one  of  the  most  important  is  the  frequent  recom- 
mendation of  alcoholic  drinks  or  mixtures  as  remedies 
by  physicians.  We  know  many  physicians  who 
habitually  prescribe  ale,  lager  beer,  wine,  or  some 
alcoholic  "bitters"  for  cases  of  nervous  debility 
among  their  female  patients.  In  this  way  the  habit 
is  soon  established.  The  use  of  alcohol  in  some  form 
in  connection  with  the  opium  habit  is  very  common. 

The  common  practice  of  physicians  in  recommend- 
ing ale  or  stout  for  nursing  mothers  is  also  a  great 
cause  of  intemperance  among  women.  But  the  moth- 
ers are  not  the  only  victims.  A  large  share  of  the 
alcohol  finds  its  way  out  of  the  system  into  the  milk, 
and  in  this  way  delicate  babes  are  kept  in  a  state  of 
semi-intoxication  from  birth  until  they  are  weaned. 
A  mother  finds  her  child  nervous  and  fretful.  She 
takes  a  glass  of  ale  an  hour  or  two  before  nursing  the 
infant,  and  is  pleased  to  find  that  he  becomes  quiet. 
She  little  dreams  that  his  quietude  is  only  the  stupid 
narcotism  of  alcohol  poisoning ;  yet  such  is  the  truth. 
Every  one  knows  that  a  dose  of  castor-oil  given  to  a 
nursing  mother  will  affect  the  child  as  promptly  as 
the  mother.  The  same  is  true  of  alcohol;  but  the 
delicate  organization  of  the  infant  is  far  more  suscep- 
tible to  its  poisonous  influence  than  is  the  mother's 
system.  Dr.  James  Edmunds  says  that  a  large  ma- 
jority of  English  ladies  use  stout  while  nursing,  so 
that  their  infants  "  are  never  sober  from  the  earliest 
period  of  their  existence  until  they  have  been  weaned." 

Beginning  life  under  such  a  regimen,  is  it  any 
wonder  that  so  large  a  number  of  young  men,  and 


young  women  also,  develop  into  drunkards  ?  Such  a 
result  is  only  the  fruit  of  the  seeds  sown  in  earliest 
infancy.  The  ancient  Romans  were  so  well  aware  of 
this  fact  that  the  use  of  alcoholic  drinks  was  by  law 
prohibited  to  a  Roman  mother  while  an  infant  was 
dependent  upon  her  for  support. 

Although  it  is  little  more  than  a  half-score  of 
years  since  the  introduction  of  chloral  as  a  remedy, 
its  use  has  become  so  general  that  cases  of  "  chloral- 
ism  "  are  by  no  means  uncommon.  The  chloral  habit 
threatens  to  become  a  rival  of  the  opium  habit,  if  it 
has  not  already  become  quite  as  extensive  in  its  prev- 
alence. In  fashionable  circles  it  is  no  uncommon 
thing  for  ladies  to  carry  chloral  bottles  in  their  port- 
manteaus or  work-baskets.  A  distinct  train  of  morbid 
symptoms  is  induded  by  the  use  of  this  drug,  and  as 
complete  mental,  physical,  and  moral  demoralization 
as  result  from  the  use  of  alcohol  or  opium. 

Ladies  read  with  horror  of  the  absinthe  takers  of 
France,  the  arsenic  eaters  of  Styria,  the  amanitine 
drinkers  of  Kamschatka,  and  the  haschish  devotees  of 
Oriental  countries,  while  they  themselves  are  daily 
becoming  the  slaves  of  drugs  in  no  degree  less  harm- 
ful in  their  effects. 

The  habit  of  continual  dosing  with  one  drug  or 
another,  practiced  by  thousands  of  ladies,  cannot  be 
too  strongly  condemned.  We  have  met  hundreds  of 
cases  in  which  the  digestion  had  been  wholly  ruined 
by  this  pernicious  practice,  and  several  serious  mala- 
dies established  which  were  in  large  measure  incurable. 
Mothers  often  make  their  children  invalids  for  life  by 
constant  dosing  with  this  or  that  remedy  which  has 


been  recommended  by  a  friend  or  newly  advertised  in 
the  newspapers.  The  family  medicine  chest  is  a  more 
dangerous  piece  of  furniture  in  a  home  than  a  loaded 
shot  gun  or  a  keg  of  powder.  The  harm  which  has 
come  from  the  popular  notion  that  something  in  the 
line  of  medicine  must  be  swallowed  for  every  little 
ache  or  pain,  is  incalculable.  Young  ladies,  mothers, 
and  everybody  else  ought  to  know  that  drugs  do  not 
cure  disease.  Nature  cures,  if  a  cure  is  accomplished, 
and  in  the  great  majority  of  cases  the  regular  or  ir- 
regular nostrums  taken  into  the  stomach  impede  re- 
covery instead  of  aiding  the  cure.  When  a  person 
feels  somewhat  "  out-of-sorts,"  the  proper  thing  to  do 
is  not  to  send  for  a  doctor  or  swallow  a  few  doses  of 
this  man's  "  pills,"  or  that  man's  "  tonic,"  or  some  old 
lady's  mixture,  but  to  carefully  scrutinize  the  habits 
and  thereby  ascertain  the  cause  of  the  indisposition. 
When  this  is  discovered  its  removal  will  be  speedily 
followed  by  a  disappearance  of  the  morbid  symptoms. 
Strange  as  the  assertion  may  seem  to  those  who 
are  unacquainted  with  the  excesses  of  modern  fash- 
ionable society,  we  have  authority  for  the  statement 
that  the  use  of  cigarettes  is  becoming  quite  common 
among  the  women  of  certain  classes,  and  that  the 
practice  is  rapidly  increasing.  We  have  long  con- 
tended that  women  have  as  good  a  right  to  use  to- 
bacco in  any  form,  as  men,  and  considered  most  un- 
just the  arrest  of  a  woman  for  smoking  on  the  streets 
of  Chicago  some  years  ago ;  but  we  are  by  no  means 
disposed  to  condone  the  vice  in  women  because  it  is 
no  worse  for  them  than  for  men.  We  cannot  believe 
that  the  filthy  habit  of  smoking,  to  which  the  women 


230  TH&  LADIES1  GUIDE. 

of  a  half  century  ago  were  not  infrequently  addicted, 
will  be  successfully  revived  even  in  the  more  esthetic 
form  of  the  cigarette.  The  baleful  effects  of  the  to- 
bacco-habit, to  say  nothing  of  its  filthy  character,  are 
now  too  generally  admitted  to  allow  women,  as  a 
class,  to  become  enslaved  to  the  weed,  as  are  the 
men  and  boys  of  the  present  day. 


At  the  present  time,  little  attention  is  paid  to  the 
physical  culture  of  women.  In  fact,  the  idea  of 
muscularity  seems  to  be  in  some  way  connected  with 
coarseness,  and  the  popular  idea  of  female  beauty 
does  not  include  a  good  physique,  whatever  else  it 
may  demand.  In  ancient  Greece  the  physical  train- 
ing of  women  was  considered  as  important  as  that  of 
men.  We  read  in  the  history  of  those  ancient  times 
of  the  exploits  of  female  gladiators,  and  women  were 
frequently  found  contending  for  prizes  in  the  athletic 
sports  which  were  so  popular  at  that  age  of  the 

The  physical  inferiority  of  women  is  much  more 
marked  in  civilized  than  in  uncivilized  countries. 
Among  barbarous  nations  the  difference  between  the 
physical  development  of  men  and  women  is  far  less 
than  that  observed  among  civilized  people.  This  is 
undoubtedly  due  to  the  fact  that  the  mode  of  life 
among  barbarous  nations  is  such  that  the  females  are 
required  to  perform  quite  as  much  daily  physical 
labor  as  the  males.  Among  some  nations,  in  fact,  a 
great  portion   of  the  labor  is  done  by  the  females. 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  231 

The  last  remark  is  also  true  of  some  lands  called  civ- 
ilized. For  instance,  travelers  in  Italy  record  that 
it  is  not  an  uncommon  sight  to  see  a  man  going  to 
market  with  a  cart  loaded  with  vegetables  drawn  by 
a  team  consisting  of  a  donkey  and  his  muscular  wife 
harnessed  up  together.  One  traveler  reports  having 
seen  a  woman  and  a  cow  yoked  together  before  a  cart 
in  one  of  the  countries  of  continental  Europe.  Wo- 
men growing  up  under  such  conditions  would  not  be 
likely  to  be  lacking  in  the  matter  of  physical  develop- 
ment, although  they  might  suffer  for  want  of  sym- 
metrical development. 

In  England  and  America,  however,  but  particu- 
larly in  this  country,  and  especially  in  cities  and  • 
towns,  girls  as  a  rule  are  found  to  be  decidedly  lack- 
ing in  physical  development.  Observe  the  students 
of  a  female  seminary  as  they  pass  along  toward  their 
homes  at  the  conclusion  of  their  hour  of  study.  No^ 
tice  how  few  possess  shapely  bodies,  a  strong,  elastic, 
vigorous  step,  well  developed  waists,  plump  arms, 
broad  backs,  and  a  full  chest.  How  rare  it  is  to  see 
a  lady  who  has  a  good  walk  or  a  graceful  carriage ! 
The  majority  of  young  ladies  whom  we  meet  upon 
the  streets  have  narrow  backs,  flat  chests,  round 
shoulders  drooping  forward,  thin  necks,  scrawny 
arms,  waspish  waists,  and  an  awkward  gait.  The 
ruddy  bloom  of  health  is  rarely  seen  now-a-days  ex- 
cept occasionally  in  some  out-of-the-way  country  place. 
Girls  are  not  to  be  blamed  for  their  want  of  symmetry 
and  numerous  deficiencies  in  physical  development  if 
they  have  no  opportunities  to  develop  strong  and 
comely  forms.     The  fashion  which  requires  them  to 


walk  with  their  arms  stiff,  their  elbows  rigidly  pin- 
ioned against  their  sides,  renders  a  graceful  carriage 
impossible  and  insures  an  imperfect  development  of 
the  arms  and  shoulders,  which  are  accordingly  lack- 
ing in  plumpness  and  unfitted  for  any  occupation  re- 
quiring muscular  strength. 

Girls  who  grow  up  in  this  way  are  certain  to  suf- 
fer seriously  during  their  whole  lives.  The  weak 
muscles,  lacking  vigorous  exercise,  must  naturally  re- 
sult in  weak  hearts,  weak  lungs,  weak  stomachs,  and 
weak  nerves,  and  we  might  add,  also,  without  depart- 
ing from  the  truth,  weak  minds.  It  cannot  be  ex- 
pected that  such  girls  will  produce  anything  else  than 
nervous,  feeble  mothers  utterly  unfit  for  the  perform- 
ance of  the  duties  of  life. 

The  want  of  proper  muscular  development  is  one 
of  the  greatest  causes  of  uterine  disease  in  women. 
As  previously  shown,  the  organs  of  the  pelvis  are 
kept  in  position  chiefly  by  the  agency  of  muscles 
which  act  upon  the  uterus  and  ovaries  indirectly  from 
above  and  below.  If  these  muscles  are  never  devel- 
oped so  as  to  acquire  proper  tone  and  firmness,  it  is 
inevitable  that  the  organs  which  they  should  sustain 
will  ultimately  become  displaced.  Before  the  period 
of  puberty,  no  danger  could  arise  from  this  cause,  but 
after  this  period,  the  increased  size  and  weight  which 
the  pelvic  organs  acquire,  renders  them  liable  to  be- 
come displaced  if  their  natural  supports  are  not  main- 
tained in  a  vigorous  condition.  The  general  com- 
plaint of  back-ache  which  is  almost  universal  among 
women,   would   seldom   be   heard   if  they  acquired 


proper  physical   development   during  the   period  of 

That  there  has  been  a  very  considerable  decline 
in  the  muscular  development  of  women  within  the 
last  few  years  is  evident  to  all  who  have  made  any 
observation  on  the  subject.  Our  grandmothers 
thought  nothing  of  walking  five  or  ten  or  even 
twenty  miles  a  day ;  but  how  many  women  can  be 
found  at  the  present  time  who  feel  equal  to  the  task  ? 
The  physical  training  of  women  ought  to  begin  in 
early  childhood.  The  school  is  the  proper  place  for 
a  systematic  course  of  training.  In  order  to  secure 
the  best  results,  the  same  course  must  be  carried  out 
at  home  to  a  greater  or  less  extent.  Regular,  syste- 
matic, daily  exercise  should  be  taken,  of  such  a  charac- 
ter as  to  develop  those  parts  of  the  muscular  system 
which  are  weakest  until  they  become  proportionately 
strong,  and  then  varied  in  such  a  manner  as  to  secure 
equal  development  of  the  whole  muscular  system. 
The  good  results  which  would  accrue  from  such  a 
course  of  training  as  this,  provided  it  could  be  made 
general  among  the  girls  of  the  present  generation,  is 
incalculable.  One  result  would  undoubtedly  be  the 
production  of  a  better  race  of  men  in  the  succeeding 
generation.  There  is  evidence  to  believe  that  a 
mother  possessed  of  a  vigorous  physical  development 
is  more  likely  to  give  birth  to  children  of  large  men- 
tal capacity  than  those  whose  physical  development 
is  below  par.  The  Sandwich  Islanders  have  a  prov- 
erb which  is  particularly  significant  in  this  connec- 
tion :  "  If  strong  be  the  frame  of  the  mother,  her  sons 
will  make  laws  for  the  people."     Many  of  the  great 


men  of  this  nation,  if  not  most  of  them,  have  had  re- 
markable mothers,  although  the  father  was  in  many 
cases  not  at  all  above  the  average. 

Thousands  of  breakdowns  in  mothers  during  the 
bearing  or  the  rearing  of  their  children  would  be 
saved  by  previous  physical  development.  We  have 
met  many  mothers  who  were  suffering  with  local 
disease  which  they  attributed  to  the  carrying  of  a 
baby  or  to  being  upon  their  feet,  or  to  some  other 
similar  muscular  taxation  which  would  have  been  re- 
garded as  of  no  consequence  if  the  muscles  had  been 
previously  prepared  by  proper  training. 

Women  who  have  already  attained  to  maturity 
and  find  themselves  suffering  in  consequence  of  inat- 
tention to  physical  culture  in  their  early  years  may 
do  much  by  pursuing  a  course  of  physical  exercise  of 
such  a  character  as  will  be  likely  to  remove  the  phys- 
ical disability.  That  much  can  be  done  even  late  in 
life  is  very  clearly  shown  by  the  results  obtained  by 
Prof.  Maclaren,  in  the  training  of  students  and  others 
during  a  period  of  from  a  few  months  to  two  or  three 
years.  A  case  was  recorded  in  which  a  man  who 
had  attained  maturity  long  before,  had  been  actually 
made  to  increase  his  dimensions  in  every  particular. 
In  one  case  a  man  thirty  years  of  age  increased  one- 
half  inch  in  height  and  proportionately  in  breadth  of 
chest  and  in  the  dimensions  of  other  parts  of  the 
body.  In  cases  in  which  the  development  of  the 
body  has  been  seriously  neglected,  special  forms  of 
exercise  are  sometimes  necessary  to  bring  up  the 
weak  parts  to  a  degree  of  development  proportionate 
with  the  others.     It  is  not  necessary,  however,  that 


extensive  or  other  than  very  simple  apparatus  should 
be  employed  for  this  purpose.  Indeed,  a  small  pair 
of  wooden  dumb-bells  and  clubs,  with  such  other  ap- 
pliances as  can  be  obtained  in  any  home,  are  amply 

However  useful  and  necessary  may  be  calisthenics 
and  various  other  forms  of  exercise,  the  fact  should 
not  be  overlooked  that  useful  labor  and  the  perform- 
ance of  the  various  household  duties,  are  among  the 
very  best  forms  of  exercise  and  the  best  possible 
means  of  securing  a  good  physical  development.  On 
this  subject  Mrs.  C.  E.  Beecher  some  years  ago  of- 
fered the  following  very  suggestive  thoughts  : — 

"  Our  land  is  now  full  of  motorpathic  institutions, 
to  which  women  are  sent  at  great  expense  to  have 
hired  operators  stretch  and  exercise  their  inactive 
muscles.  They  lie  for  hours  to  have  their  feet 
twigged,  their  arms  flexed,  and  all  the  different  mus- 
cles of  the  body  worked  for  them,  because  they  are 
so  flaccid  and  torpid  that  the  powers  of  life  do  not  go 
on.  Would  it  not  be  quite  as  cheerful  and  a  less  ex- 
pensive process,  if  young  girls  from  early  life  devel- 
oped the  muscles  in  sweeping,  dusting,  starching, 
ironing,  and  all  the  multiplied  domestic  processes 
which  our  grandmothers  knew  of?  The  woman  who 
did  all  these,  and  diversified  the  intervals  with  spin- 
ning on  the  great  and  little  wheel,  did  not  need  the 
gymnastics  of  Dio  Lewis  or  the  Swedish  Movement 
Cure,  which  are  really  a  necessity  now.  Does  it  not 
seem  poor  economy  to  pay  servants  for  letting  our 
muscles  grow  feeble,  and  then  to  pay  operators  to  ex- 
ercise them  for  us  ?     I  will  venture  to  say  that  our 


grandmothers  went  over  in  a  week  every  movement 
that  any  gymnast  ever  invented,  and  went  over  them 
with  some  productive  purpose,  too." 

The  muscles,  perhaps,  more  than  any  other  organs 
of  the  body,  depend  for  their  health  upon  regular, 
systematic,  adequate,  and  proper  exercise.  By  exer- 
cise, the  muscular  fibres  are  made  to  contract,  and  in 
doing  so,  the  old,  stagnant,  venous  blood  is  squeezed 
out,  and  new,  fresh,  invigorating,  vitalizing  blood 
takes  its  place.  By  this  means  their  vital  activities 
are  quickened  and  their  growth  increased.  There  is 
evidence  for  believing  that  muscular  fibres  do  not 
increase  in  number  in  the  voluntary  muscles ;  but  it 
is  certain  that  they  increase  very  materially  in  size 
and  in  firmness,  and  hence  in  strength.  The  strength 
of  a  muscle  depends  upon  the  individual  strength  of 
each  of  its  fibres,  as  its  strength  is  but  the  combined 
strength  of  its  component  parts.  If  each  fibre  be- 
comes large,  firm,  and  strong  in  consequence  of  use, 
the  whole  muscle  becomes  so;  and  that  this  is  the 
case  we  have  abundant  evidence  in  the  ponderous 
right  arm  of  the  blacksmith,  which  outgrows  the 
other  in  consequence  of  constant  exercise  in  swing- 
ing a  heavy  hammer.  The  lower  extremities  of  a 
ballet  dancer  become  developed  in  a  proportionately 
large  degree,  from  the  trying  exercise  to  which  they 
are  accustomed. 

Nature  never  attempts  to  maintain  a  useless  or- 
gan, and  almost  as  soon  as  an  organ  is  not  used  she 
sets  to  work  to  demolish  it ;  or  at  any  rate  she  wastes 
no  time  in  endeavoring  to  keep  it  in  repair  when  it  is 
not  needed,  or  at  least  is  not  used.     This  is  true  all 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  237 

through  the  vital  economy,  and  is  nowhere  more  clearly 
seen  than  in  the  muscular  system.  A  disused  mus- 
cle soon  becomes  thin,  pale,  relaxed,  weak ;  and  after 
a  time  a  change  begins  which  is  termed  fatty  degen- 
eration. Nature  does  not  think  it  worth  while  to 
keep  so  much  valuable  nitrogenous  matter  lying  idle, 
and  so  she  sets  to  work  taking  the  muscle  to  pieces 
and  carrying  it  away  little  by  little  for  use  elsewhere, 
depositing  in  place  of  the  muscle  substance  little  par- 
ticles of  fat  until  the  whole  muscle  is  changed  to  fat. 
This  change  usually  occurs  in  cases  of  paralysis ;  and 
when  it  has  been  completed,  restoration  of  the  func- 
tion of  the  muscle  is  impossible. 

How  to  Take  Exercise. — It  is  not  sufficient  to 
simply  take  exercise  indiscriminately  and  without 
reference  to  the  object  for  which  it  is  taken,  the  man- 
ner, time,  etc.  It  must  be  taken  regularly,  systemat- 
ically, at  proper  times,  and  in  proper  amount.  Per- 
haps we  cannot  do  better  in  treating  this  subject  prac- 
tically than  to  ask  and  answer  some  of  the  most  im- 
portant questions  relating  to  exercise. 

1.  When  is  the  best  time  to  exercise?  There  is  a 
popular  theory  extant  that  exercise  taken  early  in  the 
morning  has  some  specific  virtue  superior  to  that 
taken  at  any  other  time.  After  careful  observation 
on  the  subject  we  have  become  convinced  that  this 
popular  notion  is  a  mistake  when  adopted  as  a  rule 
for  everybody.  For  many  engaged  in  professional 
duties,  especially  editors,  authors,  teachers,  and 
others  whose  vocations  keep  them  mostly  in-doors, 
the  morning  may  be  the  only  time  when  exercise  can 
be  taken  conveniently ;  and  if  not  taken  at  this  time 


it  is  likely  to  be  neglected  altogether.  Such  persons, 
unless  they  are  laboring  under  some  special  derange- 
ment of  health,  as  dyspepsia  or  some  other  constitu- 
tional malady,  would  better  by  far  take  the  morning 
walk  or  other  form  of  exercise  than  to  take  none  at 
all.  However,  we  are  pretty  well  convinced  that  for 
most  persons  the  middle  of  the  forenoon  is  a  much 
better  time  to  take  any  kind  of  active  or  vigorous  ex- 
ercise. In  the  morning,  the  circulation  is  generally 
weakest  and  the  supply  of  nerve  force  is  the  least  abun- 
dant. In  the  forenoon,  when  the  breakfast  has  been 
eaten  and  digestion  has  become  well  advanced,  the 
system  is  at  its  maximum  of  vigor ;  hence  if  the  in- 
dividual is  at  liberty  to  choose  his  time  for  exercise, 
this  should  be  his  choice. 

For  poor  sleepers,  a  half-hour's  exercise  taken  in 
the  evening  not  long  before  retiring  will  often  act  like 
a  soporific,  and  without  any  of  the  unpleasant  after- 
effects of  drugs. 

Vigorous  exercise  should  never  be  taken  imme- 
diately nor  within  an  hour  after  a  meal,  and  should 
not  be  taken  just  before  eating.  Disregard  of  this 
rule  is  a  very  common  cause  of  dyspepsia. 

2.  What  kind  of  exercise  shall  be  taken  ?  The  an- 
swer to  this  question  must,  of  course,  vary  with  the 
individual.  Exercise  must  be  modified  to  suit  the 
strength,  the  age,  and  even  the  tastes  of  the  individ- 
ual. As  a  general  rule,  persons  who  take  exercise  for 
health  are  apt  to  overdo  the  matter,  the  result  of 
Vhich  is  damage  rather  than  benefit.  For  most  per- 
sons there  is  no  more  admirable  and  advantageous 
form  of  exercise  than  walking ;  but  many  find  walk- 


ing  simply  for  exercise  too  tedious  to  persevere  in  it 
regularly.  Such  will  find  advantage  in  walking  in 
companies,  provided  care  is  taken  to  avoid  all  such 
questionable  diversions  as  walking  matches  or  any 
kind  of  exercise  in  which  there  will  be  a  strife  which 
will  be  likely  to  excite  to  excess. 

Horseback  riding,  for  those  who  ride  well  and  en- 
joy  this  form  of  exercise,  may  be  of  great  benefit.  It 
is  not  so  well  suited  for  ladies  as  for  men,  however,  on 
account  of  the  awkward  and  unnatural  manner  in 
which  fashion  compels  them  to  ride.  It  is  impossible 
for  a  lady  to  ride  with  the  same  degree  of  comfort, 
ease,  and  grace  that  her  male  companion  may,  on  ac- 
count of  the  one-sided  way  in  which  she  sits  in  the 
saddle.  In  many  countries  ladies  ride  in  the  same 
fashion  as  men ;  with  them,  of  course,  this  objection 
does  not  hold. 

Horseback  riding  is  an  excellent  aid  to  digestion, 
and  often  effectually  relieves  habitual  constipation  of 
the  bowels. 

Carriage  riding  is  worth  very  little  as  a  form  of  ex- 
ercise except  for  feeble  invalids,  for  whom  the  gentle 
swaying  of  the  vehicle  and  the  excitement  of  viewing 
objects  seldom  seen  may  be  sufficient  and  appropriate 
exercise.  Riding  in  a  lumber  wagon  over  a  corduroy 
road  is  about  the  only  kind  of  carriage  riding  which 
is  worth  speaking  of  as  exercise  for  people  in  ordi- 
nary health. 

Skating,  rowing,  dancing,  and  most  other  exer- 
cises of  the  sort,  are  more  often  harmful  than  other- 
wise, because  carried  to  excess  and  associated  with 
other  evils  of  a  pernicious   character.     Calisthenics, 


for  school-children  and  young  students,  is  a  most  ad- 
mirable form  of  exercise.  It  is  also  well  adapted  to 
invalids  who  are  unable  to  walk  more  than  a  short 
distance  at  a  time.  Full  directions  for  the  use  of 
calisthenics,  or  gymnastic  exercises,  are  given  in  a 
chapter  devoted  to  the  subject.  In  our  opinion, 
every  family  ought  to  be  fitted  out  with  all  the  con- 
veniences for  parlor  gymnastics.  They  afford  not 
only  healthful  exercise  but  a  large  amount  of  excel- 
lent amusement  for  the  little  folks. 

The  health-lift  is  a  form  of  exercise  too  important 
to  be  overlooked.  We  have  carefully  tested  this 
form  of  exercise,  and  believe  it  to  be  an  exceedingly 
valuable  measure  for  those  whose  employments  are 
sedentary  and  whose  time  for  exercise  is  limited. 
However,  we  can  indorse  but  a  small  portion  of  what 
has  been  claimed  for  it  by  persons  who  have  made  its 
use  and  sale  a  specialty.  Again,  we  have  no  sympa- 
thy with  the  course  which  has  been  taken  by  most 
manufacturers  in  charging  an  enormous  price  for  a 
piece  of  apparatus  which  really  costs  but  very  little 
and  could  well  be  afforded  for  one-half  the  money 
charged.  The  chief  benefits  of  the  health-lift  may  be 
derived  from  a  very  simple  form  of  apparatus  which 
can  be  constructed  at  slight  expense  by  means  of  two 
stout  rubber  bands  attached  to  the  floor  or  a  platform, 
and  furnished  with  handles. 

For  many  persons,  as  before  remarked,  no  form  of 
exercise  is  more  beneficial  healthwise  than  some  kind 
of  physical  labor.  For  ladies,  general  housework  is 
admirably  adapted  to  bring  into  play  all  the  different 
muscles  of  the  body,  while  affording  such  a  variety  of 


different  exercises  and  such  frequent  change  that  no 
part  need  be  very  greatly  fatigued.  There  are  thou- 
sands of  young  ladies  pining  under  the  care  of  their 
family  physician  in  spite  of  all  he  can  do  by  the  most 
learned  and  complicated  prescriptions,  for  whom  a 
change  of  air  or  a  year's  residence  in  some  foreign 
clime,  or  some  similar  expensive  project,  is  proposed, 
when  all  in  the  world  that  is  needed  to  make  the  deli- 
cate creatures  well  is  to  require  them  to  change  places 
with  their  mothers  for  a  few  weeks  or  months.  Let 
them  cease  thrumming  the  piano  or  guitar  for  a  time, 
and  learn  to  cook,  bake,  wash,  mend,  scrub,  sweep, 
and  perform  the  thousand  and  one  little  household  du- 
ties that  have  made  their  mothers  and  grandmothers 
well  and  robust  before  them.  We  made  such  a  pre- 
scription once  for  a  young  lady  who  had  been  given 
up  to  die  of  consumption  by  a  gray-headed  doctor,  and 
whose  friends  were  sadly  watching  her  decline,  and 
in  six  weeks  the  young  mi§s  was  well  and  has  been 
so  ever  since ;  but  we  entailed  her  everlasting  dislike, 
and  have  no  doubt  that  any  physician  or  other  person 
who  should  adopt  the  same  course  in  a  similar  case 
would  be  similarly  rewarded. 

There  is  no  gymnasium  in  the  world  which  is  bet- 
ter to  secure  excellent  results  from  exercise  than  the 
kitchen,  the  wash-room,  and  the  garden.  These  are 
nature's  gymnasia.  They  require  no  outlay  for  spe- 
cial appliances,  and  are  always  fitted  up  for  use. 

In  ancient  Greece,  in  the  palmy  days  of  that  em- 
pire, physical  training  was  considered  as  much  a  part 
of  the  necessary  education  of  young  men  and  women, 
as  their  mental  culture.     Every  inducement  was  of- 


fered  to  them  to  make  themselves  strong,  vigorous, 
and  athletic.  Their  schools  were  called  gymnasia,  on 
account  of  the  attention  given  to  gymnastics.  Small 
waists  and  delicate  forms,  white,  soft,  helpless  hands 
and  tiny  feet  were  not  prized  among  the  pioneers  of 
civilization.  The  mothers  of  heroes  and  philosophers 
were  not  pampered  and  petted  and  spoiled  by  indul- 
gence. They  were  inured  to  toil,  to  severe  exercise. 
Their  bodies  were  developed  so  as  to  fit  them  for  the 
duties  of  maternity  and  give  them  constitutions  to  be- 
queath to  their  children  which  would  insure  hardi- 
hood, courage,  and  stamina  in  the  conflict  with  the 
world  to  obtain  a  subsistence,  and  with  human  foemen 
in  the  rage  of  battle.  The  women  developed  by  this 
system  of  culture  were  immortalized  in  marble,  and 
the  beauty  of  their  forms  has  been  the  envy  of  the 
world  from  that  day  to  this ;  yet  no  one  seems  to 
think  of  attempting  to  gain  the  same  beauty  in  the 
same  way.  It  might  be  done :  there  is  no  reason 
why  it  cannot  be ;  but  the  only  way  is  the  one  which  the 
Grecian  women  adopted, — physical  culture. 

Mens  sana  in  corpore  sano  was  the  motto  of  the  an- 
cient Greeks  ;  and  the  experience  of  every  day  shows 
that  the  person  with  strong  muscles  and  good  diges- 
tion, with  fair  intellectual  abilities,  is  the  one  who 
wins  the  goals  in  the  strifes  for  wealth  and  fame 
and  all  that  men  seek  after,  and  the  same  is  also 
true  of  women.  "  A  sound  mind  in  a  sound  body  * 
is  as  necessary  for  assured  success  in  life  in  the  nine- 
teenth century  as  when  the  sentiment  was  first  in- 
scribed upon  the  gates  of  the  temples  in  ancient 

Fig.  t. 

Fig.  2. 

Fig.  3. 

Fig.  4. 

Fig.  S. 


THE   YOUNG  LADY.  243 

Necessity  for  Unrestrained  Action.— A  muscle 
tied  up  is  rendered  as  helpless  as  though  it  were  para- 
lyzed. When  a  muscle  acts,  it  does  so  by  swelling 
out  in  thickness,  while  contracting  in  length.  From 
this  it  will  be  evident  that  if  a  tight  band  is  put 
around  a  muscle  in  such  a  manner  as  to  prevent  its 
expansion  or  increase  in  thickness,  it  cannot  possibly 
act.  Hence,  a  fundamental  requisite  of  healthful 
muscular  action  is  entire  freedom  from  restraint. 
Unrestrained  action  is  indispensable  to  complete  ac- 
tion and  perfect  development.  When  a  broken  arm 
is  done  up  in  a  splint  for  a  few  weeks,  upon  removing 
the  bandage  it  is  usually  found  that  the  arm  has 
shrunken  in  size ;  the  muscles  have  wasted,  partly  in 
consequence  of  pressure,  and  partly  on  account  of  the 
enforced  inaction  of  the  muscles.  The  very  same 
thing  happens  wherever  pressure  is  brought  to  bear 
upon  the  muscular  tissues.  A  ring  worn  upon  a  fin- 
ger causes  atrophy,  or  wasting  of  the  tissues  beneath 
it.  By  placing  an  elastic  band  around  soft  tissues 
they  may  be  absorbed  altogether,  in  consequence  of 
the  pressure.  This  action  has  been  taken  advantage 
of  for  the  removal  of  tumors  in  certain  parts  of  the 

Physical  Training  of  Young  Women. — The 
tendency  to  physical  decline  in  young  women  has 
become  so  marked  that  we  believe  it  to  be  the  duty 
of  every  mother  to  give  careful  attention  to  the  phys- 
ical training  of  her  daughters.  Mothers  ought  to 
watch  with  care  the  development  of  young  girls,  and 
correct  at  once  any  manifest  defect,  such  as  drooping 


shoulders,  flatness  of  the  chest,  curvatures  of  the 
spine,  etc. 

Among  the  most  common  causes  of  round  shoul- 
ders in  girls  are  bad  positions  occupied  in  sitting, 
standing,  and  lying  during  the  hours  of  sleep.  On 
Plate  F  we  have  introduced  a  few  figures  which  show 
incorrect  attitudes  contrasted  with  correct  and  health- 
ful ones.  Among  the  best  means  of  overcoming  these 
deformities  are  the  various  calisthenic  exercises,  a  few 
of  which  are  shown  on  Plate  XI.  The  dumb-bell  and 
club  exercises  are  particularly  useful.  Both  these 
appliances  should  be  of  wood  and  very  light,  weigh- 
ing not  more  than  one  or  two  pounds  each. 

The  same  exercises  also  strengthen  the  muscles  of 
the  back  and  thus  act  as  a  preventive  of  spinal  curva-* 
tures  and  weak  backs ;  and  if  persevered  in  and  prop- 
erly adapted  to  the  conditions  of  the  individual  case, 
are  exceedingly  useful  means  of  curing  curvatures  due 
to  muscular  weakness  or  unsymmetrical  muscular  de- 
velopment. In  addition  to  these  exercises,  special 
forms  of  exercise,  such  as  carrying  a  heavy  book  upon 
the  head,  hanging  by  the  hands,  and  suspension  by 
the  head  and  shoulders  with  a  suitable  apparatus  are 
useful  and  essential  in  extreme  cases.  It  should  be 
borne  in  mind  that  in  cases  of  spinal  curvature  the 
higher  shoulder  is  the  weaker  one,  and  the  curvature 
of  the  spine  toward  that  side  of  the  body  result- 
ing in  the  elevation  of  the  shoulder  above  that  of  the 
opposite  side,  is  due  to  the  preponderance  in  strength 
of  the  muscles  of  the  latter.  To  correct  the  deformity 
by  exercise,  the  weak  side  must  be  developed  up  to 



equality  with  the  other  by  giving  it  the  greater 
amount  of  exercise. 

A  home-made  gymnasium  in  which  a  variety 
of  healthful  exercises  can  be  taken  may  be  eas- 
ily constructed  in  a  garret  or  even  in  the  sleep- 
ing-room, where  it  will  be  convenient'  for  use- 
Two  ropes  suspended  from  a  beam  in  the  ceiling  and 
furnished  with  a  ring  at  the  free  end  of  each,  a  pair 
of  rubber  tubes  each  about  two  feet  long  furnished 
with*hooks  at  both  ends  and  rings  which  can  be  at- 
tached and  detached  at  pleasure,  and  the  -wooden: 
dumb-bells  and  clubs  before  mentioned,  furnish  all  the 
apparatus  necessary  for  a  great  variety  of  healthful 
exercises.  Light  gymnastics  ought  to  be  taught  and 
practiced  in  every  school,  and  particularly  in  young 
ladies'  seminaries  and  boarding  schools. 

A  half-hour's  daily  practice  in  a  home  gymnasium 
will  develop  the  chest  and  waist  to  a  wonderful  de- 
gree in  the  course  of  a  few  months.  In  the  treat- 
ment of  numerous  cases  of  disease  of  various  sorts  in 
girls  and  young  women  we  have  found  physical  train- 
ing a  most  valuable  accessory,  and  in  many  instances 
have  regarded  it  as  the  chief  factor  in  securing  th& 
rapid  and  complete  recovery  which  we  have  usually 
been  able  to  obtain  in  this  class  of  cases. 

Women  do  not  naturally  possess  so  largely  devel- 
oped a  muscular  system  as  men,  and  microscopical 
examination  shows  the  muscular  fibres  to  be  smaller 
in  size.  Nevertheless,  the  smaller  size  and  conse- 
quent closer  connection  with  the  blood  supply  give  to 
them  an  increased  power  of  endurance  which  compen- 
sates for  the  lack  of  ability  for  so  great  a  spasmodic 



equality  with  the  other  by  giving  it  the  greater 
amount  of  exercise. 

A  home-made  gymnasium  in  which  a  variety 
of  healthful  exercises  can  be  taken  may  be  eas- 
ily constructed  in  a  garret  or  even  in  the  sleep- 
ing-room, where  it  will  be  convenient'  for  use- 
Two  ropes  suspended  from  a  beam  in  the  ceiling  and 
jTurnished  with  a  ring  at  the  free  end  of  each,  a  pair 
of  rubber  tubes  each  about  two  feet  long  furnished 
withiiooks  at  both  ends  and  rings  which  can  be  at- 
tached and  detached  at  pleasure,  and  the  -wooden 
dumb-bells  and  clubs  before  mentioned,  furnish  all  the 
apparatus  necessary  for  a  great  variety  of  healthful 
exercises.  Light  gymnastics  ought  to  be  taught  and 
practiced  in  every  school,  and  particularly  in  young 
ladies'  seminaries  and  boarding  schools. 

A  half-hour's  daily  practice  in  a  home  gymnasium 
will  develop  the  chest  and  waist  to  a  wonderful  de- 
gree in  the  course  of  a  few  months.  In  the  treat- 
ment of  numerous  cases  of  disease  of  various  sorts  in 
girls  and  young  women  we  have  found  physical  train- 
ing a  most  valuable  accessory,  and  in  many  instances 
have  regarded  it  as  the  chief  factor  in  securing  th& 
rapid  and  complete  recovery  which  we  have  usually 
been  able  to  obtain  in  this  class  of  cases. 

Women  do  not  naturally  possess  so  largely  devel- 
oped a  muscular  system  as  men,  and  microscopical 
examination  shows  the  muscular  fibres  to  be  smaller 
in  size.  Nevertheless,  the  smaller  size  and  conse- 
quent closer  connection  with  the  blood  supply  give  to 
them  an  increased  power  of  endurance  which  compen- 
sates for  the  lack  of  ability  for  so  great  a  spasmodic 



for  school-children  and  young  students,  is  a  most  ad- 
mirable form  of  exercise.  It  is  also  well  adapted  to 
invalids  who  are  unable  to  walk  more  than  a  short 
distance  at  a  time.  Full  directions  for  the  use  of 
calisthenics,  or  gymnastic  exercises,  are  given  in  a 
chapter  devoted  to  the  subject.  In  our  opinion, 
every  family  ought  to  be  fitted  out  with  all  the  con- 
veniences for  parlor  gymnastics.  They  afford  not 
only  healthful  exercise  but  a  large  amount  of  excel- 
lent amusement  for  the  little  folks. 

The  health-lift  is  a  form  of  exercise  too  important 
to  be  overlooked.  We  have  carefully  tested  this 
form  of  exercise,  and  believe  it  to  be  an  exceedingly 
valuable  measure  for  those  whose  employments  are 
sedentary  and  whose  time  for  exercise  is  limited. 
However,  we  can  indorse  but  a  small  portion  of  what 
has  been  claimed  for  it  by  persons  who  have  made  its 
use  and  sale  a  specialty.  Again,  we  have  no  sympa- 
thy with  the  course  which  has  been  taken  by  most 
manufacturers  in  charging  an  enormous  price  for  a 
piece  of  apparatus  which  really  costs  but  very  little 
and  could  well  be  afforded  for  one-half  the  money 
charged.  The  chief  benefits  of  the  health-lift  may  be 
derived  from  a  very  simple  form  of  apparatus  which 
can  be  constructed  at  slight  expense  by  means  of  two 
stout  rubber  bands  attached  to  the  floor  or  a  platform, 
and  furnished  with  handles. 

For  many  persons,  as  before  remarked,  no  form  of 
rxriidse  is  more  beneficial  health  wise  than  some  kind 
nf  physical  labor.  For  ladies,  general  housework  is 
;iilaiirably  adapted  to  bring  into  play  all  the  different 
in  uncles  of  the  body,  while  affording  such  a  variety  of 


different  exercises  and  such  frequent  change  that  no 
part  need  be  very  greatly  fatigued.  There  are  thou- 
sands of  young  ladies  pining  under  the  care  of  their 
family  physician  in  spite  of  all  he  can  do  by  the  most 
learned  and  complicated  prescriptions,  for  whom  a 
change  of  air  or  a  year's  residence  in  some  foreign 
clime,  or  some  similar  expensive  project,  is  proposed, 
when  all  in  the  world  that  is  needed  to  make  the  deli- 
cate creatures  well  is  to  require  them  to  change  places 
with  their  mothers  for  a  few  weeks  or  months.  Let 
them  cease  thrumming  the  piano  or  guitar  for  a  time, 
and  learn  to  cook,  bake,  wash,  mend,  scrub,  sweep, 
and  perform  the  thousand  and  one  little  household  du- 
ties that  have  made  their  mothers  and  grandmothers 
well  and  robust  before  them.  We  made  such  a  pre- 
scription once  for  a  young  lady  who  had  been  given 
up  to  die  of  consumption  by  a  gray-headed  doctor,  and 
whose  friends  were  sadly  watching  her  decline,  and 
in  six  weeks  the  young  mi§s  was  well  and  has  been 
so  ever  since ;  but  we  entailed  her  everlasting  dislike, 
and  have  no  doubt  that  any  physician  or  other  person 
who  should  adopt  the  same  course  in  a  similar  case 
would  be  similarly  rewarded. 

There  is  no  gymnasium  in  the  world  which  is  bet- 
ter to  secure  excellent  results  from  exercise  than  the 
kitchen,  the  wash-room,  and  the  garden.  These  are 
nature's  gymnasia.  They  require  no  outlay  for  spe- 
cial appliances,  and  are  always  fitted  up  for  use. 

In  ancient  Greece,  in  the  palmy  days  of  that  em- 
pire, physical  training  was  considered  as  much  a  part 
of  the  necessary  education  of  young  men  and  women, 
as  their  mental  culture.     Every  inducement  was  of- 


fered  to  them  to  make  themselves  strong,  vigorous, 
and  athletic.  Their  schools  were  called  gymnasia,  on 
account  of  the  attention  given  to  gymnastics.  Small 
waists  and  delicate  forms,  white,  soft,  helpless  hands 
and  tiny  feet  were  not  prized  among  the  pioneers  of 
civilization.  The  mothers  of  heroes  and  philosophers 
were  not  pampered  and  petted  and  spoiled  by  indul- 
gence. They  were  inured  to  toil,  to  severe  exercise. 
Their  bodies  were  developed  so  as  to  fit  them  for  the 
duties  of  maternity  and  give  them  constitutions  to  be- 
queath to  their  children  which  would  insure  hardi- 
hood, courage,  and  stamina  in  the  conflict  with  the 
world  to  obtain  a  subsistence,  and  with  human  foemen 
in  the  rage  of  battle.  The  women  developed  by  this 
system  of  culture  were  immortalized  in  marble,  and 
the  beauty  of  their  forms  has  been  the  envy  of  the 
world  from  that  day  to  this ;  yet  no  one  seems  to 
think  of  attempting  to  gain  the  same  beauty  in  the 
same  way.  It  might  be  done :  there  is  no  reason 
why  it  cannot  be ;  but  the  only  way  is  the  one  which  the 
Grecian  women  adopted, — physical  culture. 

Mens  sana  in  corpore  sano  was  the  motto  of  the  an- 
cient Greeks  ;  and  the  experience  of  every  day  shows 
that  the  person  with  strong  muscles  and  good  diges- 
tion, with  fair  intellectual  abilities,  is  the  one  who 
wins  the  goals  in  the  strifes  for  wealth  and  fame 
and  all  that  men  seek  after,  and  the  same  is  also 
true  of  women.  "  A  sound  mind  in  a  sound  body  * 
is  as  necessary  for  assured  success  in  life  in  the  nine- 
teenth century  as  when  the  sentiment  was  first  in- 
scribed upon  the  gates  of  the  temples  in  ancient 

fig.  t 

fig.  2, 

fig,  3. 

%  * 



tion.  Plate  X  also  shows  the  same  points  very 
clearly  by  contrasting  the  form  of  a  modern  belle 
dressed  in  Parisian  fashion,  with  the  splendid  form 
of  the  Venus  of  Milo.  It  will  be  observed  by 
careful  inspection  of  these  figures  that  the  thorax 
when  in  a  natural  condition  is  cone-shaped,  the  base 
of  the  cone  being  below,  while  in  the  thorax  of  a  per- 
son whose  waist  has  been  compressed  and  distorted 
by  the  ruthless  hand  of  fashion  by  means  of  the  cor- 
set, tight  belts,  and  waistbands,  the  reverse  is  the 
case.  Let  every  woman  consider  carefully  the  injury 
which  results  from  this  artificial  and  totally  unnatural 
constriction  of  the  waist. 

The  object  of  the  arrangement  referred  to  is  to 
give  ample  room  for  the  action  of  the  delicate  vital 
organs  which  are  carefully  lodged  within  this  bony 
cage  for  protection.  Chief  among  these  are  the  lungs, 
the  heart,  the  liver,  the  diaphragm,  and  the  stomach. 
In  the  healthy  performance  of  their  functions,  these 
organs  require  a  considerable  degree  of  motion.  With 
every  act  of  respiration,  the  lungs  alternately  expand 
and  contract;  the  diaphragm  moves  up  and  down;  the 
stomach  and  liver  have  the  same  motion.  Every  beat 
of  the  pulse  is  accompanied  by  a  change  in  the  posi- 
tion of  the  heart.  The  size  of  the  stomach  necessa- 
rily varies  greatly,  being  full  after  a  meal,  and  nearly 
empty  at  other  times. 

The  Corset  a  Cause  of  Consumption. — How 
does  compression  affect  these  various  organs  and  their 
functions  ?  The  corset,  with  its  inflexible  stays  and 
hour-glass  shape,  grasps  the  expanding  lungs  in 
their  lower  part  like  an  iron  vise  and  prevents  their 


THE   YOUNG  LADY.  251 

proper  filling  with  air.  The  lungs  are  thus  crowded 
up  into  the  upper  part  of  the  chest  and  are  pressed 
against  the  projecting  edges  of  the  first  ribs,  upon 
which  they  move  to  and  fro  with  the  act  of  breathing. 
The  friction  thus  produced  occasions  a  constant  irrita- 
tion of  the  upper  portion  of  the  lung,  which  induces  a 
deposit  of  tuberculous  matter,  and  the  individual  be- 
comes a  prey  to  that  dread  disease,  consumption — a 
sacrifice  to  a  practice  as  absurd  as  pernicious. 

The  lower  part  of  the  chest  being  narrowed,  thus 
preventing  proper  expansion  of  the  lungs,  the  amount 
of  air  inhaled  is  insufficient  to  properly  purify  the 
blood  by  removing  from  it  the  poisonous  carbonic 
acid  which  gives  to  impure  blood  its  dark  color,  and 
is  so  fatal  to  the  life  of  all  animals.  In  consequence 
of  this  defective  purification  of  the  blood,  the  whole 
body  suffers.  None  of  the  tissues  are  properly  kept 
in  repair.  They  are  all  poisoned  Particles  of  gross, 
carbonaceous  matter  are  deposited  in  the  skin,  causing 
it  to  lose  its  healthy  color  and  acquire  a  dead,  leath- 
ery appearance  and  a  dusky  hue.  The  delicate  nerve 
tissues  are  poisoned,  and  the  individual  is  tormented 
with  "  nerves,"  sleeplessness,  and  fits  of  melancholy. 

We  wish  also  to  call  attention  to  the  important 
fact  that  continuous  pressure  upon  these  parts  may 
cause  such  a  degree  of  degeneration  of  the  muscles  or 
the  chest  as  to  seriously  impair  the  breathing  capac- 
ity. Unused  muscles  waste  away,  as  already  ob- 
served ;  and  when  pressure  is  applied  in  addition,  the 
wasting  and  degenerating  become  still  more  marked. 
This  is  exactly  what  happens  with  those  who  wear 
their   clothing   tight   about   the   waist.     This  is  the 


reason  why  ladies  who  have  been  accustomed  to  wear 
corsets  declare  so  emphatically  that  they  "  could  not 
live  without  them,"  that,  they  feel  when  their  corset 
is  off  as  though  they  "  should  fall  down  into  a  heap." 

While  the  ribs  suffer  the  least  of  any  of  the  or- 
gans of  the  chest  from  the  absurd  custom  which  fash- 
ion has  imposed  upon  the  gentler  sex,  tight-lacing  the 
waist  and  encasing  the  body  in  a  vise  of  stays  of  bone 
or  steel,  is  of  positive  and  often  incurable  injury  to 
this  part  of  the  vital  economy. 

The  bony  ribs  do  not  join  the  sternum  or  breast- 
tone  directly,  but  indirectly  through  the  medium  of 
flexible  cartilages,  an  arrangement  which  gives  to  the 
thorax  the  power  to  expand  and  thus  enable  the  lungs 
the  better  to  perform  their  important  functions. 
Careful  study  has  shown  that  this  flexibility  of  the 
costal  cartilages  is  due  to  their  constant  exercise. 
Day  and  night,  sleeping  or  waking,  twenty  times  a 
minute,  these  flexible  parts  are  bent  and  allowed  to 
return  again  to  their  natural  position.  This  constant 
bending  and  unbending  allows  them  no  opportunity 
to  become  stiff  and  unyielding  like  the  bones.  But 
when  the  chest  is  imprisoned  in  a  corset,  this  con- 
stant movement  becomes  impossible ;  and  the  conse- 
quence is  that  a  process  of  stiffening  is  set  up,  and 
after  a  time  the  once  flexible,  yielding  cartilages  be- 
come a,s  rigid  as  the  rest  of  the  ribs.  The  inevitable 
result  of  this  change  is  a  permanent  limitation  of  the 
movements  of  the  lungs.  It  becomes  impossible  for 
them  to  expand  except  to  a  limited  degree  upward 
and  downward.  Lateral  expansion  is  as  impossible 
when  the  corset  is  laid  aside  as  when  it  is  in  place. 


The  deformity,  which  was  at  first  temporary,  has  be- 
come permanent.  There  are  thousands  of  delicate 
ladies  all  over  the  land  whose  costal  cartilages  have 
been  thus  changed  through  their  own  willful  abuse  of 
their  bodies,  and  who  will  undoubtedly  go  down  into 
premature  graves  in  consequence,  in  spite  of  all  that 
the  most  skillful  physicians  can  do  for  them. 

The  action  of  the  lungs  ought  to  be  wholly  unre- 
strained, allowing  the  pure  air  with  its  life-giving  oxy- 
gen to  penetrate  to  the  smallest  extremity  of  every 
air-tube,  and  fill  to  its  utmost  capacity  every  delicate 
cell.  The  chest  ought  to  be  capable  of  expansion 
from  two  to  five  inches, — even  greater  expansion  is 
attainable.  But  if  you  put  a  tape-line  around  one  of 
these  corset-stiffened  chests  you  will  be  unable  to  ob- 
tain more  than  a  scant  quarter-inch  of  difference  in 
measurement  between  the  chest  when  empty  and 
when  filled  to  its  utmost  capacity.  We  have  often 
tried  the  experiment  when  making  physical  exami- 
nations of  the  chest,  and  though  the  patient  is  almost 
always  anxious  to  do  her  best,  in  order  to  demon- 
strate if  possible  what  every  lady  will  eagerly  con- 
tend for,  that  her  corset  never  did  her  any  harm 
because  it  was  worn  so  loose,  and  so  draws  up  her 
shoulders  to  her  utmost  and  makes  a  desperate  at- 
tempt to  swallow  more  air  than  there  is  room  for,  we 
have  often  found  that  the  expansion  of  the  sides  of 
the  chest  was  60  slight  as  to  be  imperceptible.  If 
tight-lacing  did  no  other  harm  than  this,  we  should 
certainly  wish  to  condemn  it  in  the  strongest  terms 
we  could  find  language  to  express;  and  we  cannot 
help  feeling  sometimes  that  it  is  a  great  misappropria- 


tion  of  money  to  support  an  army  of  missionaries 
among  the  inappreciative  and  degenerated  inhabitants 
of  African  jungles  and  other  heathen  countries,  who 
value  human  life  so  little  that  they  feed  their  super- 
fluous little  ones  to  the  crocodiles,  and  sacrifice  a 
score  of  women  to  commemorate  the  death  of  a  king, 
while  there  are  so  many  thousands,  perhaps  millions 
in  civilized  lands  who  are  sacrificing  lives  which 
might  be  a  hundred-fold  more  useful,  in  ways  equally 
absurd  and  senseless.  The  homage  paid  by  millions 
of  ladies  to  the  latest  style  of  corset  is  a  grosser  form 
of  idolatry  than  the  fetich  worship  of  the  natives  of 
African  jungles. 

Heart  Disease  Caused  by  Tight  -  Lacing. — 
Another  sufferer  is  the  heart.  The  dark,  impure 
venous  blood  goes  rushing  from  the  heart  to  the  lungs 
for  purification.  The  lungs  are  so  compressed  that 
only  a  portion  of  the  blood  can  get  through.  The 
remainder  is  crowded  back  into  the  heart,  causing  en- 
largement of  that  organ,  and  heart  disease.  The  in- 
dividual then  suffers  from  flutterings  and  palpitations 
of  the  organ,  and  a  constant  fear  lest  sudden  death 
may  cut  short  her  career. 

But  this  damming-back  process  extends  far  beyond 
the  heart.  The  venous  blood,  being  crowded  into  the 
heart,  finds  its  way  back  into  the  veins,  and  thus  to 
the  head,  causing  congestion  of  that  organ,  with  all 
its  dullness,  pain,  nervousness,  loss  of  memory,  and 
mental  inefficiency. 

The  diaphragm,  one  of  the  most  important  muscles 
of  inspiration,  is  crowded  up  into  the  chest  by  the  up- 
ward pressure  of  the   abdominal  organs,  which  are 

THE    YOUNG  LADY.  255 

squeezed  out  of  place  by  the  vise  which  grasps  them. 
This  makes  breathing  still  more  inefficient,  and  the 
expansion  of  the  cavity  of  the  chest  less  complete, 
adding  greatly  to  the  evils  already  mentioned. 

Corsets  and  Dyspepsia. — The  stomach  is  located 
just  beneath  the  point  where  the  pressure  of  the  corset 
is  greatest.  It  must  either  suffer  from  constant,  un- 
yielding compression,  or  else  it  must  be  displaced 
either  upward  or  downward.  In  the  first  case,  it  en- 
croaches upon  the  lungs,  and  in  the  second,  it  presses 
upon  delicate  organs  below,  so  that  the  result  is 
equally  bad  in  either  case.  This  constant  compres- 
sion and  displacement  disturbs  the  function  of  the 
organ,  and  thus  produces  dyspepsia  with  all  its  dire 
consequences.  Experiments  upon  animals  show  that 
pressure  upon  the  stomach  will  produce  death  quicker 
than  almost  any  other  means.  A  sharp  blow  upon 
the  stomach  will  often  produce  instant  death.  Dis- 
placement and  distortion  of  the  stomach  are  also  in- 
duced, as  may  be  seen  by  reference  to  Fig.C,  Plate  X. 

Tight-Laced  Fissure  of  the  Liver. — We  once 
found  in  Bellevue  Hospital,  New  York  City,  a  woman 
who  was  suffering  under  a  complication  of  maladies 
which  evidently  had  their  origin  in  the  foolish  practice 
of  tight-lacing  to  which  she  had  been  addicted.  On 
making  an  examination  of  the  internal  organs,  we 
were  amazed  to  find  the  liver  presenting  itself  just 
above  the  hip  bone,  its  normal  position  being  entirely 
above  the  lower  border  of  the  ribs.  Further  exami- 
nation revealed  the  fact  that  in  about  the  middle  of  the 
organ  there  was  a  constriction,  or  fissure,  nearly  di- 
viding it  in  two,  which  had  been  produced  by  habitual 


lacing.  The  function  of  the  organ  had  been  so  greatly 
interfered  with  that  it  had  failed  to  remove  the  biliary 
elements  from  the  blood,  and  they  had  been  largely 
deposited  in  the  skin,  making  the  latter  anything  but 
beautiful,  although  the  woman  was  not  advanced  in 
years,  and  was  naturally  fair.  Thousands  of  young 
ladies  have  cut  their  livers  nearly  in  two  in  the  same 
way.  No  wonder  that  they  require  rouge  and  French 
chalk  to  hide  their  tawny  skins.  Figs.  D  and  E,  Plate 
X,  represent  very  accurately  the  deformities  of  the 
liver  produced  by  this  foolish  and  inexcusable  practice. 
A  physician  of  eminence,  upon  making  a  post- 
mortem examination*  of  a  woman  who  had  worn  heavy 
skirts  suspended  from  her  waist  for  many  years,  be- 
ginning the  practice  in  early  childhood,  found  the  liver 
dragged  down  into  the  pelvis  and  entirely  cut  in  two, 
the  separate  portions  being  only  held  together  by  a 
fibrous  cord. 

Numerous  Other  Evil  Results. — The  waist  is 
naturally  larger  than  the  upper  part  of  the  chest.  Its 
size  is  due  to  the  contents  of  the  abdominal  cavity. 
If  it  is  pinched  and  squeezed  into  one-half  its  natural 
size  at  one  point,  some  other  portion  must  be  enlarged 
in  order  to  give  room  for  the  internal  viscera  of  the 
abdomen.  This  enlargement  naturally  occurs  below 
the  waist,  giving  that  portion  of  the  body  an  unnatu- 
ral, ungraceful,  and  distorted  appearance.  Indeed, 
the  practice  distorts  the  whole  body,  giving  it  an 
hour-glass  shape  when  there  should  be  a  graceful 
taper  from  the  armpits  to  the  hips.  The  noble 
matrons  of  Greece  and  Rome,  in  the  sunny  days  of 
those  empires,  never  possessed  such  misshapen  forms 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.        .  257 

as  modem  fashionable  belles  contrive  to  torture  their 
bodies  into. 

Tight-lacing  and  the  corset  are  the  most  fruitful 
sources  of  a  majority  of  the  ills  from  which  women 
especially  suffer.  The  great  increase  of  pressure 
brought  upon  the  delicate  organs  which  occupy  the 
female  pelvis,  occasions  displacement  of  those  organs 
and  all  the  resultant  miseries. 

More  than  one  case  is  on  record  of  young  ladies 
who  have  applied  the  belt  or  corset  so  tightly  that  a 
blood-vessel  has  been  ruptured  and  almost  instant 
death  has  ensued. 

If  we  should  consider  the  remote  effects  of  lacing 
the  waist,  we  would  find  that  nearly  every  internal 
malady  may  be  either  induced  or  greatly  aggravated 
in  virulence  by  this  pernicious  practice. 

The  Corset  Not  a  Necessity. — "  But  I  cannot 
live  without  a  corset,"  said  a  lady  when  we  expostu- 
lated with  her  for  her  persistence  in  wearing  the  ob- 
jectionable article,  "  I  need  its  support ;  I  should  fall 
down  all  in  a  heap  without  it.  I  feel  so  weak  and 
helpless  without  something  to  brace  me  up."  It  is 
possible  that  such  individuals  do  really  feel  better 
when  encased  in  a  framework  of  whalebone,  steel, 
and  cords,  than  when  depending  only  on  their  natural 
resources  for  support.  They  have  so  long  confined 
their  yielding  muscles  in  a  rigid,  unyielding  case,  that 
they  have  lost  their  strength  and  elasticity.  Let  a 
strong  man  strap  his  arm  to  a  board  and  wear  it  con- 
stantly for  a  year.  He  will  find  it  almost  useless. 
Its  muscles  will  be  thin,  flaccid,  and  powerless.  The 
corset  has  the  same  effect  upon  the  muscles  of  the 


chest  which  are  by  nature  designed  to  support  the 
trunk.  Will  the  muscles  of  the  mans  arm  become 
strong  by  continuing  to  wear  the  board?  Never; 
the  only  way  to  recover  its  strength  is  to  throw  away 
the  board  and  use  the  weakened  member.  So  with 
the  corset.  It  is  the  cause  of  the  condition  which  it 
is  thought  makes  it  a  necessity.  So  long  as  it  is 
worn,  the  muscles  of  the  chest  will  be  weak  and  lax. 
Throw  it  away,  and  begin  to  exercise  the  wasted 
muscles  and  they  will  speedily  recover  themselves. 
The  mothers  of  Grecia's  noble  sons  never  wore  cor- 
sets. They  were  equally  unknown  to  Roman  moth- 
ers. If  the  article  was  unnecessary  for  them,  why 
is  it  so  needful  for  modern  women  ?  If  support  for 
the  bust  is  required,  it  can  be  obtained  by  better 
means  than  the  corset.  A  short  experience  without 
it  always  results  in  its  dismissal  forever,  when  a  fair 
trial  is  made. 

Although  the  corset  is  the  chief  offender  in  con- 
straining the  healthy  activity  of  the  vital  organs  of 
the  body,  there  are  other  articles  and  modes  of  dress 
which  deserve  attention  on  account  of  their  interfer- 
ence with  some  of  the  bodily  functions.  When  the 
leaders  of  fashion  decreed  that  the  previously  indis- 
pensable crinoline  must  be  discarded,  the  sensible 
part  of  the  world  rejoiced,  thinking  that  Dame  Fash- 
ion was  really  about  to  reform  her  ways.  But  such 
hopes  were  dashed  to  the  ground  when  the  present 
fashionable  style  of  dress  appeared.  Formerly,  fash- 
ionable ladies  sailed  along  the  streets  like  animated 
balloons,  monopolizing  the  whole  walk  with  their  wide- 
spreading  skirts.     A  few  years  ago  the  opposite  ex- 

THE  YOUNG   LADY.  259 

treme  was  reached  and  fashionable  ladies  were  to  be 
seen  wriggling  along  the  street  like  competitors  in  a 
sack-race.  Indeed,  it  seemed  a  marvel  that  locomo- 
tion was  a  possibility,  so  greatly  hampered  were  the 
limbs  by  numerous  heavy  skirts  drawn  tightly  back 
and  fastened  at  the  sides.  Anything  like  graceful 
ease  in  walking  was  impossible.  A  Chinese  wriggle 
was  the  result  of  the  best  attempt. 

The  motions  of  the  arms  are  curtailed  to  an  almost 
equal  extent  by  the  fashion  of  the  garments  about 
the  shoulders.  They  are  so  made  that  it  is  next  to 
impossible  for  the  wearer  to  raise  the  hand  an  inch 
above  the  head.  The  arms  are  actually  pinioned. 
Why  not  have  the  shoulders  of  ladies'  garments  made 
like  those  of  men,  which  allow  perfect  freedom  of  mo- 
tion to  the  arms?  The  more  recent  fashions  are 
adopting  this  style,  and  we  trust  that  the  old  style  of 
cutting  ladies'  sacques  and  dresses  will  soon  wholly 

The  elastic  bands  worn  about  the  leg  to  keep  the 
stocking  in  place,  and  sometimes  used  upon  the  arms  to 
hold  the  sleeves  up,  are  more  harmful  than  is  usually 
imagined.  The  long  stockings  worn  by  females  bring 
the  elastic  just  above  the  knee,  where  the  large  blood- 
vessels of  the  limb  come  near  the  surface  and  are  in 
position  to  be  compressed  against  the  thigh  bone  in 
such  a  way  as  to  impede  the  circulation.  It  is  not 
to  be  wondered  at  that  under  these  circumstances,  in 
addition  to  the  evil  of  thin  stockings,  and  thin,  tight 
shoes,  there  should  seem  to  be  a  necessity  for  arti- 
ficial calves,  which  we  are  informed  on  creditable  au- 
thority have  actually  been  employed. 


Whether  garters  are  elastic  or  inelastic,  the  effect 
is  essentially  the  same.  They  interfere  with  the  cir- 
culation of  the  blood  in  the  lower  limbs,  and  often 
produce  varicose  veins.  Cold  feet  and  headache  are 
the  ordinary  results  of  their  use.  School  girls  suffer 
greatly  from  their  injurious  effects. 

Fashionable  Suicides. — If  the  number  of  deaths 
annually  resulting  from  improper  dress  were  accurate- 
ly recorded,  the  aggregate  would  be  absolutely  appall- 
ing. A  large  percentage  of  these  would  be  found  to 
be  due  to  inattention  to  the  maintenance  of  a  uniform 
temperature  of  the  body.  Fashionable  attire  sepa- 
rates the  body  into  zones.  The  upper  part  of  the 
chest  and  the  feet  and  ankles  are  the  frigid  zones, 
while  the  lower  part  of  the  abdomen  is  the  torrid 
zone.  The  feet  and  limbs  are  so  far  away  from  the 
centers  of  life  and  heat  that  they  naturally  require 
more  clothing  to  maintain  in  them  a  temperature 
equal  to  that  in  other  parts.  The  warm  blood  cur- 
rent loses  much  of  its  warmth  in  passing  the  whole 
length  of  the  limbs,  and  so  reaches  the  extremities 
only  after  being  chilled.  Instead  of  supplying  the 
required  extra  clothing  to  these  parts,  fashion  totally 
ignores  the  wants  of  nature  and  gives  the  limbs  even 
less  protection  than  other  parts  which  need  it  less. 
The  upper  part  of  the  chest  is  often  exposed  even  to 
the  eye.  At  best,  it  is  usually  covered  only  by  a 
few  thin  layers. 

Garments  from  the  upper  part  of  the  body  over- 
lap those  from  the  lower  portion,  below  the  waist, 
thus  doubling  the  amount  of  clothing  over  the  most 
vital  parts — those  least  liable  to  suffer  from  cold.     In 


this  way  the  natural  heat  of  the  parts  is  greatly  in- 
creased, and  much  suffering  is  the  result.  Local  con- 
gestions and  inflammations  find  their  exciting  cause 
in  this  mode  of  clothing  the  body. 

In  addition  to  the  many  thicknesses  occasioned 
by  the  overlapping  of  garments  and  bands,  fashion 
adds  a  huge  deformity  behind  in  the  form  of  a  bus- 
tle, which  is  located  just  over  the  nerve  centers 
which  preside  over  the  reproductive  functions,  and  by 
the  excess  of  heat  thus  engendered  often  occasions 
very  great  injury,  which  cannot  always  be  remedied, 
even  by  years  of  medical  treatment. 

.  While  the  central  portion  of  the  body  is  thus 
burning  with  excessive  heat,  being  covered  with 
from  seven  to  fourteen  thicknesses,  the  limbs  are  al- 
lowed to  go  almost  nude.  One  thin,  muslin  garment 
meeting  an  equally  thin  stocking  below,  supplemented 
upon  the  foot  by  a  thin  shoe,  is  often  thought  to  be 
amply  sufficient  clothing  for  the  limbs  and  feet,  even 
when  the  mercury  stands  in  the  thermometer  near 
zero.  The  arms  are  frequently  little  better  clad, 
the  sleeves  of  undergarments  extending  but  a  little 
below  the  shoulder. 

Loose  skirts  are  wholly  inadequate  to  secure 
proper  warmth  to  the  limbs,  even  though  they  be 
multiplied,  for  the  simple  motion  of  the  limbs  in  walk- 
ing creates  currents  of  air  about  them  beneath  the 
warmest  skirts.  The  wind  also  dashes  cold  air  upon 
them  from  below,  sometimes  even  making  skirts  a 
disadvantage,  rather  than  a  protection. 

To  add  still  more  to  the  unbalance  of  the  tem- 
perature occasioned  by  improper  clothing,  heavy  furs 



are  worn  upon  the  chest  and  shoulders,  where  less 
artificial  covering  is  really  needed  than  at  other 

If  under  so  unequal  a  distribution  of  the  heat  of 
the  body  a  woman  escapes  a  score  of  s^ch  maladies  as 
congestion  of  the  brain,  headache,  neuralgia,  torpid 
liver,  dyspepsia,  and  consumption,  besides  the  nu- 
merous ills  peculiar  to  the  sex,  it  is  either  because  she 
is  uncommonly  "  tough,"  or  on  account  of  a  special 
interposition  of  Providence.  But  we  do  not  believe 
that  Providence  ever  works  miracles  to  enable  people 
to  disregard  his  laws.  The  usual  result  is  a  chronic 
inflammation  of  all  the  internal  organs  of  the  pelvis 
and  lower  portion  of  the  abdomen. 

What  Drags  the  Life  out  of  a  Woman  ? — 
Those  heavy  skirts,  varying  in  number  from  three  to 
seven  or  more,  all  suspended  from  the  waist,  and 
pulling  down  upon  the  hips,  are  enough  to  drag  the 
life  out  of  a  Hercules,  A  strong  man  would  not 
endure  for  a  single  day  one-tenth  of  the  discomfort 
which  a  fashionable  woman  suffers  every  day  of  her 
life.  It  is  useless  for  woman  to  think  of  rising  above 
her  present  level  while  she  is  chained  down  by  the 
burdens  imposed  by  heavy,  trailing  skirts. 

The  unnecessary  and  injurious  weight  occasioned 
by  superfluous  length  and  number  of  skirts  is  greatly 
increased  by  the  addition  upon  the  outer  garment  of 
an  indefinite  number  of  flounces,  folds,  heavy  over- 
skirts,  and  various  other  useless  accessories. 

But  the  evils  and  inconveniences  above  referred 
to  are  not  the  worst  which  result  from  the  wearing  of 
so  great  a  weight  of  clothing  as  is  customary  among 

THE  YOUNG  LADY.  '  263 

fashionable  people.  The  most  serious  consequences 
are  those  which  are  suffered  by  the  delicate  organs  of 
the  pelvis.  The  many  heavy  skirts  and  under-gar- 
ments  which  are  hung  about  the  waist  with  no  sup- 
port from  above,  drag  down  the  internal  organs  of  the 
abdomen  and  cause  them  to  press  heavily  upon  the 
contents  of  the  pelvis.  After  a  time  the  slender 
ligaments  which  hold  those  organs  in  place  give  way, 
and  various  kinds  of  displacements  and  other  derange- 
ments occur.  The  tightness  with  which  the  gar- 
ments are  drawn  at  the  waist  greatly  increases  the 

The  custom  of  wearing  the  pantaloons  buttoned 
tightly  at  the  top,  and  sustained  by  the  hips,  pro- 
duced so  much  disease  even  among  the  hardy  soldiers 
of  the  Russian  army,  that  a  law  was  enacted  making 
the  wearing  of  suspenders  compulsory.  If  strong 
men  suffer  thus,  how  much  greater  must  be  the  in- 
jury to  frail,  delicate  women !  The  constant  pressure 
and  unnatural  heat  to  which  the  lower  part  of  the 
back  is  subjected,  is  one  of  the  chief  causes  of  the 
frequency  of  kidney  diseases  among  women.  Here  is 
found  the  source  of  "  weak  back,"  lumbago,  pain  in 
the  side,  and  several  other  diseases  of  the  trunk 
which  affect  so  many  thousands  of  American  women. 

Abuse  of  the  Feet. — Though  we  have  not  space 
here  to  elucidate  fully  the  subject  of  the  hygiene  of 
the  feet,  we  cannot  forbear  calling  attention  to  the 
very  common  evil  practices  which  relate  to  them. 
Nothing  could  be  more  absurd  than  the  modern  mode 
of  dressing  the  feet.  If  some  of  the  shoes  and  boots 
which  we  have  seen  worn,  and  which  seemed  to  be 


highly  prized  by  the  wearers  as  being  in  the  height 
of  fashion,  had  been  constructed  by  the  Inquisition, 
and  the  same  individuals  had  been  compelled  to  wear 
them  in  punishment  for  some  real  or  alleged  crime, 
they  would  have  been  regarded  as  diabolical  instru- 
ments of  torture ;  and  so  they  are.  Who  has  not 
seen  a  young  Miss  mincing  along  in  a  wholly  unnatural 
way,  vainly  striving  not  to  seem  to  limp,  in  the  sin- 
ful attempt  to  compel  her  feet  to  be  reconciled  to  the 
scanty  capacity  of  a  pair  of  shoes  two  sizes  too  small 
for  her?  Within  a  short  period,  Fashion  has  let  go 
her  iron  grasp  upon  the  young  men;  but  she  still 
holds  as  firm  a  grip  as  ever  upon  the  tender  feet  of 
misses  and  maidens  as  well  as  their  elder  sisters  and 
mothers,  and  compels  them  to  place  upon  their  feet 
pretenses  of  coverings  which  cannot  but  produce  dis- 
comfort and  disease.  The  narrow  soles,  and  high, 
narrow  heels  set  forward  near  the  middle  of  the  foot, 
are  qualities  most  worthy  of  being  heartily  despised ; 
and  the  man  or  woman  who  invented  the  foot-cover- 
ing possessing  these  properties,  so  finely  adapted  to 
torture  the  feminine  foot,  is  responsible  for  an  amount 
of  discomfort  and  misery,  individual  and  domestic  un- 
happiness,  and  possibly  of  actual  vice,  which  certainly 
entitles  him  to  the  dishonor  of  being  despised  and  re- 
proached by  the  whole  human  kind. 

A  year  or  two  ago,  we  thought  Fashion  had  con- 
cluded to  be  sensible  at  last,  at  least  in  the  matter  of 
foot-coverings,  but  alas  for  our  hopes  !  Another  turn 
of  the  wheel  and  she  comes  up  ns  fickle  and  untrue  to 
the  requirements  of  nature  as  ever,  and  demands  that 
woman  shall  wear  French  heels,  or  be  ostracized  from 


the  society  of  the  elite,  which  to  the  majority  of  fash- 
ionable women  would  be  a  fate  as  bad  or  worse  than 
death.  We  declare  without  mental  reservation  and 
without  the  slightest  remorse  of  conscience,  as  a  pro- 
fessional man  and  as  a  professed  champion  of  truth, 
that  a  French  slipper  or  shoe,  as  made  at  present,  is 
as  unfit  for  a  human  foot  as  a  horseshoe.  Far  more 
sensible  would  it  be  to  return  to  the  ancient  custom  of 
wearing  the  rude,  homely  sandals  which  protected  the 
feet  of  the  maidens  of  ancient  Egypt  and  the  Orient. 

But  let  us  look  a  moment  at  the  real  evils  of  these 
fashionable  coverings  for  ladies'  feet.  A  tight  shoe  pre- 
vents the  proper  circulation  of  the  blood  in  the  foot, 
causing  it  to  become  cold.  If  the  shoe  or  boot  is  thin, 
the  foot  is  still  further  chilled,  and  the  blood  which  cir- 
culates with  difficulty  through  it  is  sent  back  to  the  in- 
ternal organs  with  a  temperature  much  below  that  re- 
quired for  health.  Exposure  to  cold  causes  the  blood- 
vessels to  contract  so  that  less  blood  can  circulate 
through  them.  Thus  one  evil  creates  another.  Thin 
soles,  being  insufficient  protection  against  wet,  allow 
the  moisture  of  damp  walks  to  reach  the  feet,  making 
them  wet  as  well  as  cold.  When  the  extremities  are 
chilled,  the  internal  organs  and  the  brain  become  con- 
gested, too  great  a  quantity  of  blood  being  crowded 
into  them.  This  is  a  common  origin  of  the  head- 
aches from  which  school  girls  suffer  so  much,  and 
which  are  usually  attributed  to  study. 

The  custom  of  wearing  tight  shoes  with  narrow 
soles  and  high,  narrow  heels,  begins  in  early  maiden- 
hood, if  not  childhood,  —  and  sometiaioo  the  ab- 
surd fashion  even  seizes  upon  the  child  as  soon  as 


she  leaves  the  cradle,  for  the  precocious  little  one  is 
so  smart  she  must  be  a  lady  at  once,  and  so  must  dress 
as  ladies  dress.  At  this  period  the  bones  are  so  soft 
and  flexible,  the  ligaments  so  yielding,  that  they  are 
easily  forced  into  almost  any  mold,  and  the  process 
of  deforming  them  begins.  The  small  boot  or  gaiter 
worn, — and  it  is  always  as  small  as  can  possibly  be 
pressed  upon  the  foot  with  the  thinnest  possible  stock- 
ing,— allows  no  room  for  development  of  the  organ, 
and  the  improper  shape  produces  deformity  and  dis- 
tortion. The  fashionable  American  girl  does  in  a 
somewhat  more  limited  degree  exactly  what  is  done 
for  the  Chinese  maiden  by  a  process  of  bandaging. 
The  narrow  soles  and  small  toes  cramp  the  foot  and 
prevent  it  from  supporting  the  weight  of  the  body 
upon  its  whole  under  surface  as  designed  by  nature. 
The  high  heel  throws  the  weight  forward  upon  the 
toes,  which  still  further  embarrasses  them  in  their 
cramped  condition,  and  greatly  increases  the  injury 
arising  from  narrow  toes  and  soles. 

High,  narrow  heels  do  not  afford  sufficient  support 
for  the  foot,  and  it  is  easily  turned  to  one  side,  often 
resulting  in  serious  sprains.  The  chief  weight  being 
thrown  forward  upon  the  fore  part  of  the  foot,  it  be- 
comes weary,  in  walking,  much  sooner  than  it  other- 
wise would.  The  narrow  soles  which  usually  accom- 
pany high  and  narrow  heels,  are  likewise  productive 
of  injury,  from  not  allowing  the  whole  flat  of  the  foot 
co  sustain  the  weight  of  the  body  as  it  should.  Corns, 
bunions,  and  various  distortions  of  the  feet,  are  caused 
by  wearing  improperly  fitting  shoes  or  boots. 

We  have  often  witnessed  these  unfortunate  young 


women  tiptoeing  along  the  streets,  evidently  conscious 
of  appearing  awkward  and  uncouth,  and  vainly  en- 
deavoring to  conceal  their  crippled  gait.  The  far- 
ther toward  the  toes  the  heel  is  set,  the  worse  this 
difficulty  becomes.  In  some  of  the  latest  foreign 
styles  the  wearer  is  barely  able  to  touch  her  toe  to 
the  ground,  except  at  the  risk  of  tipping  over  for- 
ward, and  when  walking,  appears  like  a  person  stump- 
ing along  on  stilts.  We  heartily  believe  in  laws 
against  stealing,  defrauding,  taking  life,  and  disturb- 
ing the  peace,  and  we  can  conceive  of  no  reason  why 
the  shoemaker  who  deliberately  goes  to  work  and  man- 
ufactures an  instrument  of  torture  which  he  perfectly 
well  knows  must  spoil  the  happiness,  ruin  the  temper, 
and  make  cripples  of  half  of  the  women  of  Christen- 
dom, should  not  be  placed  under  the  ban  of  the  law 
and  visited  with  punishment  commensurate  to  his 

But  perhaps  we  are  beginning  at  the  wrong  end. 
It  cannot  be  denied  that  ladies  can  obtain,  if  they 
wish,  loosely  fitting  shoes,  with  broad  soles,  wide  toes, 
and  low  and  wide  heels,  and  made  of  leather  suffi- 
ciently thick  to  afford  at  least  as  much  protection  as 
a  good  quality  of  brown  paper  from  the  dampness  and 
chilliness  of  the  moist  walks  which  must  be  encount- 
ered during  the  greater  part  of  the  year  out  of  doors. 
If  ladies  will  do  their  duty  by  themselves  and  their 
daughters,  the  evil  may  be  speedily  corrected;  for 
French  heels  will  be  made  only  so  long  as  there  is  a 
demand  for  them.  We  are  not  sure,  after  all,  but 
they  owe  their  existence  far  more  to  female  van- 


ity  than  to  any  malignant  designs  on  the  part  of  the 

Fashion  in  Deformity. — The  thoughtful  reader, 
in  view  of  the  foregoing  considerations,  will  be  ready 
to  ask,  How  did  these  depraving  and  injurious  fash- 
ions first  arise  ?  While  it  may  be  impossible  to  an- 
swer this  question  in  full,  something  of  an  explana- 
tion is  found  in  the  fact  that  fashions  of  a  deforming 
character  are  common  to  almost  every  nation  of  the 
globe,  barbarous  as  well  as  civilized,  but  particularly 
the  former.  It  is  very  possible  that  the  fancy  for 
deforming  the  person  by  compression  of  the  waist 
may  be  a  vestige  of  the  barbarous  tendencies  of  the 
race  when  in  an  uncivilized  state.  With  this  thought 
in  mind  it  is  interesting  to  study  the  customs  of  vari- 
ous nations  with  reference  to  deformities.  We  have 
not  space  to  pursue  the  subject  further  here  and  shall 
content  ourself  with  presenting  on  a  plate  a  few 
representations  of  the  customs  of  various  nations 
which  will  speak  for  themselves.     (See  Plate  H.) 

False  Hair  and  Hair  Dyes. — The  ungainly 
masses  of  unnecessary  material  which  fashion  has 
heaped  upon  the  heads  of  those  who  bow  to  her  au- 
thority, is  a  frightful  cause  of  diseases  of  the  scalp 
and  brain.  The  immense  loads  of  false  hair,  which 
are  attached  to  the  head,  cause  a  great  increase  of  the 
temperature  of  the  brain  and  scalp.  The  blood-vessels 
become  congested,  both  externally  and  internally. 
The  result  of  this  constant  surplus  of  blood  is  disease 
of  the  scalp  and  finally  of  the  brain  itself.  Headache 
is  an  almost  constant  symptom  of  the  injury  which  is 
being  wrought  by  this  improper  treatment  of  the  head. 



In  consequence  of  the  disease  of  the  scalp,  the 
hair  soon  becomes  diseased,  loses  its  brilliancy  and 
color,  becomes  dry  and  harsh,  and  in  many  cases  is 
lost  altogether,  complete  and  incurable  baldness 

The  congestion  of  the  brain  which  at  first  occa- 
sions only  headache,  when  continued,  produces  struct- 
ural disease  of  that  organ.  The  blood-vessels  become 
weakened,  and  sometimes  rupture,  when  the  patient 
either  dies  of  apoplexy  or  lingers  a  miserable  par- 

When  the  head  is  encumbered  with  an  unnatural 
mass  of  hair,  and  the  brain  is  clogged  by  the  excessive 
(amount  of  blood  and  preternatural  heat  which  result, 
the  mind  cannot  act  freely  and  naturally ;  hard  study, 
deep  thought,  and  continued  mental  exercise  are  im- 
possible. This  is  the  reason  that  fashionable  young 
ladies  find  study  so  hard  for  them,  and  apparently  in- 
jurious. The  incubus  of  such  a  prodigious  weight  as 
many  a  fashionable  lady  carries  upon  her  cranium 
would  be  quite  sufficient  to  eclipse  the  mental  powers 
of  the  most  brilliant  genius.  No  wonder  that  woman 
has  sometimes  failed  in  mental  competition  with  her 
brothers  in  the  schools.  The  wonder  is  that  she  lives 
and  possesses  even  a  modicum  of  mental  vigor. 

Much  of  the  real  hair  that  is  sold  to  those  whose 
tresses  are  considered  too  scanty  is  often  obtained 
from  the  bodies  of  dead  persons,  whose  graves  are 
plundered  for  the  purpose  by  wretches  who  earn  their 
living  by  this  means.  Vermin  of  various  kinds  often 
adhere  to  the  hair,  and  infest  the  heads  of  those  who 
wear  it.     Various  imitations  of  hair  also  become  the 


means  of  conveying  loathsome  parasites  to  the  scalps 
of  those  who  wear  them. 

The  use  of  hair  dyes  is  a  practice  which  the  chem- 
ist and  experience  have  both  shown  to  be  eminently 
dangerous  All  hair  dyes  are  poisonous.  No  matter 
how  strong  the  assertions  of  their  harmlessness,  they 
are  utterly  false.  So-called  vegetable  hair  dyes,  hair, 
invigorators,  tonics,  etc.,  are  contemptible  swindles. 
They  contain  mineral  poisons.  The  greater  portion 
of  them  contain  lead.  The  effect  of  their  use  is  not 
only  to  destroy  the  hair  and  induce  disease  of  the 
scalp,  but  to  produce  paralysis.  Many  cases  of 
chronic  headache  have  been  occasioned  by  the  use  of 
these  poisonous  mixtures ;  and  in  a  number  of  cases, 
insanity  has  been  the  result. 

The  use  of  these  vile  compounds,  which  are  so 
widely  sold  and  used,  is  usually  as  absurdly  foolish  as 

Healthful  Clothing  for  Women. — "  What  shall 
we  wear  ? "  is  a  question  we  have  often  been  asked 
by  ladies  who  had  patiently  listened  to  a  description 
of  the  evils  of  fashionable  styles  of  dressing.  We 
should  certainly  be  very  remiss  in  duty  if  we  failed 
to  point  out  a  better  way  than  that  which  we  have 
condemned.  If  ladies  could  only  be  induced  to  ig- 
nore fashion  altogether  for  a  time,  there  would  no 
difficulty  arise  in  the  effort  to  conform  to  the  order 
of  nature  in  the  matter  of  dress,  and  in  so  doing 
they  would  soon  be  delighted  to  find  themselves 
emancipated  from  the  numerous  ills  which  afflict  them 
in  consequence  of  their  present  mode  of  dress,  which 
have  been  already  pointed  out.     It  may  be  that  circum- 

Grecian  Dross. 

Hawaiian  Dress. 

Chinese  Foot 

Chinese  Sfipper. 



stances  will  not  always  allow  of  the  adoption  of  a 
dress  which  shall  be  wholly  physiological  in  every 
respect,  which  is  to  be  regretted.  Custom  has  so  long 
ruled  that  we  are  forced  to  yield  a  little  to  its  man- 
dates, though  reluctantly.  But  it  is  quite  possible 
for  every  woman  to  adopt  a  dress  which  shall  be,  in 
all  essential  particulars,  free  from  serious  defects,  and 
that  without  sacrificing  an  iota  of  her  native  grace  or 
modesty,  or  making  a  martyr  of  herself  or  her  friends. 

In  the  first  place,  the  corset  and  all  its  substi- 
tutes and  subterfuges,  tight  belts,  and  every  other  de- 
vice for  compressing  the  waist  or  any  other  part  of 
the  body  can  be  at  once  discarded  without  the  atten- 
tion of  any  one  being  drawn  to  the  fact  unless  it  be 
by  the  more  elastic  and  graceful  step,  the  brighter 
color  of  the  face,  and  the  general  improvement  in 
health  in  all  respects.  Suppose  the  waist  does  ex- 
pand a  little — or  a  good  deal,  even — beyond  the  stand- . 
ayd  seventeen  inches ;  is  it  any  disgrace  ?  No,  indeed. 
A  woman  ought  to  be  proud  of  a  large  waist.  A 
large  waist  indicates  large  lungs,  and  large  vital  or- 
gans, which,  in  turn,  represent  the  probabilities  of 
long  life.  A  small  waist  indicates  precisely  the  op- 

Grecian  ladies  had  no  use  for  corsets,  and  did  not 
even  confine  their  loose  robes  with  a  belt.  The  same 
is  true  of  the  Hawaiian  and  Hindoo  ladies  of  the 
present  day.  The  latter,  at  least,  have  no  trouble 
with  the  fashions,  for  two  reasons  :  1.  Their  fashions 
are  in  conformity  to  health ;  2.  Their  fashions  never 
change.     Women  must  emancipate  themselves  from 


fashion  before  they  can  accomplish  anything  in  the 
direction  of  reform. 

Why  should  woman — the  gentler  sex — be  com- 
pelled to  wear  a  strait-jacket,  like  a  madman  or  a 
criminal,  while  man  is  allowed  to  go  untrammeled  by 
any  such  impediment  ?  A  strong  popular  sentiment 
in  favor  of  large  waists  would  soon  do  away  with  the 
foolish  emulation  to  look  frail  and  slender.  If  re- 
quired, a  suitable  garment  may  be  made,  to  support 
the  bust,  which  will  fit  the  form  neatly  without  com- 
pressing any  part.  Several  such  garments  and  pat- 
ems  for  others  are  manufactured  and  sold  by  various 
parties  in  the  large  cities,  east  and  west.  See 
Plate  K.  Able  physicians  declare  that  compression 
of  this  part  of  the  body,  and  the  wearing  of  an  un- 
due amount  of  clothing,  thus  producing  a  local  in- 
crease of  temperature,  is  the  cause  of  many  of  the  pe- 
culiar diseases  of  woman,  acting  through  reflex  influ- 
ence upon  internal  organs. 

How  to  Dress  Warmly. — The  next  important 
step  should  be  to  regulate  the  clothing  properly. 
The  whole  body  should  be  clad  in  soft  flannel  from 
neck  to  wrists  and  ankles  nearly  the  year  round.  It 
is  better  to  have  the  underclothing  for  the  upper  part  of 
the  body  and  that  for  the  limbs  combined  in  one  gar- 
ment. If  arranged  in  two  garments,  they  should 
only  meet,  and  not  overlap,  as  this  gives  too  much 
additional  heat  over  the  abdominal  organs.  See 
Plate  K,  for  pattern. 

A  woman's  limbs  require  as  many  thicknesses  as 
a  man's ;  and  a  garment  which  fits  the  limb  closely 
will  afford  four  times  the  protection  given  by  a  loose 



skirt.  Thick  shoes  or  boots  with  high  tops,  and 
heavy  woolen  stockings  which  are  drawn  up  outside 
the  undergarments  clothing  the  limbs,  complete  the 
provision  for  warmth.  Leggins  should  be  worn  in 
cold  weather. 

All  the  undergarments,  including  the  stockings, 
should  be  suspended  from  the  shoulders  by  means  of 
waists  or  suspenders.  Waists  are  doubtless  the  better 
for  the  purpose.  If  several  garments  are  to  be  sus- 
pended from  the  same  waist,  the  rows  of  buttons  to 
which  they  are  attached  should  be  arranged  one  above 
another,  to  avoid  bringing  several  bindings  together. 

The  two  most  important  particulars  having  been 
secured, — freedom  from  compression  and  uniform  tem- 
perature,— the  outside  dress  may  receive  attention. 
It  should  be  as  simple  as  possible  consistent  with  the 
mental  comfort  of  the  wearer.  Gaudy  colors  and  con- 
spicuous ornaments  betray  poor  taste  and  a  vain, 
shallow  mind.  Many  flounces,  folds,  and  heavy  over- 
skirts  are  objectionable  on  account  of  their  weight,  to 
say  nothing  of  the  useless  expenditure  of  time  and 
money  which  they  occasion. 

The  proper  length  of  the  skirt  is  a  question  of  in- 
terest in  this  connection.  How  long  shall  it  be  ?  If 
physiology  alone  were  asked  the  question,  the  answer 
would  be  that  women  do  not  need  long  skirts  more 
than  men,  and  that  they  are  really  an  impediment  to 
locomotion,  and  often  very  inconvenient.  Custom 
says  that  women  must  wear  skirts.  Fashion  says 
she  must  wear  long  skirts.  Custom  and  fashion  have 
prevailed  so  long  that  they  have  created  an  artificial 
modesty  which  seems  to  demand  that  woman's  dress 


must  differ  from  man's  by  the  addition  of  a  skirt,  at 
least,  even  if  they  are  alike  in  all  other  particulars. 
This  being  the  case,  the  best  we  can  do  is  to  modify 
the  skirt  so  that  it  will  be  as  free  from  objections  as 
possible.  The  great  evils  of  long  skirts  are,  unneces- 
sary weight,  the  accumulation  of  moisture  which  i» 
transferred  to  the  feet  and  ankles,  and  sundry  incon- 
veniences to  the  wearer  in  passing  over  rough  places, 
up  and  down  stairs,  etc. 

The  obvious  remedy  for  these  defects  is  to  curtail 
the  length  of  the  dress.  The  train  must  be  discarded 
at  once  as  too  absurd  and  uncleanly,  with  its  filthy 
load  of  gleanings  from  the  gutter,  to  be  tolerated. 
Any  further  improvement,  to  be  of  practical  utility, 
must  shorten  the  skirt  to  the  top  of  the  ankle,  at  least. 

A  distinguished  lady  physician  remarks  as  follows 
on  this  subject : — 

"  The  externals  of  dress,  though  they  involve  a 
moral  question,  seem  to  me  of  far  less  consequence 
than  the  arrangement  of  the  under-dress,  for  that  in- 
volves health.  As  now  generally  worn,  the  under- 
dress  is  weakening  the  present  generation  of  women ; 
and,  from  the  unvarying  laws  of  nature,  the  effect 
must  be  transmitted  to  future  generations.  Mothers 
will  confer  upon  their  offspring  a  lower  and  lower 
vitality;  and  when  we  consider  the  already  fearful 
mortality  in  infancy  and  childhood,  there  is  little  hope 
for  the  future,  unless  we  can  have  some  reform  in  this 
direction.  And  when  the  offspring  is  not  thus  early 
cut  off  from  mortal  life,  in  many  cases  tendencies  to 
disease  are  inherited,  which  become  active  sooner  or 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  275 

later ;  and  thus  life  is  robbed  of  usefulness  and  en- 

"  There  is  to-day  a  growing  prejudice  against  med- 
ication ;  and  when  disease  invades  the  system,  many 
seek  through  physical  culture  the  means  of  restora- 
tion to  health.  The  adoption  of  a  hygienic  dress 
would  be  one  of  the  best  preventives  of  disease ;  and 
often  some  such  reform  is  absolutely  necessary  before 
strength  can  be  regained." 

The  above  opinions  are  fully  corroborated  by  Prof. 
T.  G.  Thomas,  M.  D.,  one  of  the  most  eminent  au- 
thorities in  the  world  on  diseases  peculiar  to  women, 
who  writes  as  follows  : — 

"  The  dress  adopted  by  the  women  of  our  times  is 
certainly  conducive  to  the  development  of  uterine  dis- 
eases, and  proves  not  merely  a  predisposing  but  an 
exciting  cause  of  them.  For  the  proper  performance 
of  the  function  of  respiration,  an  entire  freedom  of  ac- 
tion should  be  given  to  the  chest,  and  more  especially 
is  this  needed  at  the  base  of  the  thorax,  opposite  the 
attachment  of  the  important  respiratory  muscle,  the 

"A  great  deal  of  exposure  is  likewise  entailed 
upon  women  by  the  uncovered  state  of  the  lower  ex- 
tremities. The  body  is  covered,  but  under  the  skirts 
sweeps  a  chilling  blast,  and  from  the  wet  earth  rises 
a  moist  vapor  that  comes  in  contact  with  limbs  en- 
cased in  thin  cotton  cloth,  which  is  entirely  inade- 
quate for  protection." 

The  testimony  of  scores  of  other  eminent  author- 
ities might  be  given  to  the  same  effect. 


Personal  Beauty. — Every  woman  desires  to  be 
beautiful ;  and  there  are  few  women  indeed  who  do  not 
yield  to  the  instinct  which  leads  her  to  adopt  various 
little  devices  for  the  purpose  of  increasing,  or  making 
to  appear  to  the  best  possible  advantage,  her  natural 
attractions  of  mind  or  person.  But  the  popular  idea 
of  beauty  is  in  many  respects  faulty.  A  woman  with 
a  pretty  face  and  a  fine  figure  may  be  or  may  not  be 
beautiful.  Beauty  is  not  simply  "skin  deep."  Its 
real  elements  are  based  upon  mental  and  moral  quali- 
ties rather  than  mere  physical  traits.  A  face  cannot 
be  really  beautiful  which  hides  behind  it  a  character 
devoid  of  worth.  A  superficial  observer  may  mistake 
a  mere  physical  symmetry  or  comeliness  for  beauty ; 
but  an  individual  who  is  alive  to  the  character  of  his 
surroundings  and  sufficiently  awake  mentally  and 
morally  to  really  know  the  significance  of  life,  will 
through  his  intuitions  quickly  discriminate  between  a 
mere  surface  glitter  and  real  beauty  of  soul  or  charac- 
ter. Physical  beauty  is  the  shadow  after  which  so 
many  seek,  while  character  beauty  is  the  real  sub- 
stance which  is  so  often  ignored.  A  beautiful  charac- 
ter cannot  be  ugly  in  its  external  expressions,  no 
matter  how  much  Nature  may  seem  to  have  neglected 
the  principle  of  mutual  fitness.  The  face  is  so 
thoroughly  a  mirror  of  the  mind,  simply  a  reflection 
of  the  character,  that  the  real  beauty  or  ugliness  of 
the  latter  cannot  fail  to  appear  as  plainly  as  the  hand 
writing  upon  the  wall  in  ancient  time,  and  no  prophet 
is  required  to  interpret  its  meaning. 

The  way  to  cultivate  real  beauty,  then,  is  to  adorn 
the  heart  and  mind  with  valuable  and  lovely  traits, 


and  of  all  other  mental  and  moral  furnishing,  nothing 
is  $o  much  to  be  desired  as  "  the  ornament  of  a  meek 
and  quiet  spirit." 

Without  the  cultivation  of  inward  beauty,  outward 
adornments  and  beautification  are  of  little  conse- 
quence ;  with  such  attainments  only  one  thing  more 
is  needful,  viz.,  physical  health.  Nothing  contributes 
so  much  to  the  maintenance  of  a  ^beautiful  complexion, 
a  sparkling  eye,  and  grace  of  form  and  motion,  as  an 
active  liver  and  sound  digestion.  Without  these,  it 
is  useless  to  depend  upon  cosmetics.  Their  action  is 
in  the  end  harmful,  as  a  rule,  sometimes  to  a  fatal  de- 
gree. With  physical  health  and  vigor,  and  mental 
and  moral  worth,  the  individual  whom  Nature  has  ap- 
parently neglected,  in  dispensing  her  favors,  will  not 
be  without  attractions. 

One  of  the  most  essential  means  of  maintaining 
healthful  beauty  aside  from  scrupulous  attention  to 
diet,  is  the  daily  bath.  A  lady  of  fashion,  in  enumer- 
ating the  means  for  preserving  beauty,  says  :  "  Clean- 
liness, my  last  recipe  (and  which  is  applicable  to  all 
ages),  is  of  most  powerful  efficacy.  It  maintains  the 
limbs  in  their  pliancy,  the  skin  in  its  softness,  the 
complexion  in  its  luster,  the  eyes  in  their  brightness, 
the  teeth  in  their  purity,  and  the  constitution  in  its 
fairest  vigor.  To  promote  cleanliness,  I  can  recom- 
mend nothing  preferable  to  bathing.  The  frequent 
use  of  tepid  baths  is  not  more  grateful  to  the  sense 
than  it  is  salutary  to  the  health  and  to  beauty.  .  . 
By  such  means,  the  women  of  the  East  render  their 
skins  softer  than  that  of  the  tenderest  babe  in  this 
climate."     "  I  strongly  recommend  to  every  lady  to 



make  a  bath  as  indispensable  an  article  in  her  house 
as  a  looking-glass." 

When  the  foul  matters  which  ought  to  be  elimin- 
ated by  the  skin  and  quickly  removed  from  the  body 
are  allowed  to  remain  unremoved,  the  skin  becomes 
clogged  and  inactive,  soon  loses  its  natural  luster  and 
color,  becoming  dead,  dark,  and  unattractive.  When 
bathing  is  so  much  neglected,  it  is  no  marvel  that 
paints,  powders,  lotions,  and  cosmetics  of  all  sorts, 
are  in  such  great  demand.  A  daily  bath,  at  the 
proper  temperature,  is  the  most  agreeable  and  efficient 
of  all  cosmetics. 

Bathing  Protects  against  Colds. — It  is  an  er- 
roneous notion  that  bathing  renders  a  person  more 
liable  to  "  take  cold,  by  opening  the  pores."  Colds 
are  produced  by  disturbance  of  the  circulation,  not  by 
opening  or  closure  of  the  pores  of  the  skin.  Fre- 
quent bathing  increases  the  activity  of  the  circulation 
in  the  skin,  so  that  a  person  is  far  less  subject  to 
chilliness  and  to  taking  cold.  An  individual  who 
takes  a  daily  bath  has  almost  perfect  immunity  from 
colds,  and  is  little  susceptible  to  changes  of  tempera- 
ture. Colds  are  sometimes  taken  after  bathing,  but 
this  results  from  some  neglect  of  the  proper  precau- 
tions necessary  to  prevent  such  an  occurrence. 

Neglecting  to  keep  the  skin  active  and  vigorous 
by  frequent  ablutions  is  one  of  the  most  prolific 
causes  of  nearly  all  varieties  of  skin  diseases,  which 
are  also  too  often  aggravated  by  gross  dietetic  habits. 
The  relation  between  the  cutaneous  function  and 
that  of  the  kidneys  is  so  intimate  that  neglect  of  the 
kind  mentioned,  resulting  as  it  must  in  obstruction  of 


function,  is  a  very  common  cause  of  most  dangerous 
disorders  of  the  renal  organs.  Inactivity  of  the  skin 
is  also  very  commonly  associated  with  dyspepsia, 
with  rheumatism,  gout,  hysteria,  and  other  nervous 
derangements.  It  is  a  not  uncommon  cause  of 
bronchial  and  pulmonary  affections.  It  is  quite 
evident,  then,  that  the  proper  and  most  efficient 
means  of  preventing  these  diseases  is  to  maintain  the 
functional  vigor  of  the  skin  by  the  proper  application 
of  water. 

A  modern  writer  declares  that  in  Spain  the  relig- 
ious instincts  of  the  people  have  become  so  perverted 
that  it  is  considered  sacrilege  for  a  woman  to  bathe 
more  than  once  in  her  life,  which  is  upon  the  eve  of 
her  marriage.  In  more  enlightened  countries,  it  is  to 
be  hoped  that  the  condition  of  the  feminine  cuticle  is 
not  quite  so  bad  as  that ;  but  another  writer,  an  En- 
glishman, asserts  that  a  large  proportion  of  his  coun- 
trymen "never  submitted  themselves  to  an  entire 
personal  ablution  in  their  lives,  and  many  an  octogen- 
arian has  sunk  into  his  grave  with  the  accumulated 
dirt  of  eighty  years  upon  his  skin."  American  cus- 
toms in  this  respect  are  not  much  better  than  the 
English;  but  it  is  gratifying  to  know  that  a  very 
perceptible  improvement  is  becoming  evident  in  both 
countries.  Our  intercourse  with  Oriental  nations  and 
barbarians  has  taught  us  wholesome  lessons  in  the 
care  of  the  person.  There  is  scarcely  a  savage  tribe 
to  be  found  in  the  deepest  jungles  of  tropical  Africa 
the  members  of  which  do  not  pay  more  attention  to 
the  preservation  of  a  clean  and  healthy  skin  than  the 
average  American  or  Englishman. 


All  nature  attests  the  importance  of  the  bath. 
The  rain  is  a  natural  shower  bath  in  which  all*vegeta- 
tion  participates,  and  gains  refreshment.  Its  invigo- 
rating influence  is  seen  in  the  brighter  appearance, 
more  erect  bearing,  and  fresher  colors,  of  all  plants 
after  a  gentle  rain.  The  flowers  manifest  their  grat- 
itude by  exhaling  in  greater  abundance  their  fragrant 
odor.  Dumb  animals  do  not  neglect  their  morning 
bath.  Who  has  not  seen  the  robin  skimming  along 
the  surface  of  the  lake  or  stream,  dipping  its  wings 
in  the  cool  waters,  and  laving  its  plumage  with  the 
crystal  drops  which  its  flapping  pinions  send  glittering 
into  the  air  ?  No  child  that  has  ever  seen  the  ele- 
phant drink  will  forget  how  the  huge  beast  improved 
the  opportunity  to  treat  himself  to  a  shower  bath, 
and  perhaps  the  spectators  as  well,  for  he  is  very 
generous  in  his  use  of  water. 

If  man's  instincts  were  not  rendered  obtuse  by 
the  perverted  habits  of  civilization,  he  would  value 
the  bath  as  highly  and  employ  it  as  freely  as  his 
more  humble  fellow-creatures,  whose  instinctive  im- 
pulses have  remained  more  true  to  nature,  because 
they  have  not  possessed  that  degree  of  intelligence 
which  would  make  it  possible  for  them  to  become  so 
grossly  perverted  as  have  the  members  of  the  human 
race.  Man  goes  astray  from  nature,  not  because  he 
is  deficient  in  instinct,  but  because  he  stifles  the 
promptings  of  his  better  nature  for  the  purpose  of 
gratifying  his  propensities. 

A  woman  who  has  a  perfectly  healthy  skin  is 
nearly  certain  to  be  healthy  in  other  respects.  In  no 
way  can  the  health  of  the  skin  be  preserved  but  by  fre- 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  281 

quent  bathing.  A  daily  or  tri-weekly  bath,  accompan- 
ied by  friction,  will  keep  the  skin  clean,  supple,  and  rig- 
orous. There  is  no  reason  why  the  whole  surface  of 
the  body  should  not  be  washed  as  well  as  the  face 
and  hands,  and  the  notion  that  a  common  sponge 
bath  is  weakening  is  a  popular  error  \frhich  has  grown 
out  of  the  fact  that  in  the  early  days  of  the  "  cold- 
water  cure,"  many  persons  injured  themselves  by  cold 
bathing,  and  afteTward  went  to  the  other  extreme  in 
the  employment  of  the  bath  at  too  high  a  temperature. 
A  bath  at  a  temperature  but  a  few  degrees  below 
that  of  the  body  may  be  taken  daily  without  in- 
jury and  with  decided  benefit.  A  little  fine  soap 
should  be  used  once  or  twice  a  week  to  remove  the 
oily  secretion  of  the  skin,  which  is  always  present  in 
greater  or  less  degree. 

The  following  directions  for  treating  a  few  of  the 
most  common  maladies  of  the  skin,  especially  those 
which  affect  the  face  and  hands,  we  quote  from  our 
larger  work  on  "  Rational  Medicine "  in  which  the 
whole  subject  is  more  fully  considered  : — 

Heat-Rash. — This  is  a  form  of  eruption  which 
often  occurs  during  the  intense  heat  of  summer.  It 
may  consist  of  simply  a  diffused  redness  of  the  parts 
exposed  to  the  direct  action  of  the  sun's  rays,  usually 
termed  sunburn,  or  in  the  form  of  an  eruption  of  mi- 
nute, red  pimples  known  as  "  prickly  heat "  eruption, 
or  "  heat  eruption,"  wThich  is  accompanied  by  severe 
prickling  and  itching.  Sunburn,  when  severe,  is  fol- 
fowed  by  peeling  off  of  the  epidermis.  Prickly  heat 
generally  disappears  within  a  few  hours,  but  may  con- 
tinue some  time  and  become  a  real  eczema. 


Treatment:  For  sunburn,  cool  the  affected  parts 
with  tepid  compresses,  and  anoint  well  with  vaseline. 
Persons  subject  to  prickly  heat  should  wear  silk  or 
cotton  next  the  surface,  and  should  avoid  overheat- 
ing themselves  by  overexertion  during  hot  weather. 
Irritation  of  the  eruption  may  be  relieved  by  cool 
baths  or  cool  sponging,  bathing  the  surface  with  soda 
or  saleratus  water,  a  teaspoonful  to  the  pint.  After 
bathing,  the  surface  should  be  dried  by  a  gentle  pat- 
ting with  a  fluffy  towel  and  without  rubbing. 

Erythema  or  Redness  of  the  Skin. — This  is  a 
disease  of  the  skin  characterized  by  redness,  due  to 
active  congestion  or  inflammation.  It  may  occur  as  a 
simple  diffused  redness,  produced  by  cold,  friction 
from  wearing  flannel  clothes,  the  rubbing  together  of 
two  folds  of  skin,  etc.  It  also  accompanies  various 
other  diseases  of  the  skin.  Sometimes,  in  addition  to 
the  diffused  redness,  an  eruption  of  small  red  pimples 
occurs  on  the  face  or  hands.  The  digestion  is  often 
disturbed,  and  the  patient  feels  slightly  feverish. 
The  duration  of  the  disease  is  usually  very  short, 
little  treatment  being  required. 

Treatment:  The  diet  should  be  very  light  and 
unstimulating.  A  warm  bath  should  be  taken  daily, 
and  the  affected  parts  should  be  covered  with  a  thin 
cloth  moistened  with  tepid  water,  or  with  a  solution 
of  saleratus,  a  teaspoonful  to  a  pint  of  water.  The 
use  three  or  four  times  a  day  of  a  lotion  consisting  of 
equal  parts  of  glycerine  and  soft  water  is  also  of  great 

Aene — Face  Pimples. — This  is  a  very  common 
affection,  especially  between  the  ages  of  fifteen  and 


thirty  years.  The  seat  of  the  disease  is  the  seba- 
ceous follicles  or  oil-glands  of  the  skin.  The  erup- 
tion consists  in  pimples  scattered  over  the  face,  neck, 
back,  and  chest.  The  inflammation  of  each  follicle 
may  run  its  course  in  three  or  four  days,  or  may  con- 
tinue for  a  week  or  ten  days.  When  the  inflamed 
part  becomes  indurated,  or  even  hardened,  the  inflam- 
mation may  continue  for  several  weeks.  Several  va- 
rieties of  the  disease  are  observed;  that  just  described 
is  the  most  common.  Another  form  consists  in  ob- 
struction of  the  outlets  of  the  sebaceous  glands,  pro- 
ducing what  are  sometimes  termed  flesh-worms,  or 
grubs.  This  form  of  acne  is  indicated  by  little  black 
specks,  seen  upon  different  parts  of  the  face,  but 
chiefly  upon  the  skin  of  the  nose.  Each  speck  marks 
an  obstructed  outlet;  and  if  pressure  is  made  on 
either  side,  something  having  the  appearance  of  a 
small  grub  may  be  pressed  out.  Upon  careful  exam- 
ination, this  so-called  grub  proves  to  be  a  mass  of 
hardened  sebaceous  matter,  or  sebum,  which  has  as- 
sumed its  grub-like  form  by  being  pressed  through 
the  small  mouth  of  the  follicle.  The  black  speck,  giv- 
ing to  this  little  cylinder  of  fat  the  appearance  of  a 
head,  is  simply  a  small  accumulation  of  dirt.  The 
technical  term  for  one  of  these  little  masses  is  comedo. 
When  examined  under  a  microscope,  these  are  often 
found  to  contain  a  whole  family* of  parasites,  male, 
female,  and  their  numerous  progeny.  It  is  not  proba- 
ble that  this  parasite  gives  rise  to  the  disease,  but 
rather  that  the  distended  follicle  furnishes  an  agreea- 
ble home  for  the  insect,  which  is  closely  related  to 
the  acarus  scabiei,  or  itch  mite.     In  another  form  of 


acne,  in  which  the  nose  and  the  adjoining  portion  of 
the  cheek  are  chiefly  involved,  in  addition  to  the  pim- 
ples described  there  is  intense  congestion  and  redness 
of  the  parts,  due  to  enlargement  of  the  blood-vessels 
which  are  sometimes  so  much  distended  as  to  be  dis- 
tinctly visible.  This  form  of  the  disease  is  termed 
acne  rosacea. 

The  chief  causes  of  acne  are  erroneous  dietetic 
habits.  People  suffering  with  acne  can  bring  on  an 
acute  attack  at  any  time  by  the  use  of  rich  pastry,  fried 
food,  and  large  amounts  of  sugar  or  sweet  food,  etc. 
Doughnuts,  griddle  cakes,  cheese,  hot  bread,  pre- 
serves, candies,  and  similar  dietetic  abominations,  are 
very  active  causes  of  different  forms  of  this  affection. 
Acne  rosacea  is  very  frequently  the  result  of  using  al- 
coholic liquors  in  some  form,  on  which  account  it  is 
sometimes  termed,  when  seen  in  persons  addicted  to 
drinking,  the  "rum-blossom."  Acne  is  sometimes  the 
result  of  debilitating  habits,  particularly  secret  vice  in 
young  persons,  though  it  should  be  by  no  means  sup- 
posed that  every  young  person  affected  with  this  dis- 
ease is  addicted  to  secret  vice. 

Oily  Skin. — In  some  persons  there  is  an  excessive 
production  of  sebaceous  matter  or  sebum,  due  to  mor- 
bid activity  of  the  fatty  glands  of  the  skin.  The  skin 
of  such  persons  presents  a  shiny  look.  Little  beads  of 
oily  matter  may  be  seen  at  the  mouths  of  the  glands 
near  the  roots  of  the  hairs.  The  forehead,  nose,  and 
cheeks  are  most  frequently  affected.  When  the  scalp 
is  affected,  the  condition  may  be  indicated  by  soiling 
of  the  pillow.  Acne  is  frequently  accompanied  by 
this  condition. 


Treatment :  The  only  treatment  to  be  employed  is 
the  frequent  application  of  soap.  When  many  of  the 
glands  are  clogged  up,  as  indicated  by  the  abundance 
of  grubs,  the  surface  should  first  be  thoroughly  rubbed 
with  warm  oil.  Cocoanut  or  almond  oil  is  the  best. 
After  half  an  hour  the  surface  should  be  rubbed  with 
a  flannel  cloth,  thoroughly  saturated  with  soap  moist- 
ened with  warm  water,  and  stretched  over  the  fingers ; 
or  a  soft  sponge  may  be  used.  This  is  best  done  at 
night,  just  before  retiring.  When  the  secretion  of  fat 
is  very  profuse,  the  operation  may  be  repeated  two  or 
three  times  a  day. 

Dry  Skin. — A  condition  of  deficient  secretion  of 
fat  is  very  frequently  met  with  in  cases  of  dyspepsia 
and  in  persons  suffering  with  other  wasting  diseases. 
The  best  remedy  is  the  daily  application  of  the  olive 
oil  or  vaseline. 

Dandruff,  or  Dandriff. — This  is  a  condition  in 
which  branny  scales  are  shed  from  the  scalp  in  great 
abundance.  It  may  be  due  to  eczema  or  pityriasis,  as 
already  remarked,  or  may  result  from  a  disorder  of 
the  sebaceous  glands,  and  from  acne.  The  latter  is 
the  most  common  cause  of  the  disease.  In  this  form 
of  the  affection,  the  abnormal  secretion  of  the  fat 
glands  appears  upon  the  scalp  as  yellowish  scales. 
This  condition  is  akin  to  that  described  under  the 
head  of  oily  skin,  being,  in  fact,  a  dry  form  of  the 
same  disease.  This  condition  is  sometimes  present 
upon  the  nose  and  cheeks  as  well  as  the  scalp.  It  is 
often  a  very  annoying  complaint.  When  affecting  the 
scalp,  it  sooner  or  later  results  in  loss  of  the  hair. 
This  is  not  because  the  dandruff  destroys  the  hair, 


but  because  the  same  disease  which  causes  the  dan- 
druff* interferes  with  the  nutrition  of  the  hair,  thus*  oc- 
casioning its  loss.  On  account  of  its  tendency  to  pro- 
duce baldness,  the  disease  should  never  be  neglected. 
Dandruff  is  generally  occasioned  by  disorder  of  the 
digestion,  or  some  other  debilitating  disease. 

Treatment :  Restore  the  general  health  by  proper 
attention  to  the  digestion  and  general  hygiene.  For 
dandruff  of  the  face,  apply  the  same  remedies  recom- 
mended for  oily  skin.  The  scalp  should  also  be  treated 
in  the  same  way,  by  gentle  shampooing  with  ordinary 
washing  soap  once  or  twice  a'  week.  A  very  soft 
brush  should  be  used.  Neither  a  stiff  brush  nor  a  fine 
comb  should  ever  be  used  for  removing  dandruff. 
After  shampooing,  a  liniment  composed  of  equal  parts 
of  castor-oil  and  alcohol  may  be  rubbed  on  the  scalp, 
or  an  ointment  composed  of  a  drachm  of  tannin  to  an 
ounce  of  vaseline. 

Offensive  Perspiration. — This  is  a  condition  which 
is  sometimes  exceedingly  annoying.  It  is  occasioned 
by  the  excretion  in  the  sweat  of  elements  of  an  offen- 
sive character.  Odors  of  various  kinds  are  produced. 
Rheumatic  persons  are  generally  most  disagreeably 
affected.  The  arm-pits  are  the  portions  of  the  body 
most  frequently  affected,  the  offensive  odor  arising 
from  the  feet  being  due  to  decomposition  of  the  sweat, 
and  not  to  the  abnormal  character  of  the  secretion. 
This  condition  is  sometimes  very  difficult  to  overcome. 
The  best  remedy  is  thorough  cleansing  of  the  parts,  at 
least  twice  a  day,  with  soap  and  water,  or  some  disin- 
fectant lotion,  as  permanganate  of  potash,  a  solution 
of  chlorinated  soda,  or  of  two  or  three  per  cent  of 


carbolic  acid.  Washing  the  affected  part  with  a  solu- 
tion of  chloral,  a  drachm  to  the  ounce,  is  a  recently 
recommended  remedy.  What  is  known  as  Bromid- 
rosis,  is  a  condition  in  which  the  perspiration  imparts 
to  the  clothing  some  peculiar  color. 

Freckles — Lentigo. — These  consist  in  an  increase 
of  the  pigment  or  coloring  matter  of  the  skin  in  small 
spots.  They  most  often  occur  in  persons  who  have 
delicate  skins,  being  greatly  increased  by  exposure  to 
sun  and  wind,  though  not  produced  by  them,  as  is  tan. 
They  do  not  necessarily  indicate  an  inactive  state  of 
the  liver.  Quite  an  eminent  authority  on  lung  disease 
declares  that  freckles  indicate  a  predisposition  to  con- 

Treatment :  Very  difficult  of  removal,  and  impossi- 
ble if  patient  continues  exposure.  It  is  better  to  have 
the  freckles  however  than  to  forego  the  valuable  influ- 
ence of  the  sunshine  and  fresh  air.  The  advertised  lo- 
tions and  cosmetics  are  either  dangerous  or  useless. 
The  following  are  a  few  of  the  best-known  remedies 
for  the  removal  of  freckles  and  tan : — 

1.  Three  tablespoonfuls  of  fresh  scraped  horse- 
radish; buttermilk,  a  pint.  Allow  to  soak  six  or 
eight  hours,  shaking  occasionally.  Cider  vinegar  is 
sometimes  used  in  place  of  the  horse-radish.  Apply 
to  the  face  at  night,  leaving  on  till  morning. 

2.  Two  tablespoonfuls  of  lemon  juice;  an  equal 
quantity  of  water ;  a  tablespoonful  of  glycerine ;  a 
heaping  teaspoonful  of  powdered  borax.  Apply  three 
or  four  times  a  day,  drying  after  fifteen  or  twenty 
minutes  with  a  fluffy  towel. 


Moth  Patches — Liver  Spots — Chloasma. — The 
brownish  spots  o£  irregular  shape  and  size  often  seen 
upon  the  face,  and  popularly  known  as  "liver  spots," 
are  similar  to  freckles,  but  larger  in  size.  They  often 
accompany  disease  of  the  liver,  and  are  not  infre- 
quently present  in  diseases  of  the  womb,  which  may 
be  due  to  the  fact  now  well  understood  that  disease 
of  the  liver  is  a  common  cause  of  disease  of  the 

Treatment :  Little  or  nothing  can  be  done  for  these 
blemishes  except  to  improve  the  general  condition  as 
much  as  possible. 

Baldness. — There  are  two  varieties  of  baldness, 
the  ordinary  form,  and  what  is  known  as  "patchy 
baldness,"  a  form  in  which  the  hair  is  lost  only  in 
circumscribed  spots.  The  loss  of  hair  usually  begins 
first  at  the  temples,  the  forehead,  or  the  crown,  grad- 
ually extending.  It  is  very  common  in  old  age,  being 
the  result  of  the  general  decline  in  nutrition  which 
occurs  in  advanced  life.  When  it  occurs  in  early  or 
middle  life,  it  most  commonly  results  from  the  disease 
of  the  scalp  known  as  dandruff.  Baldness  also  results 
from  eczema  and  from  ringworm  and  favus.  Tempo- 
rary baldness  not  infrequently  follows  erysipelatous, 
typhoid,  and  other  fevers.  Baldness  may  be  occa- 
sioned by  anything  which  deteriorates  the  general 
health.  Excessive  brain  labor,  resulting  in  conges- 
tion of  the  head  and  too  much  heat  in  the  scalp,  may 
produce  it.  It  may  be  the  result  of  dyspepsia,  of  ex- 
cesses of  various  kinds,  and  of  any  debilitating  dis- 
ease. Men  suffer  more  than  women,  which  is  proba- 
bly due  to  the  fact  that  women  do  not  so  habitually 


overheat  the  head  by  the  constant  wearing  of  warm 
head  coverings.  In  some  cases,  the  disease  is 

Treatment:  Prevention  is  the  best  remedy,  as 
many  cases  are  incurable.  The  scalp  should  never  be 
overheated.  Head  coverings  should  be  light,  and 
should  allow  free  access  of  air  to  the  head  at  all 
times.  The  hair  should  not  be  harshly  brushed  with 
a  stiff  brush,  and  should  never  be  combed  with  a  fine, 
sharp-ioothed  comb.  This  is  particularly  true  if 
dandruff  is  present,  as  the  measures  referred  to  will 
certainly  aggravate  the  difficulty.  When  the  hair  is 
very  dry,  a  little  fine  unguent  of  some  kind  may  be 
employed ;  but  the  common  practice  of  "  greasing " 
the  hair  is  a  bad  one.  Such  harsh  mixtures  as  are 
often  employed  by  barbers  in  shampooing  are  very 
harmful  to  the  hair.  Soap  should  be  rarely  used 
unless  of  the  finest  quality,  but  the  head  should  be 
kept  clean  by  frequent  washing  with  warm  water, 
shampooing  with  the  white  of  egg,  followed  by  thor- 
ough rinsing. 

When  the  scalp  is  smooth  and  shiny,  especially  in 
cases  of  "  patchy  baldness,"  which  is  due  to  nervous 
disease  of  the  scalp,  little  can  be  expected  from  treat- 
ment. If  a  large  number  of  hairs  are  still  present, 
however,  even  though  they  are  very  short  and  thin, 
something  may  be  done.  The  case  is  much  more 
hopeful  in  young  than  in  old  persons.  When  heredi- 
tary, little  can  be  expected  from  treatment.  First 
attention  should  be  given  to  the  general  health.  The 
various  stimulating  lotions  which  are  advertised  for 
this  purpose  should  be  carefully  avoided,  as  they  will 


be  rarely  successful,  and  may  do  much  harm.  No 
amount  of  stimulation  of  the  scalp  will  effect  more 
than  temporary  benefit  unless  the  general  nutritive 
forces  of  the  patient  are  also  improved  by  attention 
to  hygiene. 

It  is  rarely  necessary  to  cut  the  hair  close,  and 
shaving  the  scalp  is  quite  unnecessary.  If  the  scalp 
is  dry,  a  little  fine  oil  should  be  rubbed  upon  it  daily 
with  much  gentle  friction.  If  dandruff  is  present, 
treat  as  directed  on  page  286.  If  the  case  is  ob- 
stinate, consult  a  physician. 

Hirsutes— Overgrowth  of  the  Hair.— This  morbid 
condition  consists  in  an  abnormal  development  of  the 
fine  short  hairs.  It  is  most  troublesome  in  ladies,  in 
whom  the  hair  of  the  upper  lip  is  sometimes  suffi- 
ciently developed  to  form  a  mustache.  We  recently 
met  a  case  in  which  a  full  silken  beard  had  grown. 

Treatment :  The  so-called  depilatories  sold  for  the 
relief  of  this  condition  are  worthless.  They  do  noth- 
ing more  than  to  remove  the  external  portion  of  the 
hqir,  only  penetrating  a  short  distance  into  the  hair 
follicle,  and  hence  the  hairs  soon  grow  again.  Being 
usually  composed  chiefly  of  lime,  considerable  irrita- 
tion is  not  infrequently  produced,  and  sometimes 
quite  severe  disease  of  the  skin.  Pulling  out  the 
hairs  is  only  temporary  in  its  effects,  although  more 
lasting  than  the  action  of  depilatories.  The  only  cure 
is  destruction  of  the  hair  or  its  follicle.  This  may  be 
generally  accomplished  by  passing  into  the  follicle  a 
fine  glover's  needle  and  twisting  it  about  in  such  a 
way  as  to  excite  sufficient  inflammation  to  obliterate 
or  close  it.     Sometimes  a  heated  needle  is  used  for 


the  purpose.  The  best  plan  of  all  is  to  pass  a  current 
of  electricity  through  the  needle  after  it  has  been  in- 
serted into  the  follicle.  Galvanic  electricity  is  neces- 
sary for  this  purpose.  This  method  of  treatment 
is  the  most  satisfactory  of  all.  We  have  employed  it 
in  a  number  of  cases  with  entire  success  and  do  not 
rely  on  any  other  method  as  entirely  efficient. 

•     MSRRIHGE, 

The  scope  of  this  work  does  not  permit  us  to  con- 
sider this  subject  at  any  length  in  other  than  its 
physical  relations.  Considered  from  the  stand-point 
of  health  alone,  marriage  under  favorable  circum- 
stances is  conducive  to  the  longevity  of  the  individual 
as  well  as  necessary  to  the  perpetuation  of  the  race. 
Statistics  show  that  married  persons,  whether  male  or 
female,  live  longer  on  the  average  than  unmarried 
persons.  There  are  various  influences  which  may 
contribute  to  cause  this  difference  other  than  those 
which  arise  directly  from  the  matrimonial  state ;  but 
after  making  fair  allowance  for  these,  it  is  probably 
true  that  the  influence  of  marriage  is  to  prolong  life 
when  the  privileges  which  it  allows  are  not  abused. 
Marriage  as  an  institution  is  as  old  as  the  human  race. 
As  a  natural  rite,  traces  of  the  institution  exist  among 
the  lowest  and  most  degraded  tribes  of  the  human 
race,  and  also  to  some  extent  among  certain  classes  of 
the  lower  animals.  At  different  ages  of  the  world 
and  among  different  classes  of  people,  marriage  has 
been  regarded  in  very  different  ways.  At  some  pe- 
riods and  among  some  races,  it  has  been  looked  upon 


as  of  trifling  import, — a  state  which  might  be  entered 
upon  and  withdrawn  from  at  pleasure,  by  either 
party,  though  usually  the  husband  has  considered  it 
his  right  to  rule  in  the  matter,  making  or  dissolving 
the  marriage  bond  at  will.  Among  all  Christian  na- 
tions, however,  the  rite  of  marriage  has  ever  been 
looked  upon  as  most  sacred  in  character,  binding  alike 
upon  both  husband  and  wife,  and  not  to  be  dissolved 
without  cause  of  the  gravest  character.  Unfortu- 
nately, the  notion  of  marriage  which  prevails  among 
savage  and  barbarous  people  at  the  present  time, 
which  regards  the  institution  as  simply  a  convenient 
arrangement  or  formal  contract,  seems  to  have  fast- 
ened itself  to  a  very  considerable  extent  upon  the 
minds  of  certain  classes  even  in  the  civilized  com- 
munities of  the  present  day.  The  records  of  our 
courts  and  the  columns  of  the  daily  newspaper  afford 
abundant  evidence  of  this  fact.  This  disregard  of  the 
sanctity  of  marriage  and  contempt  for  its  restrictions 
is  one  of  the  most  alarming  tendencies  of  the  present 
age.  It  is  no  uncommon  spectacle  to  see  men  and 
women  of  good  standing  in  society  appear  in  court  in 
a  suit  for  divorce  without  in  the  slightest  degree  af- 
fecting their  standing  with  their  society  friends,  or  in 
any  way  disturbing  their  social  position.  Doubtless 
much  of  this  loss  of  regard  for  the  marriage  institu- 
tion and  the  desire  to  escape  from  its  bonds  arises 
from  evils  which  have  their  foundation  in  a  want  of 
mutual  adaptation  in  the  wedded  parties.  Undoubt- 
edly the  great  haste  to  enter  the  matrimonial  state 
manifested  by  the  young  people  of  the  present  day 
and  the  wholly  artificial  conditions  under  which  ac- 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  293 

quaintanceships  leading  to  marriage  are  formed  and 
carried  on,  tend  strongly  to  detract  from  Jhe  sanctity 
with  which  the  institution  should  be  regarded. 

In  view  <*f  these  facts  it  is  important  to  coiisider 
some  of  the  factors  which  go  to  make  up  a  healthful 
and  happy  matrimonial  union. 

The  Object  of  Marriage. — Physiology  recognizes 
one  object  for  the  institution  of  marriage,  namely,  the 
preservation  of  the  species.  This  is  undoubtedly  its 
primary  object,  although  there  are  other  ends  to  be 
attained  by  marriage  which  add  to  its  importance  and 
dignity  as  a  divinely  established  institution.  A  genu- 
ine woman  looks  forward  to  the  possibilities  of 
motherhood  with  glad  anticipations, — the  sexual  priv- 
ileges of  the  married  relation  are  not  the  attractions 
which  lead  her  to  desire  to  enter  upon  it ;  but  it  is 
not  to  be  supposed  that  motives  of  so  high  and 
chaste  a  character  are  always  the  actuating  ones. 
The  passion  denominated  love  might  often  be  more 
properly  termed  lust.  The  opportunity  for  the  grati- 
fication of  the  animal  passions  is  no  part  of  the  func- 
tion of  marriage.  The  instincts  of  the  animal  nature 
were  never  intended  by  the  Creator  to  become  domi- 
nant in  their  influence,  but  simply  subservient  to  the 
accomplishment  of  the  great  ends  for  which  the  insti- 
tution of  marriage  was  created. 

When  to  Marry. — This  question  is  a  purely 

physiological   one.     At  any  rate,  the   physiological 

aspect   of  the  question  is  the  leading  one  and   the 

dictum   of   physiology  must    be    allowed  to  settle 

the  question  whenever  any  conflict  of  opinions  may 

arise.     The  voice  of  physiological  science   on  this 



question  is  a  clear  and  decisive  one.  She  speaks  in 
terms  which  cannot  be  mistaken.  According  to  her 
ruling,  the  earliest  period  at  which  marriage  can  occur 
physiologically  is  that  at  which  the  btfdy  completes 
its  development,  which  is  not  before  twenty  to 
twenty-two  in  the  female,  and  twenty-four  to  twenty- 
six  in  the  male.  The  girl  may  attain  her  full  growth 
in  height  two  or  three  years  before  this  time,  but 
growth  in  stature  is  not  the  whole  of  development. 
The  developmental  process  is  one  which  involves 
every  organ  in  the  body.  It  includes  the  broadening 
and  deepening  of  the  chest  and  the  expansion  of  the 
pelvis;  the  development  of  rudimentary  nerve-cells 
and  fibres,  the  hardening  or  ossification  of  the  bones, 
and  numerous  other  details  of  development  too  nu- 
merous to  mention.  Some  of  these,  particularly  those 
which  relate  to  the  complete  development  of  the 
brain  and  nervous  system,  are  not  fully  accomplished 
until  some  years  later  than  the  ages  above  men- 

Marriage  involves  the  probability  of  offspring; 
and  for  a  woman  to  enter  the  marriage  state  and  take 
upon  herself  the  responsibility  of  bringing  into  the 
world  new  beings  before  she  has  herself  attained  com- 
plete physical  development,  is  nothing  more  nor  less 
than  a  physical  crime.  The  mother  transmits  to  her 
offspring  her  own  characteristics.  If  the  mother  is 
immature  and  imperfectly  developed,  her  child  will 
have  impressed  upon  it  the  stamp  of  her  immaturity 
and  will  come  into  the  world  with  a  defective  organi- 
zation destined  never  to  attain  mature  development 
Who  has  not  met  time  and  again  the  progeny  of  these 


girl-mothers  grown  old  in  years  but  as  childish  in 
intellect  as  though  they  were  yet  in  their  teens. 
Such  children  are  destined  to  a  short  and  inefficient 
life.  No  experienced  stock-raiser  ever  allows  his  ani- 
mals to  breed  until  they  have  attained  their  full  ma- 
turity, knowing  well  that  the  offspring  of  young 
mothers  are  not  such  as  to  be  desired,  and  that  they 
will  be  weak  and  of  feeble  constitution,  and  will  not 
reach  the  high  order  of  excellence  which  he  wishes 
to  maintain. 

It  is  a  notable  fact  that  among  nations  who  are  de- 
generating and  whose  national  characteristics  present 
the  marks  of  race  deterioration  in  operation  for  many 
centuries,  marriages  occur  at  a  very  early  age.  For 
instance,  we  are  informed  by  travelers  in  Japan  that 
maidenhood  is  a  period  of  life  not  known  in  that  coun- 
try. As  soon  as  the  period  of  puberty  is  reached, 
the  girl  becomes  a  married  woman  and  assumes  the 
duties  of  a  wife  and  mother.  The  same  is  true  of 
nearly  all  other  Eastern  countries,  in  the  Sandwich 
Islands,  in  the  interior  of  Africa,  and  even  in  some 
more  civilized  countries,  as  in  Italy,  and  to  a  consid- 
erable extent  in  Spain.  In  all  of  these  countries 
physical,  mental,  and  moral  degeneracy  is  apparent 
in  a  very  marked  degree,  and  who  can  doubt  that 
early  marriage  is  one  of  the  most  prolific  causes? 
The  ancient  Grecian  philosopher,  Plato,  fixed  the  ages 
of  marriage  at  twenty  for  the  female  and  thirty  for 
the  male.  In  modern  Greece  as  well  as  in  oriental 
countries  the  ages  at  which  marriage  usually  occurs 
are  much  earlier  than  this.  The  result  of  following 
the  wholesome  advice  of  Plato  was  the  production  of 


a  nation  which  led  the  world  in  culture,  enlighten- 
ment, and  literary  prowess ;  but  the  Greeks  of  the 
present  day  can  boast  of  neither  mental  nor  physical 

There  are  other  reasons  besides  those  of  a 
purely  physiological  character  which  forbid  ttf e  en- 
trance of  the  marriage  state  before  the  ages  men- 
tioned. Before  this  time,  the  judgment  is  not  suffi- 
ciently mature  to  enable  a  young  woman  to  make  a  fit 
selection  of  a  partner  for  life.  Her  own  character  is 
not  thoroughly  formed ;  her  tastes  are  not  yet  fully 
developed.  The  person  who  may  answer  to  her  ideal 
husband  at  sixteen  might  appear  in  a  very  different 
light  after  a  few  more  years'  experience  with  the 
world.  The  selection  of  a  life  partner  is  one  of  the 
most  momentous  questions  which  a  human  being  is 
ever  called  upon  to  settle ;  and  it  is  certainly  highly 
improper  that  such  a  question  should  be  settled  once 
for  all  while  the  character  is  undeveloped  and  the 
judgment  immature. 

Again,  until  the  age  of  twenty  to  twenty-two  or 
twenty-three  years  the  vital  forces  are  wholly  re- 
quired for  the  proper  maturing  of  the  structures  of 
the  body  and  the  development  of  the  mind.  A  young 
woman  of  sixteen  or  eighteen  is  totally  unprepared  to 
enter  upon  the  grave  responsibilities  of  wifehood  or 
motherhood.  How  many  great  statesmen,  philoso- 
phers, or  authors  have  been  born  of  girl-mothers? 
The  great  men  of  the  world  have  had,  almost  with- 
out exception,  mothers  whose  youth  was  occupied 
in  fitting  themselves  mentally  and  physically  for  the 
grave  duties  of  later  years.     The  girl  who  marries  at 


sixteen  and  settles  down  to  the  routine  of  domestic 
duties,  as  must  be  the  case  in  the  majority  of  in- 
stances, has  little  further  opportunity  for  storing  the 
mind  with  useful  knowledge,  cultivating  the  intellect, 
and  preparing  herself  to  discharge  her  duty  to  society 
in  such  a  way  as  to  leave  a  lasting  impression  upon  it. 
The  women  of  influence,  those  who  are  the  shining 
lights  of  society,  are  those  who  have  not  been  in  too 
great  haste  to  assume  responsibilities  for  which  they 
were  not  prepared  and  of  which  they  knew  nothing. 
They  have  been  women  who  devoted  the  early  years 
of  womanhood  and  maidenhood  to  the  acquisition  of 
knowledge  and  the  formation  of  refined  tastes,  to  the 
cultivation  of  mind  and  morals,  and  the  formation  of 
habits  of  industry  and  usefulness.  Such  women  have 
found  plenty  to  occupy  their  time  until  they  had  at- 
tained to  full  maturity  without  devoting  any  portion 
of  it  in  setting  traps  for  husbands.  The  other  day  we 
heard  of  a  woman  boasting  to  her  daughter  of  sixteen 
that  she  was  engaged  eighteen  times  before  she  was 
as  many  years  of  age.  It  was  not  at  all  surprising  that 
the  daughter  of  such  a  mother  should  marry  a  boy  as 
childish  as  herself  and  but  a  little  older. 

A  girl  who  marries  at  fifteen  or  sixteen  years  of 
age,  never  attains  to  full  development  of  either  mind 
or  body.  The  duties  of  wifehood  and  maternity  make 
demands  upon  her  vitality  which  she  is  not  prepared 
to  support,  and  consequently  her  development  is 
dwarfed  in  every  way.  Females  suffer  more  than 
males  in  consequence  of  early  marriage,  as  in  addition 
to  other  exhausting  demands,  they  have  imposed  upon 
them  the  burden  of  childbearing.     It  is  an  appalling 


thought  that  these  weak  and  immature  mothers  will 
not  only  transmit  to  their  children  their  own  deficien- 
cies of  development,  but  through  their  children  the 
same  defects  of  constitution  and  character  will  be 
transmitted  to  the  next  generation,  and  thus  the  evil 
be  perpetuated,  the  offspring  of  each  generation  grow- 
ing weaker  and  weaker,  and  becoming  more  and  more 
liable  to  disease,  and  showing  greater  constitutional 
defects,  until  the  line  becomes  extinct,  unless  the  de- 
generating process  is  checked  by  some  intervening 
influence  of  a  redeeming  character. 

Young  Wives  and  Old  Husbands. — Occasionally, 
far  too  frequently  in  fact,  the  good  sense  of  society  is 
shocked  by  a  matrimonial  union  between  a  blooming 
young  girl  and  some  infirm  octogenarian  whose  only 
charm  is  the  possession  of  a  large  fortune.  It  is 
hardly  conceivable  that  a  young  girl  could  be  actu- 
ated by  other  than  sordid  motives  in  allowing  herself 
to  make  an  alliance  of  this  character.  It  is  wholly 
unnatural  that  young  women  should  love  and  desire 
to  marry  men  bordering  on  decrepitude  if  not  actually 
infirm  with  age.  Too  often  these  unions  are  the  re- 
sult of  coercion  on  the  part  of  the  parents,  who  are 
willing  to  sacrifice  the  feelings  of  their  daughter  and 
her  life  happiness  for  the  purpose  of  making  what 
they  consider  an  advantageous  family  alliance..  Such 
a  course  on  the  part  of  parents  is  in  the  highest  de- 
gree criminal,  and  the  daughter  who  is  the  victim  of 
such  monstrous  cruelty  is  deserving  of  sympathy  and 
commiseration.  Her  life  is  destined  to  be  a  desolate 
one.  Many  a  young  woman  marrying  under  such 
circumstances  has  in  the  desperation  of  her  unhappi- 


ness  sacrificed  character,  home,  and  friends  rather 
than  endure  the  galling  bondage  of  such  an  ill-assorted 

The  children  of  such  a  marriage,  if  it  is  a  fruitful 
one,  are  cursed  by  the  results,  as  well  as  the  parents. 
The  old,  unhappy  faces  of  such  little  ones  are  really 
sad  to  look  upon.  They  are  certain  to  die  early,  and 
their  premature  death  is,  in  most  cases,  a  happy  event, 
both  for  themselves  and  the  world.  Many  times 
scrofula  and  consumption  make  their  existence  a 
curse  to  themselves  and  a  burden  to  others,  so  that 
death  comes  as  a  grateful  release. 

Another  feature  of  this  sort  of  marriages  is  the 
fact  that  the  husband  has,  in  the  majority  of  instances, 
been  married  before,  perhaps  more  than  once,  and  very 
likely  has  grown-up  children  who  still"  need  the  care 
of  a  mother.  No  young  woman,  with  an  ordinary 
amount  of  common  sense  and  foresight,  would  venture 
into  such  a  home  to  preside  over  it  as  its  mistress 
without  the  most  serious  foreboding.  Step-mothers, 
especially  if  young,  have  a  hard  lot.  They  seldom 
receive  sympathy  either  from  their  husbands  or  their 
friends.  The  husband  is  very  certain  to  sympathize 
with  the  children,  and  if  the  friends  do  not  take  sides 
with  the  children  in  their  real  or  imaginary  troubles, 
the  mother  does  not  receive  their  sympathy,  the  gen- 
eral feeling  being  that  she  knew  what  was  before  her, 
and  ought  to  have  known  better  than  to  place  herself 
under  such  circumstances. 

As  a  rule,  the  husband  should  be  one  or  two  years 
older  than  the  wife,  but  the  difference  should  not  ex- 
ceed eight  or  ten  years  in  favor  of  the  husband.     Too 


great  a  difference  in  age  makes  the  husband  and  wife 
too  unlike  in  tastes  and  in  character.  A  woman 
should  avoid  marrying  a  man  younger  than  herself. 
As  a  rule,  a  young  woman  is  more  mature  than  a  man 
of  the  same  age,  and  for  a  woman  to  marry  a  man 
younger  than  herself  is  to  prepare  her  for  domestic 
unhappiness  in  the  lack  of  the  husband's  power  to 
command  proper  respect  from  his  wife  on  account  of 
his  own  inferiority  in  years  and  development. 

Whom  to  Marry. — We  have  already  given  sev- 
eral hints  respecting  the  selection  of  a  husband,  but  a 
few  more  words  on  the  same  subject  will  be  admiss- 
ible. We  do  not  propose  to  give  exact  rules  on  this 
point,  knowing  very  well  that  such  rules  will  not  be 
followed  if  laid  down,  as  marriage  is  not  a  thing  to  be 
governed  strictly  by  law,  although  it  is  a  matter  in 
which,  above  all  others,  calmness,  consideration,  and 
deliberation  should  be  exercised.  "Love  at  first 
sight "  is  seldom  the  kind  of  love  which  will  bear  the 
test  of  years  of  association  and  the  trials  and  per- 
plexities of  married  life,  together  with  its  disappoints 
ments  and  hardships,  which  frequently  come  through 
the  reverses  of  fortune.  Genuine  love  is  that  which 
is  based  upon  a  real  adaptation  of  individuals  to  each 
other,  and  must  be  the  outgrowth  of  real  acquaintance 
with  the  character,  tastes,  habits,  and  all  that  goes  to 
make  up  the  sum  of  personal  traits  and  characteristics. 
Love  based  on  any  less  thorough  foundation  than  this, 
can  scarcely  be  called  genuine,  and  is  not  likely  to 
last.  We  have  known  cases  in  which  marriages  re- 
sulting from  "love  at  first  sight"  were  apparently 
mutually    happy;    but    these    are    certainly   excep- 


tions  to  the  rule.  What  is  mistaken  for  love  in  these 
cases  is  simply  fancy.  A  young  lady  meets  a  young 
gentleman  at  a  party,  or  has  an  introduction  to  him 
under  some  other  circumstances  in  which  he  is  ap- 
pearing at  his  best.  She  sees  only  one  side  of  him, 
and  that  only  a  very  small  side.  She  may  be  favor- 
ably impressed  with  his  general  appearance  or  with 
some  particular  feature,  such  as  impressive  eyes  or  a 
good  form,  or  she  may  be  fascinated,  through  love  of 
dress,  by  a  fashionable  suit  of  clothes,  an  ivory-headed 
cane,  a  richly  set  ring,  or  some  other  showy  orna- 
ment. Any  of  these  fancies  may  be  mistaken  for 
love,  but  they  are  wholly  different  from  the  genuine 
article.  True  love  is  a  sentiment  excited  only  by 
responsive  sympathies  from  a  kindred  soul.  Love 
which  is  centered  only  on  externals  is  as  superficial  a 
feeling  as  that  on  which  it  is  fixed.  The  only  ele- 
ment in  manhood  or  womanhood  worthy  of  love  is  the 
character.  This  does  not  depend  upon  externals, 
although  there  is  undoubtedly  a  close  harmony  be- 
tween the  external  and  internal  characteristics  of  the 

Let  us  consider,  then,  some  of  the  points  to  which 
a  young  woman  should  give  attention  in  selecting 
from  among  those  who  may  bestow  attentions  upon 
her,  the  one  who  will  be  the  most  likely  to  make  her 
a  good  husband. 

1.  The  individual  must  be  of  the  proper  age.  A 
suitor  her  inferior  in  years  or  one  many  years  her 
senior  should  be  at  once  discarded  for  reasons  already 
given.  Such  persons  sometimes  make  good  husbands, 
but  the  circumstances  are  very  rare  which  can  make 


a  violation  of  this  rule  a  safe  course  to  follow  or  one 
likely  to  result  in  happiness.  The  usual  result  is  un- 
happiness  and  the  nearest  approach  to  purgatory  on 

2.  He  should  be  the  possessor  of  good  health  and 
a  good  constitution.  Some  sentimental  mothers  will 
exclaim  against  such  a  restriction  as  this,  but  we  in- 
sist that  this  is  a  matter  of  too  great  importance  to  be 
ignored.  A  young  man  who  has  not  good  health  can- 
not make  a  good  husband  in  the  fullest  sense,  as  fee- 
bleness of  constitution  will  render  him  liable  to  become 
unable  to  contribute  to  the  support  of  the  family,  and 
the  wife,  enfeebled  by  the  duties  of  maternity  and  the 
double  burdens  of  caring  and  providing  for  her  house- 
hold, may  find  herself  placed  in  the  most  unhappy  and 
embarrassing  circumstances. 

Again,  a  husband  Avho  is  not  in  the  enjoyment  ot 
good  health  is  not  prepared  to  transmit  a  good  consti- 
tution to  his  children.  Although  the  mother  may 
herself  be  healthy,  she  may  have  imposed  upon  her 
the  task  of  rearing  children  blighted  Avith  disease  from 
the  very  moment  of  conception,  and  destined  to  live 
short  and  suffering  lives,  a  constant  source  of  anxiety 
to  their  parents  and  of  misery  to  themselves. 

Before  entering  upon  such  a  union,  a  young 
woman  should  also  take  into  consideration  the  fact 
which  has  been  mentioned  in  the  physiology  of  re- 
production, namely,  that  in  some  mysterious  manner 
the  constitution  of  the  wife  is  modified  by  that  of  the 
husband,  probably  through  the  influence  of  the  child 
during  pregnancy,  so  that  her  own  health  may  suffer 
to  a  greater  or  less  degree  as  well  as  that  of  the  child. 


She  should  also  recollect  that  the  impression  thus 
made  on  the  constitution  is  ineffaceable,  so  that  though 
the  feeble  husband  should  die  and  a  subsequent 
marriage  be  with  a  healthy  man,  the  resulting  off- 
spring might  still  be  affected  by  the  feebleness  of  the 
former  husband. 

It  is  obvious  that  a  man  suffering  Avith  any  con- 
tagious disease  is  wholly  unfit  to  enter  the  marriage 
state.  A  young  woman  should  take  pains  to  ascer- 
tain whether  or  not  the  young  man  who  offers  his 
hand  in  marriage  is  free  from  any  possible  taint  of 
any  of  the  diseases  which  result  from  immorality'. 
We  have  often  met  cases  in  which  Ave  have  found 
women  suffering  in  the  most  painful  manner  from  dis- 
eases which  were  the  direct  result  of  contagion  from 
husbands  who  had  before  marriage  contracted  some 
form  of  venereal  disease. 

Dr.  Noegerath  of  New  York  City,  some  years  ago 
read  a  paper  before  the  American  Gynaecological 
Society,  in  which  he  called  attention  to  the  fact  that 
a  latent  or  apparently  cured  Gonorrhoea  contracted 
many  years  before  might  excite  the  most  serious  and 
intractable  forms  of  uterine  and  ovarian  disease  in  a 
woman  who  had  before  marriage  been  free  from  any 
form  of  sexual  disorder.  The  paper  referred  to  cited 
many  cases  in  illustration  of  the  position  taken,  and 
since  our  attention  was  called  to  the  matter,  we  have 
observed  quite  a  large  number  of  cases  in  which  the 
existing  disease  could  be  traced  to  no  other  cause, 
and  could  be  fairly  attributed  to  this. 

The  only  safe  rule  for  a  woman  to  follow  in  this 
matter  is  to  refuse  to  marry  any  man  who  has  suffered 


from  any  form  of  venereal  disease.  This  rule  we 
would  make  imperative.  We  grant  that  there  are 
cases  in  which  this  restriction  may  seem  a  severe  one, 
but  so  long  as  men  understand  that  they  can  violate 
every  law  of  purity  and  decency  without  prejudicing 
their  chances  for  a  satisfactory  marriage,  masculine 
purity,  and  consequently  feminine  purity  also,  lacks 
one  of  the  strongest  safe-guards  which  may  be  thrown 
around  it.  Hence,  we  advise  every  young  woman  be- 
fore marrying  any  young  man  concerning  whose  past 
history  she  has  any  suspicion  whatever,  or  is  in  the 
dark,  to  make  careful  inquiry  from  those  who  have 
had  opportunity  to  know,  and  if  she  cannot  obtain 
the  desired  information  elsewhere,  to  seek  it  from  the 
young  man  himself. 

A  young  man  whose  family  is  known  to  be  con- 
sumptive, and  who  himself  possesses  tendencies  in  the 
same  direction,  should  not  be  considered  a  fit  husband 
for  any  young  woman,  nor  indeed  for  any  one.  We 
have  .known  cases  in  which  young  women  have  so  ut- 
terly ignored  this  fact  as  to  marry  men  who  were 
already  in  the  advanced  stages  of  the  disease.  In 
one  case  which  came  under  our  immediate  notice,  the 
man  being  a  patient  under  our  care  for  a  short  time, 
the  husband,  a  recent  graduate,  died  in  a  few  weeks 
after  the  marriage^  of  pulmonary  tuberculosis,  after 
suffering  from  the  disease  for  several  months,  it  be- 
ing well  advanced  at  the  time  of  his  marriage.  It  is 
a  weak  sentimentality  which  leads  a  young  woman  to 
think  it  her  duty  to  marry  a  young  man  in  order  to 
be  his  nurse.  A  man  Avho  really  needs  a  nurse  can 
employ  one  as  easily  as  he  can  support  a  wife,  and 

THE  YOU&G  LADY.  305 

can  doubtless  secure  more  skillful  services  than  a  wife 
could  possibly  render. 

Hereditary  tendency  to  insanity  should  also  be 
sufficient  to  render  a  young  man,  otherwise  in  every 
respect  unobjectionable,  ineligible  tp  marriage. 

Epilepsy  is  another  disease  so  evidently  hereditary 
in  character  and  so  closely  allied  to  mental  disease 
that  the  son  of  an  epileptic  father  or  mother  should 
be  regarded  as  likely  to  make  a  very  undesirable 
husband,  since  the  disease  might  at  any  time  make  its 
appearance  though  it  may  have  been  quiescent  until 
the  time  of  marriage,  and  it  is  likely  to  appear  in  the 
children  even  if  the  father  should  happen  to  escape. 
A  person  suffering  with  epilepsy  or  any  other  form  of 
nervous  disease  should  of  course  be  considered  unfit 
to  enter  the  marriage  state.  Epileptics  are  as  a  rule 
defective  mentally  and  often  morally.  The  observa- 
tion has  been  made  that  a  much  larger  proportion  of 
epileptics  is  found  in  the  criminal  classes  than  among 
other  classes  of  society. 

A  year  or  two  ago  we  took  part  in  a  discussion  at 
a  meeting  of  a  medical  association  at  which  a  paper 
had  been  presented  by  a  professor  of  genito-urinary 
diseases  in  men.  In  considering  the  question  whether 
syphilitics  should  marry,  the  professor  had  taken  the 
position  in  his  paper  that  a  person  who  had  suffered 
a  severe  attack  of  syphilis  should  delay  marriage 
for  two  or  three  years,  after  which  time  he  considered 
marriage  perfectly  admissible.  We  of  course  took 
issue  with  the  professor  on  this  point,  since  he  had 
considered  only  the  question  of  contagion,  and  had 
wholly  ignored  the  fact  that  a  man  who  has  suffered 


with  syphilitic  disease,  though  he  may  have  recovered 
from  the  active  symptoms  of  the  malady  to  such  a 
degree  that  he  is  not  liable  to  communicate  it  directly 
to  another  person,  is  pretty  certain  to  transmit  the 
results  of  the  horrible  disorder  to  his  children,  in 
whom  they  will  appear,  if  not  in  the  most  active  form 
of  the  disease,  as  is  often  the  case,  in  the  form  of 
scrofula,  consumption,  rickets,  and  other  constitutional 
disorders.  We  would  insist  with  the  greatest  em- 
phasis that  a  syphilitic  individual  should  never  marry. 
While  it  is  possible  that  this  hereditary  disease  may 
be  eradicated  by  a  long  course  of  training  and  abste- 
miousness, it  is  never  possible  to  say  with  any  degree 
of  certainty  that  the  disease  is  cured,  and  the  com- 
mon method  of  treating  this  malady  is  such  that  while 
the  active  symptoms  are  repressed,  the  seeds  of  the  dis- 
ease are  left  in  the  system  to  make  their  appearance 
later  on  in  life  or  in  the  next  generation. 

Congenital  defects,  as  hare-lip,  congenital  deafness 
or  blindness,  and  deformities  of  various  kinds,  should 
be  considered  an  objection  to  marriage  as  these  de- 
formities are  likely  to  appear  in  the  children.  This 
is  not  an  invariable  rule,  but  it  is  true  in  a  sufficient 
number  of  cases  to  render  it  undesirable  that  a  person 
possessing  them  should  take  any  part  in  the  produc- 
tion of  the  race,  for  whom  it  were  better  that  such  in- 
dividuals should  contribute  nothing  to  the  increase  of 
human  beings  rather  than  that  the  defective  organiza- 
tions which  they  possess  should  be  perpetuated.  Such 
a  rule  respecting  the  choice  of  husbands  would  be 
wholly  unnecessary  in  most  barbarous  countries,  and 
was  unknown  in  ancient  times,  as  it  was  then  cus- 


tomary  as  it  is  now  among  uncivilized  nations,  to 
destroy  congenital  cripples  at  birth.  A  dyspeptic,  a 
chronic  rheumatic,  an  asthmatic,  a  paralytic,  a  person 
with  a  hereditary  tendency  to  scrofula,  in  fact,  any 
individual  suffering  with  any  marked  deviation  from 
the  standard  of  health,  will  not  be  looked  upon  by  a 
healthy  young  woman  who  considers  the  matter  of 
matrimony  from  the  stand-point  of  physiology  and 
physical  health,  as  desirable  for  a  husband. 

3.  He  should  be  a  man  of  good  habits.  By  good 
habits  we  mean  not  only  steady,  industrious,  thrifty 
habits  with  a  disposition  to  economize  and  avoid  ex- 
travagance, but  freedom  from  such  habits  as  the  use  of 
liquor,  tobacco,  and  other  stimulants  and  narcotics. 
Young  women  sometimes  marry  young  men  in  a  sort 
of  missionary  spirit,  thinking  that  through  their  in- 
fluence over  them  they  will  be  able  to  effect  a  reform 
and  thus  wean  them  from  the  injurious  habits  which 
they  may  have  contracted.  This  is  an  illusion  which 
but  a  few  weeks  of  married  life  suffice  to  dispel.  A 
young  man  who  does  not  care  enough  for  the  young 
lady  whom  he  wishes  to  become  his  wife  to  reform 
before  marriage,  will  never  reform  afterward.  In 
fact,  it  is  a  very  dangerous  piece  of  business  for  a 
young  woman  to  run  the  risk  of  marrying  a  man  who 
has  been  "just  a  little  fast."  Habits  of  dissipation 
when  once  thoroughly  fastened  upon  an  individual  are 
not  easily  shaken  off,  and  though  he  may  reform  for 
a  time,  favorable  circumstances  will  be  likely  to  lead 
him  back  into  the  same  channel  again. 

The  notion  which  we  sometimes  hear  expressed, 
that  "  reformed  rakes  make  the  best  husbands,"  is  as 


far  from  the  truth  as  anything  well  can*be.  It  is  ex- 
ceedingly rare  that  a  man  who  has  lived  a  rakish  life 
ever  makes  such  a  thorough  reform  as  to  be  in  any 
way  worthy  of  the  affection  of  a  pure-minded  young 
woman ;  and  if  the  reform  of  his  moral  nature  be  such 
as  to  make  him  not  unworthy  of  her  confidence  and 
love,  the  chances  are  ten  to  one  that  his  physical  sys- 
tem is  so  depraved  as  the  result  of  his  lapses  from  vir- 
tue that  he  is  wholly  unfit  to  become  the  husband  of 
a  pure  and  healthy  wife.  Some  years  ago,  we  remon- 
strated in  the  most  earnest  manner  with  a  young  lady 
who  was  about  to  marry  a  young  man  whom  we 
knew  to  have  lived  for  years  a  dissolute  life  and 
whom  we  had  treated  for  the  terrible  disease  which 
usually  results  from  such  a  life.  She  replied  that  if 
the  disease  from  which  he  was  suffering  was  not  in 
such  a  stage  that  she  was  liable  to  catch  it,  she  should 
not  consider  it  any  objection  to  accepting  him  as  a 

The  readiness  with  which  women  forgive  the  lapses 
from  virtue  in  man  is  astounding  when  we  consider 
their  unforgiving,  unrelenting  disposition  toward  those 
of  their  own  sex  who  may  have  fallen,  as  well  as  the 
contemptuous  manner  in  which  men  treat  such  wo- 
men, even  those  who  may  have  been  the  victims 
of  their  wickedness.  What  pure-minded  man,  who 
possessed  even  a  modicum  of  self-respect,  would 
think  of  asking  a  woman  who  had  lived  a  life  of 
shame  to  become  his  wife  ?  It  is  rare  indeed  that  a 
man  can  be  found  that  will  accept  as  his  wife  a  wo- 
man who  may  have  lapsed  from  virtue  even  once  and 
under  circumstances  which  ought  to  form  an  apology 


for  the  sin,  if  such  a  sin  can  be  condoned.  Until 
men  are  willing  to  accept  without  question,  as  wives, 
women  who,  they  have  reason  to  believe,  have  ignored 
the  requirements  of  chastity  and  purity,  it  will  bo 
just  as  well  as  wise  for  women  to  be  equally  scrupulous 
respecting  the  conduct  before  marriage  of  those  who 
wish  to  become  their  husbands. 

We  cannot  leave  this  point  without  a  word  re- 
specting that  most  detestable  of  popular  vices,  tobacco- 
using.  No  young  woman  who  has  any  appreciation 
of  the  possible  suffering  she  is  likely  to  bring  upon 
herself,  will  consent  to  marry  a  man  who  is  addicted 
to  the  weed.  A  woman  whose  husband  uses  either 
pipe  or  cigar,  lives  in  a  nicotine-poisoned  atmosphere. 
She  derives  from  the  narcotic  none  of  the  peculiar 
solacing  influence  wrhich  renders  it  so  fascinating  to 
those  who  become  accustomed  to  its  use,  though 
obliged  to  inhale  its  nauseating  fumes.  We  have 
known  wives  who  suffered  more  than  tongue  can  de- 
scribe during  long  years  of  intimate  association  with 
men  who  had  rendered  themselves  objects  of  drdad 
and  repugnance  through  their  devotion  to  the  vile 
habit  of  tobacco-using.  Let  the  young  women  of  the 
land  say  resolutely  that  they  will  marry  no  man  who 
is  addicted  to  the  use  of  the  weed  in  any  form,  and 
tobacco-using  will  soon  become  a  thing  of  the  past. 
It  is  high  time  that  the  women  of  this-  and  all  other 
civilized  nations  should  rise  up  en  fnasse  in  opposition 
to  the  tyranny  of  this  barbarous  and  debasing  habit. 
Until  some  effort  of  this  sort  is  made,  the  practice 
will  go  on  gaining  victims  from  year  to  year,  until 

the  man  who  does  not  carry  a  quid  in  his  cheek,  or  a 



pipe  or  cigar  in  his  mouth,  will  be  considered  an  odd- 
ity. Indeed,  such  is  almost  the  case  at  the  present 
day.  The  men  who  are  not  addicted  to  the  uncleanly 
practice  in  one  form  or  another,  are  few  and  far  be- 
tween. But  let  the  young  women  declare  once  for 
all  that  they  will  have  no  man  for  a  husband  who 
loves  a  vile  weed  better  than  he  loves  the  woman 
whom  he  wishes  to  make  his  wife,  and  we  shall  have 
a  reform  at  once. 

4.  He  should  be  of  suitable  temperament.  By 
proper  temperament  we  do  not  mean  that  the  young 
man  who  will  make  the  best  husband  for  a  young 
woman  must  be  her  exact  counterpart  in  tempera- 
ment, nor  that  he  should  be  her  opposite  in  this  par- 
ticular. What  is  necessary  for  mutual  happiness  is 
that  people  who  are  to  live  together  in  the  close 
bonds  of  wedded  life  should  be  of  such  temperaments 
as  to  be  mutually  agreeable  to  each  other.  The  ad- 
vice given  by  a  somewhat  noted  writer  on  this  sub- 
ject, that  exact  counterparts  should  be  selected  as 
partners  for  life,  is  exceedingly  absurd  and  certain  to 
result  badly  if  put  in  practice ;  and  the  same  may  be 
said  of  advice  given  by  some  phrenologists,  that  per- 
sons of  opposite  temperament  should  be  selected  for 
husband  or  wife.  Neither  similarity  or  oppositeness 
should  be  sought  for,  but  agreeableness.  Sometimes 
ft  person  will  dislike  exceedingly  another  individual 
for  a  trait  of  character  which  is  very  prominent  in 
himself.  Conceited  people  are  of  all  others  the  most 
likely  to  be  disgusted  wTith  conceit  when  manifested 
in  other  persons  than  themselves.  The  same  is  true 
with  reference  to  various  other  prominent  traits,  as 


pride,  jealousy,  suspicion,  etc.  The  so-called  science 
of  phrenology  has  been  greatly  abused  in  the  attempt 
to  make  it  a  guide  in  the  formation  of  life-partner- 
ships. Nothing  is  more  absurd  than  the  supposition 
that  the  adaptation  of  young  men  and  young  women 
for  each  other  can  be  decided  by  scrutinizing  the 
physiognomy  or  fumbling  the  cranium.  A  great 
amount  of  mischief  has  been  done  by  phrenologists 
who  have  attempted  to  regulate  matrimonial  unions 
according  to  their  opinion  of  the  bumps.  The  only 
way  in  which  mutual  adaptation  can  be  learned  is  by 
acquaintance,  which  should  be  of  such  a  character, 
and  carried  on  under  such  circumstances  as  to  lead 
the  individuals  to  a  correct  and  just  estimate  of  each 
others  character.  Ability,  wealth,  position  in  society, 
good  looks,  brilliant  prospects, — none  of  these  good 
aualities  should  be  allowed  to  turn  the  scale  against 
an  objectionable  temperament,  as  an  agreeable  dis- 
position in  a  husband  will  do  more  to  contribute  to 
a  wife's  happiness  than  all  other  circumstances  com- 

5.  May  he  be  a  Cousin  ? — This  question  has 
been  much  discussed,  and  numerous  statistics  have 
been  collected  which,  in  the  hands  of  one  writer,  es- 
tablish the  fact  that  the  marriage  of  cousins  is  pretty 
certain  to  result  in  idiotic  progeny,  while  in  the  hands 
of  another  writer  statistics  are  made  to  tell  a  very 
different  story.  Anyone  who  has  ever  attempted  to 
establish  a  point  by  appealing  to  statistics,  is  aware  of 
the  fact  that  this  sort  of  evidence  can  be  made  to 
prove  almost  anything  according  to  the  desires  or  the 
predilections  of  the  investigator.     It  is  now  generally 


conceded  that  the  marriage  of  cousins  is  not  likely  to 
result  in  any  mental  or  physical  defects  in  the  chil- 
dren, provided  both  parents  are  perfectly  healthy ;  but 
it  should  be  recollected  that  the  blood-relationship  of 
individuals  greatly  increases  the  influence  of  an  ob- 
jectionable tendency  in  such  a  manner  as  to  bring  it 
into  activity  in  the  offspring.  In  the  second  place,  a 
young  woman  should  never  marry  her  cousin  without 
making  a  careful  investigation  of  the  causes  of  death 
of  the  relatives  of  both,  back  to  the  common  ancestor, 
gaining  all  possible  information  concerning  the  dis- 
eases which  have  been  most  prominent  in  the  family. 
6.  He  should  be  of  good  morals  and  good  reputa- 
tion. The  readiness  with  which  young  women  form 
alliances  with  young  men  whose  society  is  avoided  by 
other  young  men  who  wish  to  retain  their  reputation 
for  respectability,  is  simply  astounding;  yet  such 
cases  are  of  almost  every  day  occurrence.  Young 
women  will  often  place  the  most  implicit  confidence 
in  young  men  whose  employers  would  not  trust  them 
with  a  dollar,  and  whose  reputation  for  virtue  and 
morality  is  one  hundred  per  cent  below  par.  A 
young  woman  who  really  respects  herself,  and  who 
has  any  solicitude  respecting  her  future  happiness 
and  that  of  her  family,  will  refuse  to  marry  a  man 
who  makes  a  mock  of  religion  and  sneers  at  morality, 
who  boasts  of  infidelity  and  makes  light  of  sacred 
things.  A  man  who  has  none  of  the  restraints  of  re- 
ligion or  morality  to  keep  him  in  the  path  of  virtue 
and  rectitude,  cannot  properly  perform  the  duties  of  a 
husband  and  father ;  and  no  matter  how  earnest  his 
protestations  of  reform,  he  should   be  discarded,  or 


held  on  probation  until  positive  evidence  of  a  genuine 
reform  are  to  be  seen. 

7.  The  prospective  husband  should  be  of  propor- 
tionate size ;  that  is,  a  very  small  woman  should  not 
select  a  very  large  man  for  a  husband,  or  vice  versa. 
The  latter  selection  is'not  very  likely  to  be  made,  as 
large  women  very  seldom  desire  as  husbands  very 
small  men ;  but  small  women  are  very  apt  to  prefer 
for  husbands  very  tall  and  large  men.  Such  a  union 
is  physically  improper  and  likely  to  entail  on  the  wife 
no  small  amount  of  physical  suffering  and  increase  the 
dangers  of  child-birth  many  fold.  There  ought  to  be 
physical  as  well  as  mental  and  moral  adaptation  be- 
tween husband  and  wife. 

Who  Ought  not  to  Marry. — A ,  young fwoman 
who  is  herself  subject  to  hereditary  physical  or  men- 
*tal  disease  or  physical  deformity  of  a  serious  char- 
acter, ought  to  consider  it  her  duty  to  refuse  an  offer 
of  marriage  on  this  account.  Of  course  an  extreme 
view  must  not  be  taken  of  this  restriction.  We  do 
not  wish  to  exclude  nine-tenths  of  the  young  women 
from  entering  the  marriage  state ;  but  any  disability 
which  is  likely  to  be  transmitted  to  children,  or  to 
make  the  individual  a  life-long  invalid,  should  be  con- 
sidered an  insurmountable  obstacle  to  marriage.  A 
young  man  may  be  wholly  willing  to  accept  an  invalid 
for  a  wife  at  the  time  of  marriage,  and  may  for  a  few 
months  or  years  remain  reconciled  to  having  his  house 
made  a  hoc;rital  and  to  pay  all  his  hard  earnings  to 
the  doctors ;  but  the  time  will  come  when  this  sort  of 
thing  will  be  no  longer  enjoyed,  and  his  affections 
will  be  gradually  weaned  from  the  womrfn  whom  he 


promised  to  love  and  cherish  in  health  or  disease,, 
etc.  Such  a  marriage  will  not  be  likely  to  be  a  happy- 

The  idea  which  many  women  have,  and  which  is 
often  encouraged  by  physicians,  that  marriage  will  ef- 
fect a  cure  of  various  local  affections  to  which  the  sex  is 
liable,  should  not  be  encouraged.  The  fact  is  that 
marriage  as  a  rule  aggravates  instead  of  mitigating 
local  diseases  which  may  have  become  thoroughly  es- 
tablished before  marriage.  It  is  true  that  if  a  woman 
is  suffering  with  an  anteflexion  of  the  womb,  the  oc- 
currence of  pregnancy — which  is  not  at  all  likely,  as 
as  such  women  are  generally  sterile — will  often 
effect  £,  cure.  But  this  is  about  the  only  class  of 
cases  in  which  improvement  as  the  result  of  marriage 
may  be  looked  for,  and  in  these  cases  it  is  as  likely 
to  prove  detrimental  as  beneficial.  We  have  met 
a  good  many  cases  in  which  young  women  have  been 
sadly  disappointed  in  the  results  of  matrimony  as  a 
curative  means.  Instead  of  gaining  in  health,  they 
have  declined  from  the  outset,  and  have  found  their 
sufferings  aggravated  to  such  a  degree  as  to  render 
life  exceedingly  wretched  and  miserable.  A  woman 
ought  to  be  enjoying  the  highest  health  when  she  vent- 
ures to  enter  upon  a  sphere  which  will  demand  all  the 
vigor  and  vitality  which  she  possesses  or  can  command 
to  enable  her  to  faithfully  perform  her  imposed  duties. 
A  "  good-for-nothing  "  young  woman  has  no  right 
to  marry.  A  woman  has  a  right  to  expect  in  a  man 
the  qualifications  of  a  good  husband,  such  as  will  en- 
able him  to  provide  for  his  family  the  comforts  of  life 
and  the  opportunities  for  culture  required  by  their 

THE   YOUNG  LADY.  gl5 

position  in  society.  A  young  woman  who  is  not  her- 
self by  nature  or  education  fitted  to  make  a  home 
happy,  to  superintend  or  perform,  if  necessary,  the 
duties  of  a  well  regulated  household,  has  no  right  to 
impose  herself  upon  any  man  as  a  fit  person  to  become 
his  companion  for  life.  The  world  is  full  of  good-for- 
nothing  girls,  as  well  as  good-for-nothing  young  men, — 
girls  who  have  never  been  taught  by  their  mothers  the 
simple  arts  of  housewifery  and  who  are  as  unprepared 
as  the  merest  child  to  take  charge  of  the  affairs  of  a 
household.  It  is  time  that  this  good-for-nothingness 
were  looked  upon  as  an  evidence  of  unfitness  for  mar- 
riage ;  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  public  sentiment  will 
soon  demand  the  institution  of  schools  for  instruction 
in  housewifery  and  the  training  of  women  to  become 
worthy  and  helpful  wives. 

A  Word  of  Advice. — Some  years  ago  on  inquir- 
ing why  a  certain  estimable  young  woman  had  mar- 
ried a  most  disagreeable  and  unworthy  man,  we  were 
answered  that  "  She  married  him  to  get  rid  of  him." 
The  young  man  pressed  his  suit  with  such  unyielding 
perseverance,  even  after  he  had  been  repeatedly  re- 
pulsed that  the  young  lady  weakly  yielded  as  the  easi- 
est method  by  which  to  get  rid  of  his  importunities. 
As  might  be  expected  almost  from  the  very  day  when 
her  reluctant  consent  to  be  his  wife  was  given,  his 
kind  caresses  ceased  and  the  tyranny  and  ugliness  of 
temper  which  he  manifested  rendered  her  whole  life 
indescribably  wretched.  During  the  first  few  months 
of  marriage,  when  her  eyes  had  become  thoroughly 
opened  to  the  folly  of  her  course  and  the  dreadful 
slavery  to  which  she  had  bound  herself,  reason  was 


nearly  dethroned ;  but  it  was  too  late  to  correct  the 
fatal  mistake.  She  had  nothing  to  do  but  bear  it 
with  as  much  calmness  and  patience  as  she  couid  sum- 
mon. What  could  be  expected  other-  than  that  the 
offspring  of  such  a  union  should  receive  the  impress 
of  the  mother's  unhappy  mental  state  ?  In  the  case 
referred  to,  the  first-born,  a  son,  possessed  in  many 
respects  marked  ability ;  but  at  an  early  age  he  man- 
ifested peculiar  traits  of  character  which  gradually  be- 
came more  and  more  prominent  until  the  will  became 
powerless  to  maintain  the  mental  equilibrium,  and 
reason  was  dethroned.  .  This  young  man,  notwith- 
standing his  natural  abilities  and  thorough  college 
training,  fitting  him  under  ordinary  circumstances  for 
a  position  of  high  usefulness,  is  to-day  incarcerated 
within  the  walls  of  an  insane  asylum  with  little  or  no 
hope  of  recovery. 

The  folly  of  marrying  a  man  to  get  rid  of  him 
does  not  need  further  emphasis.  This  is  the  most  im- 
practicable of  all  methods  of  dismissing  a  disagreeable 
suitor.  A  young  woman  who  is  not  pleased  with  the 
man  who  wishes  to  ask  her  hand  in  marriage,  should 
frankly  and  promptly  tell  him  so,  and  if  she  is  satis- 
fied that  there  is  no  mutual  adaptation,  or  that  on 
further  acquaintance  she  will  not  be  likely  to  change 
her  views,  the  dismissal  should  be  final.  The  inter- 
ests involved  are  too  great  to  be  trifled  with,  and  no 
young  woman  can  afford  to  allow  herself  to  be 
"  bullied  "  into  a  marriage  with  a  man  whom  she  does 
not  and  cannot  love. 

Neither  wealth,  social  position,  nor  any  other 
qualifications  than  those  which  pertain  to  the  individ- 


ual  character  should  influence  a  woman  in  her  selec- 
tion of  a  husband.  Women  who  marry  for  money 
are  sure,  sooner  or  later,  to  be  made  most  unhappy  by 
so  doing.  No  woman  can  patiently  bear  the  taunts 
of  having  "married  a  man  for  money,"  year  after 
year,  while  she  may  be  supposed  to  be  waiting  for 
his  decease  so  as  to  get  entire  control  of  the  coveted 

Cases  are  not  rare  in  which  women  marry  "to 
avoid  becoming  old  maids."  We  cannot  understand 
why  a  woman  should  look  forward  with  dread  to  a 
life  of  celibacy  more  than  a  man,  or  at  any  rate,  why 
it  should  be  so  utterly  abhorred  that  an  alliance  of 
almost  any  sort  should  be  considered  preferable  to  it. 
Perhaps  the  education  of  girls  in  the  idea  that  the 
condition  of  an  old  maid  is  one  to  be  abhorred,  is 
chiefly  responsible  for  the  prevalance  of  this  senti- 
ment among  young  ladies.  The  ideal  old  maid  is  one 
who  is  scrupulously  neat  in  appearance,  by  most  peo- 
ple considered  very  nice,  possibly  somewhat  prudish 
in  her  notions  of  modesty  and  unwilling  to  place  any 
confidence  in  the  opposite  sex,  but  a  very  useful  sort 
of  person  in  cases  of  illness,  a  ready  worker  in  Sab- 
bath-schools, home  missions,  and  temperance  organi- 
zations, and  in  fact'on  the  whole,  quite  an  indispensable 
member  of  society.  There  is  certainly  nothing  to  be 
abhorred  in  this,  and  a  woman  would  better  by  far 
be  an  old  maid  and  die  homeless  and  childless  than 
to  live  the  life  of  wretchedness  and  unhappiness  sure 
to  result  from  an  ill-mated  marriage. 

Little  Girls  should  not  Marry. — We  have  al- 
ready dwelt  upon  the  importance  of  mature  develop- 


ment  as  a  preparation  for  the  marriage  state,  but  we 
wish  to  impress  this  fact  again  upon  the  minds  of  our 
fair  young  readers  as  one  of  great  importance.  A 
little  girl  is  not  prepared  to  select  a  husband,  and  is 
not  fit  to  become  a  wife.  She  cannot  safely  ignore  the 
laws  of  nature  which  demand  that  she  should  have 
time  for  physical,  mental,  and  moral  development. 
No  circumstances  whatever  can  justify  a  girl-marriage. 
Such  unions  are  pretty  certain  to  turn  out  bad.  Only 
recently  a  case  has  come  to  our  notice  in  which  a  girl 
of  fifteen  ran  away  from  home  to  live  with  a  young 
man  of  twenty  to  avoid  meeting  a  step  mother  whom 
her  father  was  about  to  introduce  into-  his  household. 
She  found  out  too  late  that  the  young  man  in  whom 
she  had  placed  her  confidence  was  a  roue  of  the  worst 
stamp,  his  constitution  being  shattered  by  habits  of 
vice  and  dissipation,  and  at  the  time  when  she  came 
under  our  care  as  a  patient  her  own  system  was  thor- 
oughly saturated  with  the  venom  of  a  foul  disease. 

Marriage  is  an  institution  for  men  and  women,  not 
for  boys  and  girls,  and  common  sense  would  suggest 
that  a  young  man  or  young  woman  whose  age  is  such 
that  the  law  does  not  recognize  him  or  her  as  capable 
of  making  a  contract  involving  simply  matters  of  tem- 
poral interest,  is  wholly  unfitted  for  making  a  contract 
wrhich  involves  not  only  the  present  and  future  hap- 
piness of  himself  and  another,  but  may  exert  a  bane- 
ful influence  to  an  incalculable  extent  over  succeeding 

The  restrictions  we  have  given  respecting  the  age 
at  which  marriage  may  be  contracted,  should  be  looked 
upon  as  imperative.     The  limit  placed  is  too  low  rather 


than  otherwise.  Many  girls  are  not  fitted  for  mar- 
riage by  their  mental  or  physical  development  before 
the  age  of  twenty-five  or  twenty-six.  In  fact,  some 
girls  as  well  as  some  boys  never  become  old  enough 
to  marry,  apparently  remaining,  mentally  at  least,  in  a 
state  of  childhood. 

Courting. — We  have  no  intention  of  attempting 
to  point  out  in  these  paragraphs  the  exact  manner  in 
which  courtship  should  be  conducted ;  but  we  wish  to 
call  attention  to  some  of  the  evils  which  grow  out  of 
the  popular  manner  of  conducting  courtship.  Court- 
ing, as  the  word  is  generally  understood  in  this 
country,  seems  to  be  peculiar  to  America.  In  most 
other  countries,  unmarried  persons  are  by  the  laws  of 
custom  and  society  forbidden  to  associate  with  such 
unrestrained  freedom  as  is  customary  in  this  country. 
If  a  young  woman  in  France  should  allow  herself  to 
take  long  walks  or  rides  with  a  man  without  some  fe- 
male companion,  or  even  to  visit  places  of  amusement 
or  recreation,  or  to  be  shut  up  with  him  in  a  parlor  or 
sitting-room  with  the  light  turned  down  or  wholly  ex- 
tinguished until  the  small  hours  of  the  night,  her  rep- 
utation would  be  ruined.  She  would  be  looked  upon 
as  a  loose  character,  unfit  to  associate  with  respect- 
able people.  We  do  not  pretend  to  say  that  chastity 
is  better  preserved  among  the  young  women  of  France 
than  among  American  young  women ;  but  we  do  know 
that  the  unrestricted  license  allowed  in  the  association 
of  young  unmarried  men  and  women  presents  the  most 
favorable  opportunities  for  the  lapses  from  virtue 
which  are  altogether  too  common,  more  so  than  the 
majority  of  persons  would  be  willing  to  believe. 


This  is  not  our  only  objection  to  the  popular 
method  of  courting.  The  primary  object  of  courtship 
should  be  to  allow  the  parties  to  become  acquainted 
with  each  other's  characters  so  as  to  know  whether  or 
not  there  exists  such  mutual  adaptation  as  to  make  a 
life  partnership  desirable  or  likely  to  be  a  happy  one. 
Courtships  are  not,  however,  usually  conducted  in 
such  a  manner  as  to  enable  either  party  to  arrive  at 
a  just  estimate  of  the  character  of  the  others  The 
conditions  are  made  as  artificial  as  possible.  Each 
endeavors  by  various  artifices  to  appear  in  the  most 
attractive  and  advantageous  light  possible.  The 
whole  experience  is  generally  a  series  of  shams  from 
beginning  to  end.  Young  people  never  really  get 
acquainted  with  each  other  until  after  they  are  mar- 
ried. Then,  divested  of  all  pretense,  the  real  charac- 
ter appears  in  its  true  light,  often  to  the  great  disap- 
pointment of  both  parties. 

Courtship  should  be  conducted  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  allow  each  to  become  acquainted  with  the  other's 
real  character  just  as  it  will  appear  in  every-day  life. 
It  is  the  greatest  folly  imaginable  for  a  young  woman 
to  pass  herself  off  for  more  than  she  really  is,  or  to 
attempt  to  sustain  a  character  which  she  cannot 
really  maintain  every  day  and  month  and  year  of  her 
life.  The  husband,  if  he  is  entangled  by  deception, 
will  sooner  or  later  be  undeceived,  and  then,  whether 
he  owns  it  or  not,  his  former  admiration  will  be 
turned  to  disgust  and  loathing.  If  a  young  woman 
wishes  to  secure  a  really  good  husband,  let  her  ap- 
pear exactly  as  she  is.  Let  her  be  perfectly  natural 
Then  a  man  who  is  sufficiently  pleased  with  her  to 

THE    YOUNG  LADY.  321 

wish  to  make  her  his  wife,  willjbe  likely  to  prove  him- 
self a  kind  and  devoted  husband,  one  on  whom  she 
can  lean  with  confidence  during  all  the  coming  years. 

Mothers  should  exercise  careful  supervision  over 
their  daughters  when  they  have  reached  an  age 
proper  for  marriage,  and  have  begun  to  receive  the 
attentions  of  gentlemen  friends.  This  is  the  time 
above  all  others  when  a  young  woman  ought  to  make 
a  confident  of  her  mother,  and  mothers  ought  to  treat 
their  daughters  in  such  a  manner  as  to  win  their  con- 
fidence and  respect.  The  young  women  who  marry 
contrary  to  their  parents'  wishes  and  against  their  ad- 
vice almost  always  regret  having  done  so,  and  endure 
life-long  misery  in  consequence  of  the  one  false  step. 

But  they  are  not  always  so  much  to  blame  as 
their  parents.  A  mother  who  has  pursued  the  right 
course  with  her  daughter  from  early  childhood  to 
maturity,  will  always  hold  her  confidence,  and  can 
exert  so  strong  an  influence  over  her  as  to  be  able  to 
mold  her  action,  at  least  to  a  very  great  degree,  at 
this  most  important  epoch  of  life. 

The  advice  of  a  parent  or  friend  of  mature  years 
may  be  invaluable  at  this  time,  and  a  young  woman 
should  never  think  of  committing  her  happiness  to  the 
keeping  of  any  young  man  without  first  consulting 
her  mother  or  some  other  female  friend  competent  to 
give  advice  in  case  she  has  no  mother  to  consult. 

The  habit  of  sitting  up  late  at  night  during  court- 
ship is  one  which  should  be  condemned  and  discoun- 
tenanced. A  young  woman  of  proper  age  need  not  be 
ashamed  of  the  attentions  of  a  young  man  worthy  to 
become  her  husband,  and  no  attempt  at  concealment 


is  necessary.  Young  people  can  judge  of  each  other's 
characters  much  better  by  daylight  than  lamplight. 
We  agree  with  an  author  of  considerable  experience 
who  suggests  that  courting  can  best  be  done  by 
young  people  when  engaged  in  the  e very-day  duties 
of  life.  Then  there  are  good  opportunities  to  judge 
of  each  other's  qualities  and  capabilities  in  the  most 
practical  manner  possible. 

Flirting. — Every  true  man  despises  the  fhxL  A 
young  woman  who  trifles  with  the  affections  of  young 
men,  purposely  attracting  their  attention  and  display- 
ing her  charms  in  such  a  manner  as  to  fascinate  and 
entangle  their  affections  for  the  mere  purpose  of 
amusement  or  to  gratify  an  unholy  pride  or  to  rouse 
the  jealousies  of  some  rival,  is  unworthy  ever  to  be- 
come the  wife  of  a  sincere  and  noble-minded  man. 
Such  a  woman's  affections  gradually  wither  and  her 
motives  become  depraved  until  she  is  utterly  unfitted 
to  become  a  dutiful  wife  or  a  patient,  sympathizing 


This  portion  of  our  subject  is  one  which  we  would 
gladly  avoid ;  but  we  have  a  few  words  to  say  which 
we  think  ought  to  be  said,  and  which  we  may  not 
depend  upon  being  said  by  any  one  else  to  the  same 
audience  to  which  we  wish  to  speak,  and  so  we  ad- 
dress ourself  to  the  subject,  though  with  great  reluc- 
tance, with  a  sense  of  duty  to  be  done  regardless  of 
its  unpleasantness. 

Prostitution  is  an  evil  which  is  undoubtedly  rap- 


idly  on  the  increase.  This  fact  has  become  so  notice- 
able and  the  evil  so  alarming  in  its  proportions,  that 
it  has  attracted  the  attention  of  many  of  the  ablest 
thinkers  and  students  of  social  science  in  all  civilized 
lands.  Considered  in  all  its  bearings,  the  subject  is 
a  large  one,  and  we  shall  not  attempt  to  canvass  it  in 
all  its  various  phases,  but  only  to  note  a  few  points 
in  connection  with  the  question  of  causation  and  pre- 

Some  idea  of  the  proportions  of  this  monster  evil 
may  be  gathered  from  the  statistics  of  the  number  of 
fallen  women  and  of  the  diseases  which  result 
from  prostitution.  We  are  informed  by  a  reliable 
authority  that  there  are  at  the  present  time  no  less 
than  50,000  fallen  women  in  England  alone  who  are 
devoted  to  a  life  of  shame.  The  number  of  this  class 
in  this  country  must  be  very  much  greater,  even  if 
the  proportion  to  the  population  is  the  same,  which  is 
undoubtedly  the  case.  It  should  be  remembered  also 
that  these  figures  do  not  give  an  adequate  idea  of 
the  extent  of  the  vice,  for  the  reason  that  there  is 
a  very  large  class  of  lewd  women  known  as  "  kept 
mistresses,"  or  whose  lapses  from  virtue  are  known 
only  to  themselves  and  their  companions  in  sin,  while 
to  the  public  they  appear  as  respectable  as  their  sis- 
ters. This  class  in  fact  probably  greatly  exceeds  in 
numbers  those  who  are  known  as  common  prostitutes. 
Lax  morals  have  become  so  common  at  the  present  day 
that  it  is  impossible  to  form  an  estimate  of  the  extent 
of  the  evil  which  we  are  considering.  Its  very  nat- 
ure causes  those  who  are  its  victims  to  avoid  publicity 
in  every  way  possible,  and  society  has  always  endeav- 


ored  to  hide  its  eyes  from  the  foul  ulcer  festering  in 
its  midst.  But  it  is  useless  to  ignore  the  evil  simply 
because  it  is  loathsome  and  obnoxious  to  our  moral 
sense,  for  it  will  obtrude  itself  upon  us  in  its  most 
disgusting  forms  and  often  when  we  least  expect  it  in 
spite  of  our  aversion  and  disinclination  to  consider  it. 

Cases  of  the  horrible  diseases  which  result  from 
this  vice  are  known  to  be  rapidly  on  the  increase.  A 
prominent  sanitary  officer  of  one  of  our  large  cities 
affirms  that  not  less  than  one-fifth  of  the  entire  popu- 
lation of  the  city  is  tainted  with  venereal  disease  in 
some  form.  If  this  is  true  of  the  city  in  question,  it 
is  undoubtedly  true  of  most  other  large  cities  on  this 
continent.  There  is  good  evidence  for  believing  that 
many  of  the  cases  of  cancer  and  hopeless  disease  of 
the  heart,  together  with  much  of  the  scrofula  and  con- 
sumption which  the  physician  meets  at  every  turn  in 
his  daily  rounds  of  practice,  owes  its  existence  to  this 
foul  source  if  not  in  the  sufferer,  in  a  parent  or  grand- 
parent. The  most  contagious  form  of  venereal  dis- 
ease, syphilis,  has  become  so  common,  as  shown  by 
Dr.  Gihon  in  a  paper  read  by  him  at  a  late  meeting  of 
the  American  Public  Health  Association,  that  it  is 
almost  dangerous  to  travel  abroad,  so  great  is  the 
peril  of  contracting  the  disease.  The  closet  of  the 
popular  hotel  or  the  palace  car,  the  possibly  unchanged 
linen  of  the  sleeping  car  or  hotel,  even  the  food  pre- 
pared by  diseased  cooks  and  served  by  diseased  wait- 
ers in  hotels  and  restaurants,  all  afford  possible  oppor- 
tunities for  contracting  a  malady  which  may  blight 
several  generations  of  human  lives. 

The  influences  which  lead  women  to  enter  a  life  of 


shame  are  varied  and  numerous.  We  shall  not  at- 
tempt to  consider  them  all  nor  even  to  mention  them ; 
but  wish  to  call  attention  to  a  few  of  the  influences  of 
this  sort  which  we  think  are  not  understood  as  they 
should  be,  or  are  at  least  greatly  underestimated.  And 
first  we  wish  to  note  the  feet  that  the  whole  tendency 
of  modern  fashionable  life  is  in  the  highest  degree 
calculated  to  stimulate  the  development  of  the  emo- 
tional nature,  which  leads  directly  to  the  exaggeration 
of  the  propensities,  and  none  more  than  those  con- 
nected with  reproduction.  The  cultivation  of  the 
"  esthetic "  at  the  expense  of  the  practical,  and  the 
devotion  to  the  thousand  and  one  nothings  which 
make  up  the  sum  total  of  a  fashionable  woman's  life, 
are  by  no  means  conducive  to  the  growth  of  purity 
and  the  repression  of  the  animal  instincts.  With  an 
untrained  mind,  that  is,  one  which  has  not  cultivated 
self-control  and  the  habit  of  making  a  careful  analysis 
of  the  feelings,  one  emotion  is  often  converted  into  an- 
other seemingly  wholly  unlike  and  incombatible  with 
the  first.  The  cultivation  of  the  emotional  nature  at 
the  expense  of  the  reasoning  faculties  is  on  this  ac- 
count a  most  serious  error.  Theater-going,  novel- 
reading,  dancing,  attendance  at  fashionable  parties, 
flirtation,  and  a  variety  of  other  practices  exceedingly 
common  in  the  life  of  the  average  young  lady,  are  the 
means  by  which  the  moral  sense  becomes  depraved 
and  the  character  so  unbalanced  as  to  break  down  the 
barriers  to  unchastity,  and  open  the  way  for  the  en- 
croachments of  the  tempter. 

The  courting  customs  of  American  young  people 

we  regard  as  directly  opposed  to  the  interests  of  fe- 



male  virtue-  The  conditions  are  often  such  as  not 
only  to  allow  of  temptation  to  depart  from  the  path 
of  virtue,  but  to  directly  stimulate  the  passions  in  the 
highest  degree  and  thus  destroy  the  power  to  resist 
temptation  should  it  come.  * 

The  looseness  in  the  associations  of  the  sexes  we 
regard  one  of  the  most  prolific  of  all  the  predisposing 
as  well  as  exciting  causes  of  vice,  and  this  is  partic- 
ularly true  of  the  unreserved  maimer  in  which  young 
people  of  the  opposite  sex  associate  during  oourtship. 
Often  have  we  seen  a  young  woman  whose  course  had 
previously  been  in  every  respect  unexceptional,  rap- 
idly deteriorate  under  the  influence  of  a  courtship 
conducted  in  the  manner  referred  to.  We  will  not 
dwell  farther  upon  this  point  in  this  comtection,  how- 
ever, as  we  shall  take  occasion  to  refer  to  it  at  length 
elsewhere  in  this  work. 

Womanly  modesty  is  a  quality  which  is  becoming 
quite  too  rare.  The  manners  of  the  times  are  such 
as  to  abolish  the  reserve  and  modesty  so  characteristic 
of  maidenhood  in  olden  times.  A  bashful  girl  is  much 
more  difficult  to  find  now-a-days  than  was  the  case  a 
quarter  of  a  century  ago.  Children,  girls  especially, 
are  too  early  accustomed  to  publicity,  and  are  led  to 
believe  that  bashfulness  is  a  sin  next  to  falsehood  or 
theft.  A  certain  forwardness  of  manner  is  becoming  ex- 
ceedingly prevalent  among  young  girls.  By  many,  this 
trait  is  considered  an  evidence  of  smartness,  and  is 
encouraged ;  to  our  mind,  it  is  a  most  alarming  indi- 
cation of  threatened,  if  not  actual,  deterioration  in 
woman  of  those  qualities  upon  the  preservation  of 
which  depends  the  maintenance  of  virtue  and  purity. 


This  matter  is  one  which  should  receive  the  ear- 
nest attention  of  mothers,  teachers,  and  all  who  have 
to  do  with  the  education  of  girls.  The  old-fashioned 
modesty  and  innocent  simplicity  of  manner  must  be 
presented  as  the  pattern  to  be  followed  instead  of  the 
bold  and  flippant  style  of  bearing  so  exceedingly  com* . 
mon  among  the  girls  of  the  present  day.  A  retiring 
tfind  reserved  manner  is  one  of  the  very  best  safe- 
guards to  virtue,  and  woman  cannot  afford  to  dispense 
with  so  important  an  aid  to  purity  in  the  nineteenth 
century  better  than  in  generations  past  tfnd  gone. 

Mothers  should  check  in  their  daughters  the  very 
first  manifestations  of  a  tendency  to  boldness  of  man- 
ner, and  should  carefully  shield  them  from  the  influ- 
ence of  those  who  exhibit  this  unfortunate  trait. 

-The  dangerous  idea  is  becoming  prevalent  that 
young  women  as  well  as  young  men  may  "  sow  their 
wild  oats  "  without  committing  any  very  great  crime, 
providing  their  sin  is  not  found  out.  Thousands  of 
those  who  with  this  idea  in  their  minds  yield  to  the 
promptings  of  passion,  would  not  for  a  moment  enter- 
tain a  thought  of  entering  upon  a  life  of  vice.  They 
have  too  much  respect  for  themselves  and  for  their 
friends  to  allow  them  to  choose  such  a  course.  They 
have  read  so  much  of  the  departures  from  virtue,  in 
the  public  prints  and  the  fashionable  literature  of  the 
day  in  which  the  transgression  is  often  pictured  in 
such  colors  as  to  arouse  and  stimulate  a  prurient  cu- 
riosity to  the  highest  degree,  that,  with  favoring  cir- 
cumstances, they  are  unprepared  to  resist  a  strong 
temptation  to  yield  "just  once"  to  the  promptings  of 
the  lower  nature,  thoroughly  expecting  to  return  im- 


mediately  to  the  path  of  virtue  and  to  make  no  fur- 
ther digressions.  But  the  barrier  once  broken  downr 
cannot  be  so  easily  erected  again.  When  a  woman 
has  once  allowed  the  bulwark  of  modesty  to  be  in- 
vaded, she  has  no  longer  any  defense. 

Purity  once  gone,  is  gone  forever.  A  mind  once 
sullied  with  vice  is  marred  forever.  Even  in  eternity 
will  remain  some  reminder  of  the  sin,  though  thorough 
and  bitter  repentance  may  have  saved  the  victim  of 
impurity  from  eternal  ruin. 

Men  have  been  charged  with  being  principally  re- 
sponsible for  the  fall  of  young  women  from  the  path 
of  virtue.  There  is  no  doubt  that  thousands  of  young 
women  are  enticed  into  sin  by  the  promise  of  mar- 
riage, and  on  finding  themselves  deserted  by  the 
heartless  wretches  who  have  accomplished  their  ruin, 
disowned  by  their  friends,  and  outcasts  from  society, 
in  despair  enter  upon  a  life  of  shame  as  a  means  of 
gaining  a  livelihood ;  but  we  believe  that  this  is  by 
no  means  the  most  common  way  in  which  the  ranks 
of  the  denizens  of  the  demi-monde  are  recruited.  The 
assertion  is  made  by  those  who  have  made  a  careful 
investigation  of  the  personal  history  of  a  large  num- 
ber of  these  unfortunate  creatures  that  a  very  small 
proportion  of  them  are  led  astray  by  men  under  prom- 
ise of  marriage.  There  is  no  doubt  that  men  are  in- 
strumental in  leading  them  to  ruin  in  a  vast  number 
of  cases ;  but  the  evidence  is  very  strong  that  these 
unfortunate  creatures  are  in  the  majority  of  cases  led 
astray  by  their  own  depraved  and  uncontrolled  im- 
pulses. A  young  woman  whose  mind  is  pure  and 
free  from  unhallowed  desires  is  perfectly  safe  from 


temptation  in  this  direction.  Such  a  person  would 
detect  and  instantly  repel  the  very  first  advances  of 
an  impure  character.  The  young  women  who  fall 
easy  prey  to  the  snares  of  rakes  and  libertines  are 
those  whose  minds  have  been  filled  with  sinful 
thoughts,  and  who  have  not  subdued  the  first  begin- 
nings of  impulses  which,  meeting  no  restraint,  have 
grown  to  be  almost  uncontrollable. 

Vile  men  offer  the  opportunity  for  sin,  but  the 
real  cause  of  transgression  on  the  part  of  a  young 
woman  who  falls  from  virtue  is  the  previous  prepara- 
tion of  her  own  mind  for  such  a  step  through  the 
demoralizing  influence  of  impure  thoughts.  The 
conversion  of  evil  thoughts  into  evil  acts  is  only  a 
question  of  time  and  opportunity.  A  mind  accus- 
tomed to  think  of  sin  comes  to  look  upon  it  as  desir- 
able, and  loses  all  appreciation  of  its  hideousness  and 
its  consequences.  The  change  from  innocence  to 
guilt,  from  purity  to  vice,  is  not  a  sudden  transition. 
The  work  of  ruin  is  not  accomplished  by  one  fatal 
plunge,  but  by  little  departures,  small  harborings  of 
sinful  thoughts,  until  the  mind  becomes  defenseless 
against  the  encroachments  of  sin. 

Purity  of  life  depends  upon  purity  of  mind ;  and 
the  only  way  to  secure  the  first  is  by  the  cultiva- 
tion of  the  second.  A  mind  left  to  revel  in  voluptu- 
ousness will  sooner  or  later  lead  the  possessor  to 
overt  acts  of  sin  unless  the  restraint  of  circumstances 
is  more  than  ordinarily  strong ;  and  even  if  this  is  not 
the  case,  the  baleful  influence  of  the  mental  vice  will 
be  indelibly  stamped  upon  the  physical  as  well  aa 
the  mental  character  of  the  individual,  giving  rise  to 
positive  and  even  incurable  disease. 


While  it  is  true  that  the  seducer  is  usually  a  maley 
this  is  by  no  means  always  the  case.  Not  very  long 
ago  a  young  man  came  under  our  care  for  treatment 
for  epilepsy  of  a  very  peculiar  type  which  was  evi- 
dently the  result  of  sexual  abuse.  The  patient  as- 
serted that  he  had  never  practiced  the  habit  of  mas- 
turbation, but  admitted  that  he  had  been  guilty  of 
other  sexual  excesses,  and  when  closely  questioned 
confessed  to  a  degree  of  abandonment  to  his  passions 
which  was  scarcely  credible.  His  confessions  were 
made  with  the  tears  streaming  down  his  face ;  and  his 
evident  sincerity  left  no  room  to  doubt  his  statement 
that  he  was  led  into  sin  by  a  neighbors  hired  girl  who 
was  several  years  his  senior,  when  he  was  but  four- 
teen years  of  age. 

Such  cases  as  the  above  are  undoubtedly  excep- 
tional; but  they  do  not  unfairly  represent  the  part 
which  is  often  acted  by  girls  and  young  women  in  in- 
viting their  own  ruin  and  accomplishing  that  of  young 
men  who  might  otherwise  have  remained  pure.  We 
refer  to  the  loose  conduct  and  "  gushing  "  manners  to 
which  many  girls  are  addicted.  The  want  of  proper 
restraint  and  reserve  in  their  intercourse  with  boys 
and  young  men,  and  the  liberties  and  familiarities 
which  they  not  only  allow  but  invite,  and  which  are 
tolerated  by  the  customs  of  society,  are  in  the  highest 
degree  calculated  to  stimulate  the  passions  of  young 
men  and  to  lead  them  to  lose  respect  for  the  sanctity 
and  purity  of  maidenhood,  and  to  believe  that  young 
ladies  whose  manner  is  such  as  referred  to  will  be 
only  too  willing  to  accede  to  them  any  favor  they 
may  ask.     While  we   are   willing   that  young   men 

THE    YOUNG  LADY.  331 

should  be  charged  with  a  large  share  of  the  lapses 
from  virtue  on  the  part  of  girls  and  young  women,  we 
feel  confident  that  no  young  woman  who  conducts 
herself  with  proper  reserve  and  modesty  toward  the 
opposite  sex  is  in  the  slightest  danger  of  injury  from 
this  source.  The  only  way  to  reform  young  men  is 
to  raise  the  standard  of  conduct  among  young  women. 

After  all,  the  only  safeguard  for  virtue  is  religion. 
The  young  women  as  well  as  the  young  men  of  the 
land  cannot  afford  to  get  along  without  the  religion  of 
Christ,  which  offers  help  to  the  weak  and  tempted, 
and  provides  a  way  of  escape  from  every  snare  and 
temptation ;  and  most  of  all  enables  an  individual  to 
obtain  a  victory  over  himself  or  herself,  and  by  its 
calming  and  purifying  influence  subdues  the  passions 
and  cleanses  the  mind  from  impurity  and  sensuality. 
The  best  prescription  we  can  make  for  a  person  whose 
tendencies  are  naturally  in  a  downward  direction  is  to 
get "  pure  and  undefiled  religion."  Nothing  else  is  so 
good  an  antidote  for  sensuality.  When  beset  with 
impure  images  and  unhallowed  desires,  fly  to  some 
secluded  spot,  and  on  bended  knees  send  up  to  Heaven 
a  petition  for  help  from  the  Mighty  One  who  is  "  able 
to  save  to  the  uttermost  those  who  come  unto  him." 

One  more  suggestion  we  would  make.  Physical 
exercise  of  a  vigorous  character  exerts  a  most  salu- 
tary influence  upon  the  mind  which  is  beset  with  pru- 
rient thoughts.  Really  vigorous  muscular  work  has  a 
remarkably  refrigerating  influence  upon  the  passions, 
and  ought  to  be  systematically  engaged  in  by  those 
who  find  themselves  obliged  to  wage  a  constant  war- 
fare with  impure  thoughts.     Exercise  should  be  taken 



to  the  extent  of  real  fatigue,  and  will  be  found  bene- 
ficial in  many  other  ways  than  that  for  which  it  is 
suggested.  If  young  ladies  were  brought  up  to  work 
as  their  grandmothers  were,  there  would  be  far  less 
need  for  books  of  this  character,  and  the  army  of  out- 
casts from  society  which  now  infests  every  city  in  the 
land  and  is  pouring  out  into  the  life  blood  of  the  race 
a  horrible  stream  of  death,  deformity,  and  disease, 
would  receive  a  much  smaller  number  of  recruits. 

The  Wife. 

lARRIAGE  is  an  institution  of  divine  ordi- 
nation, having  its  origin  in  Eden,  the  birth- 
place of  the  race.  The  duties  and  respon- 
sibilities of  a  wife  are  in  no  way  second  to 
those  of  her  husband.  Her  sphere  of  use- 
fulness is  necessarily  different  from  his,  but 
it  is  in  no  way  secondary  in  importance. 
The  true  wife  may  exert  an  influence  upon 
her  husband  and  through  him  upon  society 
which  may  determine  the  destiny  of  na- 
tions. Many  a  man  who  has  risen  to  greatness  has 
been  proud  to  acknowledge  that  the  real  credit  of  his 
grandest  achievements  was  as  much  or  more  due  to 
his  wife  than  to  himself.  The  Wise  Man  has  well 
said,  "  Who  can  find  a  virtuous  woman  ?  for  her  price 
is  far  above  rubies.  The  heart  of  her  husband  doth 
safely  trust  in  her.  She  will  do  him  good  and  not 
evil  all  the  days  of  her  life." 

The  responsibilities  and  dignity  of  wifehood  is  in 
recent  times  altogether  too  little  respected.  Too  often 
a  wife  is  regarded  simply  as  an  ornament  for  the  par- 
lor or  a  manager  of  the  housekeeping.  Even  women 
themselves  are  prone  to  take  this  narrow  view  of  their 
sphere  of  usefulness.     A  woman  who  really  appreci- 



ates  the  importance  of  her  position  as  a  wife,  the  op- 
portunity for  powerful  influence  which  she  enjoys, 
and  the  grave  responsibilities  which  devolve  upon 
her,  will  not  complain  that  her  sphere  of  usefulness 
is  not  as  broad  and  her  mission  as  high  and  sacred  as 
she  can  desire.  Among  the  women  of  the  day  who 
are  calling  for  a  higher  and  broader  usefulness  for 
woman,  are  two  distinct  classes :  one  is  earnestly 
seeking  to  lead  women  to  see  and  comprehend  the 
true  import  of  their  mission  as  wives  and  mothers, 
and  to  appreciate  the  fact  of  the  momentous  responsi- 
bilities which  grow  out  of  their  ability  to  shape  the 
destinies  of  the  race ;  another  class,  ignoring  this  nat- 
ural and  important  field  of  work  for  woman,  is  clam- 
oring for  a  place  for  her  outside  the  order  of  nature. 
We  have  no  objection  to  granting  to  woman  the  same 
freedom  of  action  wThich  is  enjoyed  by  man.  We  are 
decidedly  in  favor  of  doing  so ;  but  at  the  same  time 
we  most  profoundly  hope  that  any  effort  which  has 
for  its  object  the  diversion  of  woman  from  her  proper 
and  natural  sphere  will  not  be  attended  with  success. 

But  we  have  to  deal  chiefly  with  the  physical  re- 
lations of  wifehood,  and  our  limited  space  forbids  ttu.t 
we  should  enter  largely  into  the  discussion  of  topics 
which  do  not  bear  upon  this  in  the  most  direct  man- 
ner.    Lot  us  then  inquire  respecting 

The  Import  of  Marriage. — Many  a  young  woman 
enters  upon  the  marriage  relation  without  the  faintest 
idea  of  the  character  of  the  new  duties,  dangers,  and 
responsibilities  which  she  has  assumed.  The  revela- 
tion made  to  her  is  often  a  very  different  picture  from 
that  which  her  fancy  has  sketched ;  and  the  contrast 

THE  WIFE.  336 

between  the  real  and  the  ideal  is  often  so  great  that 
it  is  not  to  be  wondered  at  that  so  many  soon  become 
discontented  with  their  lot.  We  consider  it  of  the 
greatest  importance  that  young  women  should  be 
thoroughly  informed  of  the  nature  of  the  relations 
which  they  are  to  assume  in  marriage  before  entering 
upon  its  obligations.  Mothers  are  almost  universally 
remiss  in  their  duty  to  their  daughters  in  this  regard. 
Many  mothers  seem  to  regard  it  a  sort  of  virtue  in 
their  daughters  that  they  are  wholly  ignorant  of  the 
import  of  marriage  and  its  duties,  and  purposely  keep 
them  in  ignorance,  repressing  in  them  any  desire  to 
acquire  knowledge  on  the  subject.  Such  a  course  we 
regard  as  criminally  foolish,  and  the  result  of  a  per- 
verted education  on  the  part  of  the  mothers  of  the 
present  generation.  Not  until  women  come  to  look 
upon  marriage  as  a  sacred  and  divine  institution,  and 
themselves  illuminate  and  glorify  it  by  developing 
through  its  means  a  nobler  and  higher  type  of  man- 
hood and  womanhood,  and  not  until  mothers  come  to 
accept  and  fully  comprehend  the  fact  that  all  physio- 
logical knowledge  is  in  itself  pure  and  chaste,  can  we 
hope  to  see  any  great  reform  in  the  direction  indi- 
cated ;  and  so  we  have  written  this  chapter  for  the 
purpose  of  contributing  in  a  small  degree  to  the  at- 
tainment of  this  end. 

As  previously  stated,  the  prime  object  of  marriage 
as  an  institution,  considered  from  a  physiological 
stand-point,  is  procreation,  or  the  perpetuation  of  the 
species.  The  full  significance  of  this  physiological 
fact  has  been  sufficiently  hinted  in  the  introductory 
portion  of  this  work.     On  this  subject  every  woman 


should  have  full  and  reliable  information  before  en- 
tering the  marriage  relation.  Mothers  should  not 
think  that  because  they  were  ignorant,  their  daughters 
should  be  equally  so.  Thousands  of  women  might 
have  saved  themselves  from  life-long  suffering  had 
th^y  received  the  proper  instruction  at  the  right  time. 
The  old  adage,  "  Where  ignorance  is  bliss,  'tis  folly 
to  be  wise,"  does  not  apply  to  this  kind  of  knowledge, 
imparted  at  the  proper  time ;  the  lack  of  such  knowl- 
edge is  one  of  the  most  prolific  sources  of  danger  to 
which  a  woman  can  be  exposed. 

The  Hygiene  of  Marriage. — At  no  period  of  a 
woman's  life  is  the  observance  of  the  requirements 
of  laws  relating  to  health  of  greater  importance  than 
at  the  beginning  of  married  life.  At  this  time  a  new 
set  of  functions  is  brought  inio  activity  which  sustain 
a  most  important  relation  to  other  of  the  bodily  func- 
tions. These  functions  involve  the  most  profound 
agitation  of  the  system  and  the  most  lavish  expendi- 
ture of  nervous  energy  of  which  the  body  is  capable. 
It  is  evident,  then,  that  all  should  not  be  left  to  in- 
stinct, but  that  reason  should  be  made  the  umpire, 
and  its  verdicts  be  regarded  final.  The  set  of  organs 
which  after  marriage  are  for  the  first  time  brought 
into  legitimate  activity,  are  highly  sensitive,  and  be- 
ing subjected  to  excitements  of  an  unusual  character 
are  exceedingly  liable  to  take  on  inflammation.  We 
have  met  scores  of  cases  in  which  the  most  distress- 
ing and  obstinate  maladies  had  originated  with  the 
excesses  of  the  first  few  weeks  of  married  life.  Self- 
control  at  this  time  on  the  part  of  both  husband  and 
wife  is  of  the  utmost  consequence.     Many  times  have 

THE   WIFE.  337 

we  been  told  by  women  who  had  suffered  more  than 
words  could  describe  for  many  years,  "  I  have  never 
been  a  well-  woman  since  the  night  of  my  marriage." 
This  sort  of  an  introduction  to  a  divine  and  sacred  in- 
stitution is  not  in  accordance  with  the  dictates  of 
reason  or  morality.  At  this  time  of  all  others,  the 
stormy  passions  should  be  kept  at  bay.  If  her  hus- 
band is  disposed  to  disregard  the  dictates  of  reason 
and  common  sense,  either  through  ignorance  or  the 
promptings  of  passion,  the  wife  should  not  hesitate  to 
make  known  to  him  her  wishes,  and  the  man  is  too 
much  of  a  brute  to  be  worthy  of  the  love  and  respect 
of  a  virtuous  woman  who  will  not  regard  the  desires 
of  the  woman  whom  he  has  promised  to  love  and  pro- 
tect. The  most  heroic  battle  which  many  a  man  can 
fight  is  to  protect  his  wife  from  his  own  lustful  pas- 
sions. Every  young  wife  should  know  that  it  is  her 
duty  as  well  as  her  privilege  to  protect  herself  from 
the  possible  causes  of  life-long  suffrring.  It  is  no 
woman's  duty  to  surrender  herself  soul  and  body  to 
her  husband  simply  because  he  has  promised  to  "  love 
and  protect  her." 

The  beginning  as  well  as  the  full  fruition  of  phys- 
iological marriage  is  accompanied  by  a  more  or  less 
considerable  amount  of  suffering  on  the  part  of  the 
wife.  This  is  in  part  due  to  the  highly  sensitive 
character  of  the  mucous  surfaces,  and  in  part  to  the 
presence  of  the  hymen.  The  rupture  of  the  latter 
membrane  is  often  accompanied  by  a  slight  hemor- 
rhage which  was  in  ancient  times  considered  as  a 
proof  of  virginity,  though  it  is  now  very  well  known 
to  be  unreliable  as  a  test  of  previous  chastity,  since  it 


is  frequently  absent  naturally,  or  may  be  obliterated 
or  ruptured  by  other  means,  or  may  be  so  imperfectly 
developed  or  so  dense  in  its  structure  that  no  rupture 
occurs.  It  should  be  borne  in  mind,  however,  that  it 
is  not  only  possible  for  such  a  rupture  to  take  place, 
but  that  undue  violence  may  give  rise  to  a  dangerous 
and  even  fatal  hemorrhage,  or  to  an  equally  danger- 
ous inflammation.  A  few  years  ago  we  had  under 
treatment  a  case  in  which  an  inflammation  was  thus 
produced  which  required  months  of  treatment  to  sub- 
due. The  use  of  warm  sitz  baths  or  sponging  with 
quite  warm  water  and  the  local  application  of  un- 
guents of  various  sorts  will  serve  in  a  great  measure 
to  prevent  as  well  as  relieve  suffering  from  this  cause ; 
but  moderation  and  self-restraint  are  the  most  service- 
able of  all  precautions.  If  any  considerable  degree 
of  irritation  is  set  up,  especially  if  attended  by  severe 
pain  in  the  pelvis,  across  the  lower  part  of  the  back 
and  bowels,  or  by  fever,  entire  rest  should  be  insisted 
upon  for  several  days.  Fomentations  should  be  ap- 
plied across  the  bowels,  and  vaginal  injections  of  hot 
water  should  be  administered  every  three  or  four 
hours.  The  bowels,  if  constipated,  should  be  relieved 
by  a  warm  enema.  These  are  the  very  best  means  of 
preventing  serious  inflammation  and  of  treating  an  in- 
flammation which  has  already  begun.  The  only  ap- 
paratus required  is  a  common  wash  tub  or  a  tin  sitz- 
bath  tub,  and  a  good  syringe.  For  the  latter  we 
recommend  the  syphon  syringe,  which  excels  all 
others  in  simplicity,  efficiency,  and  durability.  It  is 
also  automatic  in  action,  requiring  no  attention  while 
in  use.     Valve  or  piston  syringes  are  unreliable.     By 

THE   WIFE.  339 

the  adoption  of  these  simple  measures  of  treatment 
at  the  very  outset,  even  at  the  cost  of  considerable 
inconvenience,  a  chronic  leucorrhoea,  uterine  inflam- 
mation or  congestion,  or  a  possibly  fatal  pelvic  cellulitis 
may  in  nineteen  cases  out  of  twenty  be  prevented. 

In  rare  cases,  an  imperforate  or  thickened  hymen 
presents  an  obstacle  to  the  consummation  of  marriage 
which  should  receive  attention  from  a  competent  sur- 
geon at  an  early  date,  before  inflammation  has  been 

Wedding  Journeys. — The  fashionable  custom  of 
taking  a  journey  immediately  after  marriage  is  not 
altogether  to  be  commended.  The  young  wife  needs 
at  this  time  rest  and  care  such  as  cannot  often  be 
commanded  among  strangers,  at  least  when  being 
rapidly  hurried  from  place  to  place,  stopping  at  hotels, 
or  at  fashionable  watering-places,  or  popular  pleasure 
resorts.  The  exposures  and  excesses  of  a  wedding 
journey  have  cost  more  than  one  young  bride  her  life, 
and  in  hundreds  of  cases  have  laid  the  foundation  of 
disease  which  has  for  years  baffled  the  skill  of  the 
most  experienced  and  sagacious  physicians.  We  feel 
that  too  much  cannot  be  said  in  condemnation  of  this 
absurd  fashion,  and  do  not  miss  an  opportunity  to  coi>- 
demn  it. 

Excesses. — We  regard  it  of  the  utmost  impor- 
tance that  plain  words  should  be  spoken  on  the  impor- 
tant subject  of  marital  excesses.  The  popular  suppo- 
sition seems  to  be  that  any  amount  of  indulgence  of 
the  passions  is  made  permissible  by  the  marriage  cer- 
emony. No  view  could  be  more  erroneous.  Consid- 
ered from  a  physiological  stand-point,  and  we  think 


from  a  moral  stand-point  as  well,  there  is  as  great  an 
amount  of  violation  of  sexual  law  within  the  marriage 
pale  as  without.  Unbridled  lust  is  sin  under  all  cir- 
cumstances; and  however  man  may  wink  at  these 
transgressions  of  law,  Nature  does  not  omit  to  enter 
a  protest  against  them  and  to  visit  upon  the  trans- 
gressors a  sure  retribution.  The  results  of  marital 
excesses  are  to  be  seen  everywhere  in  the  rapid  de- 
cline in  health  of  newly  married  women,  and  the 
crowds  of  ladies  of  all  ages  from  the  young  wife  whose 
honey-moon  is  scarcely  ended  to  the  grey  haired  wo- 
man who  has  passed  her  climacteric,  who  frequent  the 
offices  of  the  popular  gynecologists  in  our  large  cities, 
are  to  a  large  extent  the  victims  of  sexual  transgres- 
sion. Unfortunately,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  the  fault 
lies  elsewhere  than  at  the  door  of  the  victim.  We 
have  spoken  plainly  on  this  point  elsewhere.  Women 
have  long  been  taught  that  it  is  their  duty  to  submit 
uncomplainingly  to  the  will  of  their  husbands,  espe- 
cially in  matters  of  this  sort,  and  in  obedience  to  this 
teaching,  and  in  ignorance  of  the  consequences,  or  of 
their  duty  to  themselves,  they  have  allowed  them- 
selves to  be  made  the  victims  of  lust,  by  which  they 
have  had  entailed  upon  them  sufferings  grievous  to  be 
borne.  No  man  has  a  right  to  prostitute  his  wife  to 
the  mere  gratification  of  a  selfish  propensity.  With 
the  wife  rests  the  gravest  responsibilities  of  the  repro- 
ductive act,  and  with  her  should  rest  the  responsibil- 
ity of  saying  when  she  will  incur  the  risk  of  her  life 
in  giving  birth  to  a  new  being. 

Many  a  woman  is  by  her  marriage  vow  introduced 
to  a  slavery  far  more  galling  and  vastly  more  aebas- 

THE  WIFE.  341 

ing  than  that  which  cost  this  nation  years  of  civil  war 
and  hundreds  of  thousands  of  lives  to  abolish.  The 
great  majority  of  sufferers  keep  their  troubles  wholly 
secret,  knowing  that  they  have  little  sympathy  to  ex- 
pect from  those  who  believe  this  to  be  the  proper  lot 
of  woman, — a  burden  imposed  upon  her  by  the  curse  ; 
but  now  and  then  a  woman's  sufferings  become  too 
great  to  be  longer  borne  in  silence,  and  the  facts  come 
to  the  surface.  It  is  high  time  that  there  was  a 
change  of  public  sentiment  in  reference  to  this  matter. 
Of  all  the  rights  to  which  a  woman  is  entitled,  that  of 
the  custody  of  her  own  body  is  the  most  indubitable. 

We  know  that  there  are  circumstances  which  com- 
plicate this  question  to  such  a  degree  as  to  make  it 
difficult  for  a  wife  to  decide  what  her  duty  is  in  any 
given  case.  We  cannot  lay  down  any  rule  to  be  fol- 
lowed without  exceptions ;  but  we  do  not  hesitate  to 
express  what  we  believe  to  be  the  broad  grounds  on 
which  the  principles  of  human  individuality  and  re- 
sponsibility rest,  leaving  for  each  woman  to  decide  for 
herself  what  her  duty  may  be  in  any  particular  case. 

A  Suggestion  from  Nature. — The  question  as 
to  what  must  be  considered  excess,  is  not  so  easily 
answered  as  asked.  There  are  numerous  questions 
involved  in  the  consideration  of  the  subject  which  we 
have  not  space  even  to  notice  in  this  connection.  We 
shall  simply  call  attention  to  a  few  facts  which  point 
with  unmistakable  clearness  to  the  design  of  nature. 

In  many  species  of  lower  animals  the  reproductive 
act  is  performed  only  at  certain  periods  for  which  a 
physiological  preparation  has  taken  place  by  the  de- 
velopment simultaneously  of  the  reproductive  organs 


in  both  sexes.  This  development  occurs  at  certain 
periods  only,  the  organs  being  during  the  interval  in 
a  state  of  inactivity.  This  is  particularly  noticeable 
in  fishes,  reptiles,  and  in  certain  species  of  birds.  It 
is  not,  however,  confined  to  these  animals,  as  the 
same  periodicity  in  the  development  to  activity  of  the 
reproductive  functions  is  observed  in  many  species  of 
mammals,  especially  those  which  produce  young  but 
once  a  year,  as  the  deer,  the  wolf,  and  the  fox.  In  the 
case  of  other  animals  which  produce  several  broods  a 
year,  the  sexual  organs  of  the  male  are  most  of  the 
time  in  the  condition  of  development  required  for  their 
physiological  activity. 

It  seems  to  be  the  universal  law  of  nature  that 
the  condition  and  desires  of  the  female  shall  determine 
the  time  for  activity  of  the  reproductive  functions. 
The  females  of  most  animals  resolutely  resist  the  ad- 
vances of  the  males  except  at  such  times  as  the  re- 
productive act  may  be  properly  and  fruitfully  per- 
formed. May  we  not  pertinently  inquire  whether  it 
is  not  probable  that  the  much  greater  degree  of 
erethism  of  the  sexual  organs  observed  in  man  than 
in  lower  animals — with  few  exceptions — is  not  the 
direct  result  of  a  wrong  course  of  life  continued 
through  a  long  series  of  years,  particularly  the  stim- 
ulating articles  of  food  which  have  been  for  years 
becoming  more  and  more  generally  used  ?  We  do  not 
doubt  that  the  free  use  of  animal  food  has  had  a  very 
marked  influence  in  this  direction.  The  direct  effect 
of  animal  food,  when  largely  used,  is  to  increase  the 
excitability  of  the  nervous  system,  and  to  induce  a 
condition  of  the  nervous  system  in  the  highest  degree 

THE   WIFE.  343 

calculated  to  produce  just  such  a  result.  This  fact  is 
very  generally  recognized  by  physiologists  who  have 
for  many  years  claimed  that  the  liberal  use  of  animal 
food  is  necessary  for  human  beings  in  order  to  secure 
the  perpetuation  of  the  species.  If  this  suggestion  is 
worthy  of  greater  weight  than  a  mere  suggestion,  it 
is  important  that  it  should  be  made  of  practical  value 
as  a  means  of  enabling  those  who  recognize  the  evils 
of  unrestrained  indulgence  of  the  passions  to  attain 
the  self-control  necessary  to  enable  them  to  obey  the 
dictates  of  their  own  conscience  and  the  plain  teach- 
ings of  nature. 

Suggestions  to  Wives  who  Desire  Children. — 
We  have  often  been  consulted  by  women  who  greatly 
desired  children,  but  had  remained  childless  during 
several  years  of  married  life.  We  have  often  been 
able  to  make  to  such  would-be  mothers  suggestions 
which  have  been  of  value  to  them.  We  do  not  intend 
to  consider  here  the  subject  of  sterility,  as  this  condi- 
tion will  be  considered  quite  fully  elsewhere  in  this 
work ;  we  wish  simply  to  call  attention  to  the  fact 
that  certain  conditions  are  more  favorable  to  concep- 
tion than  others,  and  to  point  out  a  few  of  the  most 
important  for  the  benefit  of  those  who  may  earnestly 
desire  children. 

It  is  well  known  to  physiologists  that  fecundation 
and  development  are  much  more  likely  to  follow  sexual 
union  occurring  either  just  before  or  just  after  the 
menstrual  period.  During  the  menstrual  period  the 
ovum  is  matured,  but  it  is  not  discharged  from  the 
generative  passages  of  the  female  until  after  the  pe- 
riod of  menstruation  is  passed.     The  ovum  is  usually 


retained  for  several  days,  and  during  this  time  fecun- 
dation may  occur.  As  it  is  very  probable  that  fecun- 
dation takes  place  in  the  fallopian  tubes,  it  is  possible 
that  seminal  fluid  received  in  the  passages  of  the  fe- 
male several  days  before  the  menstrual  period,  may  be 
retained  until  the  ovum  is  discharged  from  the  ovary 
and  comes  in  contact  with  it,  thus  securing  its  fecunda- 
tion. It  is  a  well-known  fact  that  the  spermatozoa 
of  the  seminal  fluid  will  retain  their  vitality  for  several 
days  in  the  fluids  of  the  female  generative  passages. 
It  may  be  laid  down  as  a  rule  then  that  conception  is 
much  more  likely  to  occur  as  the  result  of  a  union 
during  the  week  preceding  or  the  week  following 
menstruation.  An  acute  observer  who  has  made  a 
careful  investigation  of  the  subject  asserts  that  in  all 
but  six  or  seven  per  cent  of  all  pregnancies,  conception 
occurs  within  this  period.  This  same  fact  is  also  ob- 
served in  lower  animals  in  a  marked  degree. 

Another  circumstance  which  favors  conception  is 
rest  after  sexual  congress.  Women  who  do  not  con- 
ceive readily,  frequently  find  themselves  able  to  be- 
come pregnant  by  observing  this  rule ;  and  the  custom 
practiced  by  some  women  of  dancing,  lifting,  riding 
horseback,  or  engaging  in  vigorous  exercise  of  some 
other  sort  for  the  purpose  of  preventing  conception  is 
verj:  well  known.  In  some  temperaments  uterine 
contractions  are  very  easily  excited  by  physical  ef- 
fort of  any  kind,  and  hence  absolute  repose  for  a  few 
hours  after  is  necessary  to  secure  a  fruitful  union. 

The  popular  faith  in  various  substances  supposed 
to  favor  conception  and  in  various  trivial  circumstances 
relating  to  the  nature  and  position  of  the  bed,  etc., 

THE   WIFE.  345 

have  no  scientific  basis.     The  too  frequent  repetition 
of  the  sexual  act  is  a  common  cause  of  sterility. 

We  have  not  the  space  here  to  discuss  the  various 
causes  of  sterility,  but  would  suggest  that  in  case  the 
simple  suggestions  made  are  not  productive  of  the  de- 
sired result,  the  barren  woman  should  consult  some 
competent  physician  for  a  careful  examination.  There 
are  a  great  variety  of  causes  which  may  prevent  con- 
ception which  may  be  remedied  either  by  proper 
medical  treatment  or  by  a  surgical  operation.  Those 
of  these  which  may  be  removed  by  treatment  at 
home  or  without  the  aid  of  a  physician  will  be  fully 
discussed  in  the  section  devoted  to  the  diseases  of 

The  Limitation  of  Offspring. — This  is  not  the 
proper  place  for  the  discussion  of  the  propriety  of  the 
limitation  of  offspring  and  the  various  problems  which 
the  question  involves.  Malthus  and  other  writers 
have  dwelt  upon  this  theme  exclusively  and  have  pro- 
posed various  theories  and  plans  by  which  to  accom- 
plish the  desired  end.  •  We  have  no  theory  to  sus- 
tain or  any  original  plan  to  suggest,  but  will  call 
attention  to  a  few  physiological  facts  which  have  an 
important  bearing  on  the  subject.  Whatever  may  be 
said  with  reference  to  the  injury  to  the  race  which 
might  result  from  a  systematic  employment  of  meas- 
ures for  the  limitation  of  offspring,  it  cannot  be  ques- 
tioned that  there  are  circumstances  under  which,  for 
the  individual  at  least,  this  becomes  very  desirable. 
We  may  add,  also,  that  there  are  circumstances  under 
which  the  prevention  of  offspring  is  quite  as  desirable 
for   posterity   as   for   the   parents.      The   fact   that 


there  is  a  real  necessity  for  some  means  by  which  the 
number  of  children  may  be  restricted  is  at  least  sug- 
gested by  the  almost  universal  resort  to  some  means 
for  this  purpose,  often,  as  we  shall  show,  means  of  a 
most  injurious  character. 

The  following  may  be  considered  as  justifiable  rea- 
sons for  avoidance  of  offspring :  1.  Ill  health  on  the 
part  of  either  parent ;  2.  Mental  disease  on  the  part 
of  either  father  or  mother ;  3.  Habits  of  intemperance 
or  the  opium-habit  indulged  to  any  degree  on  the 
part  of  either  parent ;  4.  Deformity  on  the  part  of  the 
mother,  making  childbirth  dangerous  to  her  own  life  ; 
5.  Congenital  deformity  on  the  part  of  either  parent 
when  serious  in  character ;  6.  Hereditary  mental  dis- 
ease not  manifested  in  the  parents  but  appearing  in 
the  children,  as  when  the  results  of  several  successive 
conceptions  have  been  insane  or  idiotic ;  7.  Lastly  we 
mention  poverty  as  one  of  the  circumstances  which 
may  make  it  proper  and  desirable  that  the  number  of 
children  should  be  limited. 

We  regard  the  notion  that  it  is  a  woman's  duty  to 
bear  as  many  children  as  possible  during  the  child- 
bearing  period  of  her  life,  as  a  relic  of  a  barbarous  age. 
Equally  barbarous  and  more  cruel  is  the  disposition 
so  marked  in  modern  times,  especially  in  fashionable 
women,  to  avoid  bearing  children  at  all  hazard,  regard- 
less of  the  consequences  to  present  or  future  health 
or  happiness.  It  can  certainly  be  no  advantage  to 
the  world  that  persons  who  are  too  poor  to  be  able  to 
care  for  their  children  properly  should  bring  into  the 
world  a  large  number  of  offspring  to  become  paupers, 
vagabonds,  and  ultimately,  in  a  great  proportion  of 

THE  WIFE.  347 

cases,  criminals.  Neither  is  it  any  advantage  to 
either  the  race  or  the  individuals  that  persons  of  de- 
praved or  diseased  constitutions  should  add  to  the 
number  of  diseased  and  decrepit  human  beings  trans- 
mitting their  physical  or  mental  imperfections  to  their 

The  most  natural  method  of  limiting  offspring  is 
the  avoidance  of  the  reproductive  act  when  its  full 
fruition  is  considered  undesirable.  No  other  method 
can  be  considered  perfectly  physiological ;  but  weak 
human  nature  will  seldom  submit  to  the  self-denial 
and  restraint  and  control  of  the  passions  which  this 
would  necessitate,  although  now  and  then  individuals 
may  be  found  who  are  determined  to  keep  in  the  or- 
der of  nature  at  any  cost,  preferring  the  peace  of  mind 
and  the  satisfaction  afforded  by  a  conscience  void  of 
offense  toward  Nature  or  Nature's  God  to  the  moment- 
ary pleasure  afforded  by  the  gratification  of  an  ani- 
mal passion.  Such  persons  are  generally  looked 
upon  as  fanatics  or  victims  of  a  self-imposed  martyr- 
dom ;  but  an  enlightened  mind  looks  upon  such  indi- 
viduals as  examples  of  a  heroism  equal  if  not  superior 
to  that  required  for  death  at  the  stake  or  before  the  can- 
non's mouth.  A  man  or  woman  who  can  fully  eman- 
cipate himself  or  herself  from  "  the  passions'  vengeful 
reign,"  has  accomplished  a  work  greater  than  the  man 
who  has  led  an  army  to  victory  or  conquered  a  world. 
Alexander  the  Great  was  able  to  vanquish  all  his  foes, 
and  stood  the  proud  monarch  of  the  world ;  but  he 
was  of  all  men  the  most  abject  slave  to  his  passions, 
descending  to  the  very  lowest  depths  of  beastly  deg- 


radation  for  the  purpose  of  gratifying  his  jaded  pas- 

Those  who  are  not  prepared  to  accept  the  teach- 
ings of  nature  on  this  subject,  if  willing  to  submit  to 
partial  control  only,  may  in  part  attain  the  desired 
end,  although  it  must  be  frankly  admitted  that  no 
perfect  substitute  can  be  offered  for  the  total-absti- 
nence method  for  controlling  the  number  of  offspring. 
As  stated  in  the  introductory  portion  of  this  work, 
and  also  hinted  in  the  preceding  paragraphs  of  this 
section,  there  is  a  period  of  several  days  in  the  inter- 
menstrual period  during  which  conception  is  much 
less  likely  to  occur  than  at  other  times.  This  period 
begins  at  about  the  tenth  day  after  the  close  of  the 
catamenia,  and  continues  until  about  one  week  pre- 
vious to  the  beginning  of  the  next  menstrual  period. 
Allowing  five  days  for  the  continuance  of  the  men- 
strual period,  there  remain  six  days  out  of  each 
menstrual  month  during  which  a  woman  is  not  likely 
to  conceive.  We  have  known  of  many  instances  in 
which  the  knowledge  of  this  fact  and  the  practice  of 
the  degree  of  self-control  which  it  necessitates  has 
enabled  persons  whose  circumstances  were  such  as  to 
make  offspring  undesirable,  to  avoid  children  for 

It  must  not  be  supposed,  however,  that  this  rem- 
edy is  a  perfectly  reliable  one.  There  are  various 
circumstances  which  make  it  unreliable,  a  few  of 
which  we  will  state.  1.  Menstruation  occurs  in 
many  cases  in  less  than  four  weeks,  or  twenty-eight 
days,  thus  shortening  the  period  during  which  there 
is  no  ovum  present  in  the  womb  or  fallopian  tubes 

THE   WIFE.  349 

ready  for  fecundation.  A  shortening  of  the  period 
one  week  would  of  course  obliterate  the  period.  2. 
There  are  exceptions  to  the  general  rule  that  one 
ovum  is  expelled  before  another  is  sufficiently  ma- 
tured to  allow  fecundation  to  take  place.  As  previ- 
ously stated,  six  or  seven  per  cent  of  all  conceptions 
occur  during  the  period  in  which  most  women  are  ex- 
empt. Consequently,  it  appears  that  at  least  one 
woman  in  every  fourteen  is  not  exempt  from  the  lia- 
bility to  conceive  at  any  time.  3.  The  act  of  coitus 
hastens  the  maturation  of  the  ovum  so  that  a  sexual 
union  during  the  period  of  usual  exemption  may  be- 
come fruitful  by  the  early  maturation  of  another 
ovum,  the  seminal  fluid  being  retained  in  an  active 
condition  until  fecundation  can  take  place. 

Notwithstanding  the  imperfect  reliability  of  the 
above  means  of  preventing  conception,  it  is  the  only 
one  which  can  be  considered  at  all  consistent  with 
physiological  principles  except  absolute  continence. 
Even  this,  as  we  have  elsewhere  shown,  is  not  strictly 
physiological,  since  the  period  immediately  following 
menstruation  is  that  in  which  the  sexual  act  is  most 
normal  and  most  likely  to  be  followed  by  conception. 

The  introduction  of  sponges  into  the  vagina,  the 
wearing  of  womb  veils,  shields,  etc.,  for  the  purpose 
of  preventing  the  normal  result  of  the  union  of  the 
sexes,  are  none  of  them  wholly  reliable,  and  all  are 
injurious  in  character.  The  same  must  be  said  of  the 
common  practice  of  incomplete  union  and  the  still 
worse  practice  of  injecting  into  the  vagina  cold  water 
or  fluids  of  various  kinds  for  the  purpose  of  destroy- 
ing the  seminal  fluid.     While  there  may  be  a  differ- 


ence  in  the  evil  results  following  the  employment  of 
these  several  methods,  none  are  sufficiently  harmless 
to  allow  of  their  continued  use  without  imperiling  the 
health  of  the  wife,  and  in  most  cases  the  health  of 
the  husband  as  well  We  have  met  hundreds  of  cases 
of  severe  disease  of  the  womb  in  which  the  chief  cause 
of  the  abnormal  condition  of  the  pelvic  organs  was  the 
continuance  of  some  of  these  practices  for  a  course  of 
years.  We  have  no  doubt  that  the  congestions  and 
irritation  of  the  sensitive  nerves  of  the  parts  arising 
from  these  various  filthy  maneuvers,  practiced  for 
the  purpose  of  subverting  the  natural  processes,  are 
among  the  most  common  cause  of  malignant  disease 
of  the  uterus,  one  of  the  most  common  and  fatal  of 
all  the  serious  maladies  to  which  the  sex  is  subject, 
and  one  which  is  constantly  becoming  more  and  more 

Another  thing  which  is  to  be  said  with  reference 
to  the  various  means  referred  to  is  that  none  of  them 
can  be  relied  upon  as  certainly  effective.  Nature  will 
frequently  assert  her  sway  in  getting  the  start  of  the 
finest  calculations  to  prevent  such  a  result.  Then  the 
mother  is  obliged  to  carry  in  her  bosom  that  most  un- 
fortunate of  all  creatures,  an  unwelcome  child.  Her 
mind  filled  with  chagrin  and  dread,  and  perhaps  even 
with  hatred  of  the  innocent  cause  of  her  troubles,  the 
mother  transmits  to  her  offspring  the  most  unhappy 
traits  of  character  and  thus  entails  upon  the  little  in- 
nocent a  life  of  wretchedness  and  misery.  When 
such  mothers  find  that  the  means  taken  to  prevent 
conception  have  been  ineffectual,  they  often  do  not 
hesitate  to  adopt  other  means  for  the  purpose  of  get- 

THE   WIFE.  351 

ting  rid  of  the  embryo  at  the  earliest  possible  mo- 
ment, adding  a  still  more  heinous  sin  to  the  one 
already  committed.  Often  enough  have  we  been 
consulted  by  women  under  precisely  these  circum- 
stances, and  beset  with  importunities  to  aid  them  in 
accomplishing  the  desired  end.  But  we  need  not 
speak  further  on  this  point  at  the  present,  as  it  will 
presently  receive  ample  attention. 

A  woman  who  allows  herself  to  indulge  in  the 
practices  referred  to,  soon  loses  all  respect  for  the  sa- 
credness  of  the  maternal  function,  and  suffers  not  only 
physical  but  mental  and  moral  injury  more  than  can 
be  estimated.  By  means  of  these  subterfuges,  the 
sexual  act  becomes  in  no  way  better  than  self-abuse, 
and  the  results  are  practically  the  same  as  of  that  hid- 
eous vice,  in  both  parties. 

Criminal  Abortion. — The  practice  of  abortion  is 
one  of  the  most  revolting  crimes  which  has  ever  be- 
come prevalent  in  any  country  at  any  period  of  the 
world's  history.  The  pages  of  history  are  stained 
with  the  records  of  this  most  despicable  of  crimes. 
The  records  of  the  civil  laws  of  ancient  nations  show 
that  this  crime  has  been  prevalent  in  all  ages  and 
among  all  nations.  At  some  periods  it  has  been  even 
more  prevalent  than  it  is  at  the  present.  Strange  as 
it  may  appear,  there  have  in  ancient  times  been  found 
philosophers  and  great  teachers,  some  of  whom  are  re- 
spected even  at  the  present  day,  who  have  justified 
this  crime  and  recommended  it  as  a  means  of  limiting 
the  growth  of  population.  Aristotle  not  only  did 
this,  but  even  went  so  far  as  to  insist  that  it  was  the 
duty  of  the  State  to  enact  laws  enforcing  the  practice 


of  abortion  when  the  population  had  reached  a  certain 
state.  The  ancient  Grecians  and  Romans  had  no  law 
against  this  crime.  Numerous  historians  represent 
the  practice  as  almost  universal  in  ancient  times. 
History  records  that  a  niece  of  one  of  the  Roman 
Emperors  died  in  consequence  of  having  committed 
the  crime  in  obedience  to  the  command  of  the  em- 
peror. The  crime  seems  to  have  been  looked  upon  by 
a  large  part  of  those  nations  who  were  guilty  of  it  in 
ancient  times  very  much  as  excesses  in  eating  are  re- 
garded by  the  majority  of  persons  at  the  present  day, 
undoubtedly  wrong,  but  so  slightly  criminal  as  to  be 
easily  condoned,  and  scarcely  to  be  censured. 

In  modern  times  there  have  not  been  wanting 
apologists  for  this  horrible  crime ;  but  on  the  whole 
it  may  be  safely  asserted  that  there  is  less  tolerance 
for  ante-natal  murder  at  the  present  day  than  at  any 
previous  period  of  the  world's  history,  so  far  as  there 
is  any  record  bearing  on  the  subject.  We  do  not 
attribute  this  improvement  to  any  special  increase  in 
the  moral  sense  of  the  people,  but  to  the  greater  en- 
lightenment which  has  resulted  from  the  free  discussion 
of  the  subject  and  the  diffusion  of  knowledge  respect- 
ing the  wickedness  of  the  act  and  the  dangers  to  life 
and  health  attending  it.  It  is  only  with  the  hope 
that  we  may  be  able  to  further  the  work  of  reform  in 
this  direction  that  we  mention  the  revolting  subject 
in  these  pages. 

The  prevalence  of  this  crime  even  in  this  enlight- 
ened country,  and  that  after  all  which  has  been  said 
upon  it  by  physicians  and  priests  and  clergymen,  un- 
doubtedly far  surpasses  the   conception  of  any  but 

THE  WIFE.  353 

those  who  have  an  opportunity  for  knowing  the  facts 
or  an  approximation  to  the  truth.  The  crime  is  al- 
most always  a  secret  one,  and  hence  no  exact  data 
respecting  its  prevalence  can  be  obtained ;  but  suffi- 
cient is  known  to  indicate  clearly  that  it  is  on  the  in- 
crease rather  than  otherwise,  and  to  cause  those  who 
are  interested  in  the  welfare  of  the  race  to  tremble  at 
the  future  prospect. 

It  has  become  a  notorious  fact  that  the  families 
of  native  Americans  are  getting  to  be  so  small 
on  the  average  that  the  children  hardly  replace 
the  parents.  It  has  been  stated  on  good  authority 
that  the  increase  of  population  is  almost  entirely  due 
to  immigration  and  the  numerous  families  of  the  na- 
tives of  foreign  countries.  In  New  England  where 
families  of  eight  and  nine  were  formerly  exceedingly 
common,  it  is  now  stated  that  the  average  number  of 
persons  to  a  family  is  scarcely  more  than  three  among 
the  native  born  population.  At  this  rate,  it  is  evident 
that  this  monstrous  vice  threatens  to  exterminate  the 
race  if  nothing  is  done  to  check  its  ravages.  It  is 
certainly  high  time  that  the  public  were  thoroughly 
enlightened  on  the  subject  and  a  general  and  organ- 
ized effort  instituted  against  this  enemy  of  the  race 
which,  to  use  the  words  of  another  employed  in  speak- 
ing of  another  vice,  annually  destroys  more  human 
beings  than  "  war,  pestilence,  and  famine  combined." 

Since  the  war  by  which  the  slaves  of  the  South 
were  liberated,  the  same  appalling  vice  has  become 
prevalent  among  them.  With  this  exception,  however, 
the  crime  is  chiefly  confined  to  the  middle  and  higher 
classes  of  society.     Professional  abortionists  who  are, 


it  is  sad  to  know,  too  often  women,  ply  their  criminal 
trade  in  every  large  city  of  the  land,  and  in  almost 
every  little  hamlet  as  well.  The  newspapers  still 
contain  numerous  advertisements  which  the  initiated 
well  understand.  For  almost  any  sum  from  $500 
down  to  the  paltry  sum  of  $10  these  fiends  in  human 
shape,  the  thugs  of  civilized  lands,  are  ready  at  any 
time  to  undertake  the  destruction  of  a  human  being 
without  the  slightest  compunction  of  conscience  and 
with  little  danger  of  detection,  so  imperfect  are  the 
laws  relating  to  the  crime  and  so  difficult  the  task  of 
obtaining  evidence  sufficient  to  convict  the  criminal. 
The  fact  that  jurymen  as  well  as  judges  and  attorneys 
are  not  infrequently  indebted  to  the  criminal  for  sim- 
ilar services,  also  has  an  important  bearing  on  the  re- 
sults of  the  case  in  numerous  instances.  The  im- 
possibility of  obtaining  a  conviction  for  the  crime  of 
abortion,  no  matter  what  may  be  the  character  of  the 
evidence,  is  so  notorious  that  persons  Avho  are  well 
known  as  professional  abortionists  are  allowed  to  ply 
their  horrible  trade  year  after  year  without  being 

But  the  crime  is  not  confined  to  professionals. 
Women  sometimes  become  sufficiently  skilled  in  the 
use  of  instruments  for  the  purpose  to  be  able  to  per- 
form the  operation  upon  themselves,  and  such  women 
do  not  hesitate  to  instruct  others  in  the  art  of  de- 
stroying their  unborn  children.  Thus  the  vile  conta- 
gion spreads  from  one  to  another  until  in  some  in- 
stances a  whole  neighborhood  becomes  demoralized. 
It  is  not  an  uncommon  thing  for  women  to  boast  that 
they  know  too  much  to  have  children.     Often  these 

THE  WIFE.  355 

knowing  ones  m*jy  be  seen  leading  around  a  solitary 
little  one  Avhose  brothers  and  sisters  have  been  all 
nipped  in  the  bud  by  the  cruel  abortionist,  or  by  the 
mother's  own  hand.  Some  little  time  ago  a  physician 
of  intelligence  who  had  observed  somewhat  closely, 
reported  that  in  his  neighborhood  of  several  hundred 
families,  there  had  been  scarcely  a  child  born  in  three 
or  four  years. 

Every  physician  who  has  been  a  year  in  practice 
will  testify  that  he  has  had  already  from  one  to 
twenty  applications  from  women  to  aid  them  in  ac- 
complishing the  murder  of  their  helpless  offspring. 
The  majority  of  these  cases  are  of  married  women 
whose  only  excuse  is  that  they  do  not  wish  to  en- 
dure the  inconvenience  and  trouble  of  pregnancy  and 
childbirth,  or  that  they  "do  not  want  to  have* chil- 
dren," or  that  they  "  have  children  enough,"  or  some 
other  equally  frivolous  excuse.  Often  have  we  had 
women  urge  these  and  even  more  trifling  arguments 
to  induce  us  to  comply  with  their  request  to  assist 
them  to  secure  an  abortion. 

Our  first  experience  of  this  kind  opened  up  to  us 
a  new  phase  of  human  nature.  We  had  previously 
supposed  that  the  reason  why  the  crime  was  so  prev- 
alent was  the  ignorance  of  women  with  reference  to 
its  criminality  and  the  possible,  even  probable  conse- 
quences to  themselves.  We  felt  no  doubt  that  to  set 
before  a  woman  the  matter  in  its  true  light,  would  be 
sufficient  to  turn  her  from  her  purpose,  and  to  insti- 
tute a  reform  in  that  particular  case  at  least.  Noth- 
ing could  have  surprised  us  more  than  to  see  our  ex- 
planations and  appeals  received  with   the   most  un- 


flinching  coldness,  and  not  allowed  to  have  the  least 
apparent  weight  in  turning  the  woman  from  her  pur- 
pose. No  matter  how  great  the  crime  nor  how  im- 
minent the  risk,  she  was  willing  and  anxious  to  take 
the  responsibility,  and  did  not  hesitate  to  state  the  fact, 
and  to  still  persist  in  importuning  us  to  assist  her. 
She  seemed  lost  to  all  sense  of  moral  obligation,  and 
was  ready  to  do  anything  or  to  sacrifice  anything  to 
enable  her  to  accomplish  her  object.  So  absorbed  does 
a  woman,  intent  on  the  commission  of  this  crime,  be- 
come in  the  accomplishment  of  her  object,  the  most 
touching  appeals  are  usually  wholly  unavailing. 

Some  years  ago  a  gentleman  called  at  our  private 
office,  and  after  considerable  preliminary  explanation 
stated  the  fact  that  his  wife  was  desirous  of  placing 
herself  under  our  care  as  a  patient  for  the  purpose  of 
securing  the  production  of  an  abortion,  it  having  oc- 
curred to  her  that  the  superior  advantages  afforded 
for  treatment  would  enable  her  to  escape  the  more 
surely  from  the  dangers  Avhich  she  well  knew  to  ac- 
company the  crime.  We  promptly  gave  him  a  neg- 
ative answer  and  did  not  hesitate  to  supplement  our 
refusal  by  a  pretty  full  expression  of  our  opinion  of 
the  operation  both  from  a  professional  and  a  moral 
stand-point.  He  seemed  really  touched  by  our  repre- 
sentations of  the  immorality  of  the  act,  and  promised 
to  return  to  his  home  in  a  neighboring  city  and  in- 
duce his  Avife  to  visit  us  in  the  hope  that  she  might 
be  persuaded  to  look  at  the  crime  in  its  true  light. 
We  heard  nothing  more  of  the  matter  for  several 
weeks,  and  the  circumstance  had  almost  passed  from 
our  mind  when  we  were  informed  one  day  that  a  lady 

THE  WIFE.  357 

was  waiting  for  us  in  the  office,  and  on  receiving  her 
card,  recognized  her  as  the  lady  in  question,  whom 
we  had  been  expecting.  She  at  once  stated  her  er- 
rand, saying  that  her  husband  had  told  her  Avhat  we 
had  said  to  him,  but  that  she  had  come  hoping  never- 
theless that  she  might  be  able  to  induce  us  to  per- 
form the  operation  for  her,  as  she  had  no  thought  of 
giving  it  up,  and  should  certainly  employ  some  one 
else  if  we  did  not  consent  to  do  it.  We  promptly  as- 
sured her  that  if  the  operation  was  performed  at  all, 
it  must  be  done  by  some  one  else  besides  us,  and  at 
once  began  to  lay  before  her  some  considerations  cal- 
culated to  divert  her  mind  from  her  purpose.  Our 
most  earnest  arguments  and  appeals  seemed  to  have 
no  weight  with  her,  however,  and  at  last  we  said  to 
her,  "  Madam,  you  have  had  children  before  ? " 
"  Yes,"  she  replied,  "  I  have  two  beautiful  children, 
aged  three  and  five  years."  "  Very  well ;  you  say 
that  you  do  not  feel  capable  of  caring  for  and  rearing 
more  than  two  children,  and  assign  this  as  a  reason 
why  you  are  so  anxious  to  destroy  the  child  now  de- 
veloping within  you.  You  are  even  willing  not  only 
to  destroy  the  coming  little  one,  but  to  incur  the  risk 
of  losing  your  own  life  as  well,  or  in  all  probability  of 
becoming  an  invalid  for  life  at  least,  to  say  nothing  of 
the  destruction  of  your  peace  of  mind.  Now  I  can 
suggest  for  your  consideration  a  much  more  rational 
plan,  one  which  will  accomplish  the  same  result,  and 
which  will  be  attended  with  little  if  any  physical 
danger  to  yourself,  and  will  be  in  no  degree  more 
criminal."  She  was  eager  to  hear  the  plan  I  had  to 
suggest,  and  expressed  herself  as  very  ready  to  adopt 



it  if  it  would,  as  I  said,  accomplish  the  same  result. 
We  accordingly  presented  it  to  her  as  follows  : — 

"Since  your  chief  reason  for  wishing  to  destroy 
your  unborn  child  is  your  inability  to  care  for  more 
than  the  two  children  which  you  already  have,  a 
much  better  plan  than  that  Avhich  you  propose  would 
be  to  take  the  life  of  one  of  the  children  already  born, 
and  thus  save  yourself  the  danger  of  an  operation 
which  is  almost  as  likely  to  destroy  your  own  life  as 
that  of  your  child.  You  could  easily  drop  the  little 
one  into  the  river  on  some  dark  night,  or  could  cut 
its  throat  or  smother  it,  with  little  fear  of  detection,  as 
no  one  would  suspect  you  of  such  a  crime,  and  then 
you  could  allow  the  present  pregnancy  to  go  on  to 
full  maturity  and  have  no  more  children  than  you  now 
have.  The  crime  would  be  in  no  sense  a  greater  one, 
and  would  not  be  so  great  in  one  sense,  since  if  an  abor- 
tion is  produced,  the  result  may  virtually  be  suicide 
as  well  as  murder.  So  far  as  the  child  is  concerned, 
it  is  murder  in  either  case,  and  of  the  most  cowardly 
kind,  since  it  is  taking  advantage  of  the  weakness  and 
helplessness  of  a  human  being  unable  to  defend  itself, 
an  act  which  is  seldom  equaled  in  atrocity  by  the 
most  heartless  assassin  or  even  the  barbarian  captor." 

She  Aveakened  for  a  few  moments,  and  we  felt 
that  possibly  we  might  succeed  in  rescuing  her  from 
the  commission  of  the  crime  which  she  had  meditated ; 
but  it  was  only  for  a  moment  that  she  hesitated;  she 
then  rose  and  withdrew  from  our  office  with  the  asser- 
tion that  if  we  would  not  do  the  operation  she  must 
find  some  one  who  Avould. 

It  would  seem  that  such  a  view  of  the  matter,  so 

THE   WIFE.  359 

manifestly  true  and  unanswerable  as  an  argument, 
would  arouse  the  conscience  of  any  woman  in  whom 
still  glowed  a  single  spark  of  the  instinct  of  mother- 
hood; but  unfortunately  this  is  by  no  means  the  case. 
Too  often  the  mind  is  so  determinedly  set  upon 
the  commission  of  the  crime  that  even  the  thunders 
of  Sinai  would  scarcely  turn  it  from  its  purpose. 
Many  times  have  we  earnestly  labored  for  hours  with 
women  who  have  applied  to  us  for  the  performance  of 
an  operation  or  for  medicine  by  which  the  same  end 
might  be  accomplished,  without  other  result  than  a 
very  weak  promise  to  consider  the  matter  farther; 
and  we  knew  too  well  that  the  consideration  would 
all  be  in  the  opposite  direction  from  what  it  should  be. 
When  a  woman  has  so  far  smothered  her  womanly 
instincts  as  to  Avish  to  deliberately  and  in  cold  blood 
murder  her  innocent,  unborn  babe,  even  at  an 
early  period  of  its  existence,  she  becomes  desperate, 
and  sometimes  desperately  Avicked.  Conscience  seems 
to  be  asleep  and  the  moral  instincts  benumbed. 

Sometimes,  however,  we  ha\'e  been  glad  to  know 
that  the  results  of  our  efforts  have  been  otherwise. 
Often,  as'  Ave  pass  along  the  street,  we  meet  a  little 
fair-haired  boy  who  does  not  know  how  narroAvly  his 
mother  escaped  the  commission  of  the  awful  crime  of 
murder,  nor  how  earnestly  we  pleaded  for  his  life  when 
he  was  a  helpless,  yet  undeveloped,  and,  unfortu- 
nately, unwelcome  child.  Would  to  God  that  we 
could  place  before  the  mind  of  every  Avoman  in  the 
land  a  picture  of  the  evils  of  this  awful  crime,  the 
sacrilege,  the  profanity,  the  worse  than  brutish  cruelty 
of  this  crime  against  God,  against  the  race,  against 


nature,  and  against  the  perpetrator,  a  picture  so  vivid 
in  coloring,  so  horrifying  in  its  hideousness,  that  it 
would  make  an  impression  ineffaceable  by  any  of  the 
selfish  and  frivolous  considerations  usually  urged  as 
reasons  justifying  the  act. 

Statistics  and  the  experience  of  every  physician 
of  long  practice  show  that  abortion  is  many  times 
more  dangerous  to  the  life  of  the  mother  under  ordi- 
nary circumstances  than  pregnancy.  The  majority  of 
those  who  are  guilty  of  this  crime,  become  invalids 
for  life. 

Criminal  abortion  is  the  cause  to  which  thousands 
of  women  may  trace  a  long  line  of  ailments  of  a  most 
obstinate  and  aggravating  character.  Many  such 
cases  have  come  under  our  care,  and  no  class  of  diseases 
are  so  obstinate  and  often  utterly  intractable  as  this. 
After  normal  childbirth,  the  uterus  ajd  its  appendages 
naturally  undergo  a  change  known  as  involution,  by 
which  the  organ  is  rapidly  restored  to  its  natural  and 
ordinary  size  and  condition.  After  abortion,  this 
change  is  very  likely  to  be  incomplete,  leaving  the 
uterus  congested,  enlarged,  sensitive,  and  in  a  condi- 
tion to  invite  the  most  serious  disease.  This  is  true 
even  in  the  most  favorable  cases.  Often  the  imme- 
diate results,  as  well  as  the  more  remote,  are  much 
more  serious.  Abortion  is  very  likely  to  be  followed 
by  inflammations  of  various  sorts,  especially  of  the 
uterus,  ovaries,  and  surrounding  tissues,  which  if  not 
immediately  fatal,  leave  behind  thetn  results  which 
render  the  woman  a  life-long  sufferer,  and  frequently 
develop  in  later  years  into  some  form  of  malignant 
disease.     This  is  undoubtedly  one  of  the  most  prolific 

THE  WIFE.  361 

causes  of  the  increasing  frequency  of  this  most  appall- 
ing and  incurable  of  all  human  maladies,  cancer. 

One  of  the  most  frequent  complications  of  abortion, 
and  one  which  rarely  occurs  in  natural  childbirth,  is 
blood  poisoning  from  retention  and  decomposition  of 
the  placenta  and  membranes  of  the  foetus.  At  the  end 
of  normal  pregnancy,  Nature  prepares  the  way  for  the 
prompt  separation  of  these  attachments  of  the  foetus, 
and  thus  obviates  this  danger ;  but  in  cases  of  abor- 
tion there  has  been  no  such  preparation ;  indeed,  the 
placenta  is  at  this  time  becoming  more  and  more 
firmly  attached  to  the  walls  of  the  uterus,  and  conse- 
quently is  likely  to  be  retained  to  undergo  gradual 
decomposition,  thus  involving  the  liability  to  blood 
poisoning,  which  will  ruin  the  constitution  for  life  if 
it  does  not   at   once  terminate  fatally. 

Physicians  alone  are  to  any  degree  acquainted 
with  the  awful  extent  to  which  this  crime  prevails. 
Even  they  are  not  always  able  to  get  at  the  facts. 
Women  who  will  commit  this  crime  will  resort  to 
any  means  to  conceal  it  from  those  whom  they  know 
regard  it  as  such.  Not  long  ago,  on  making  an  ex- 
amination of  a  young  unmarried  woman,  we  were 
surprised  to  find  a  large  tear  of  the  neck  of  the  womb 
which  we  could  not  doubt  had  been  produced  in  this 
way,  though  she  professed  to  know  of  nothing  ex- 
cept a  fall  to  which  to  attribute  it. 

A  married  woman  who  came  under  our  care  a  few 
years  ago  for  treatment  for  a  uterine  disease,  stated 
that  she  had  never  borne  a  child,  and  adhered  to  the 
statement,  although  an  examination  disclosed  a  large 
tear  in  the  neck  of  the  womb  which  could  not  have 


been  in  any  other  way.  Our  confidence  in  the  in- 
tegrity of  the  patient  for  a  time  led  us  to  think  that 
the  morbid  condition  might  possibly  be  the  result  of 
the  removal  of  a  morbid  growth  from  the  uterus 
which  she  asserted  had  been  done  at  a  preidous  time ; 
but  we  afterward  learned  that  our  first  opinion  was 
correct,  the  occasion  for  the  tear  having  been  a  lapse 
from  virtue  when  a  girl, — a  circumstance  which  had 
all  her  life  been  held  a  secret. 

The  most  horrible  results  often  follow  attempts  at 
the  performance  of  this  crime  which  are  unsuccessful. 
The  instruments  used  frequently  mutilate  the  inno- 
cent being  against  whose  life  these  cruel  efforts  are 
directed,  in  a  most  terrible  manner  without  accom- 
plishing the  desired  result,  so  that  the  termination  of 
the  pregnancy  often  reveals  a  beautiful  babe  with  a 
limb  torn  from  its  body,  or  frightfully  disfigured  in 
other  ways,  or  a  monster  so  deformed  as  to  be  scarcely 
recognizable  as  ever  having  had  anything  of  a  human 
shape.  Cases  have  even  occurred  in  which  the  head 
has  actually  been  torn  from  the  body  without  causing 
abortion  or  even  preventing  development  of  the  re- 
mainder of  the  body.  Nature  sometimes  endures  all 
this  violence  rather  than  surrender  her  trust  before* 
the  proper  time  for  so  doing ;  and  every  woman  who 
subjects  herself  to  an  operation  for  the  purpose  of  in- 
ducing abortion  incurs  the  risk  of  becoming  the  un- 
willing mother  of  an  eyeless  or  crippled  child,  or  a 
headless  monster. 

Recent  investigations  have  shown  that  there  is 
still  another  result  of  criminal  abortion  which  has 
been   heretofore    overlooked.      Careful   observations 

THE  WIFE.  363 

have  developed  the  fact  that  the  subsequent  preg- 
nancies are  affected  by  an  induced  abortion  not  only 
as  regards  the  liability  to  miscarriage,  which  is  well 
known,  but  as  regards  the  development  of  the  foetus. 
Thousands  of  mothers  have  found  that  when  they 
had  repented  of  their  criminal  attempts  to  thwart  the 
purposes  of  nature,  and  really  desired  children,  the 
womb  had  either  undergone  such  changes  that  preg- 
nancy was  impossible,  or  if  it  occurred,  could  not 
proceed  to  full  development ;  or  that  if  the  develop- 
ment did  continue  to  full  term,  the  result  was  only  a 
weak,  puny  creature,  badly  developed,  and  certain  to 
be  all  its  life-time  a  silent  witness  of  the  mother's 
criminal  attempts. 

This  is  a  matter  to  be  considered  by  mothers  who 
desire  to  get  rid  of  their  unborn  infants  simply  for 
their  convenience ;  because  they  do  not  want  to  settle 
down  to  sober  life  just  yet,  or  because  they  have 
planned  a  trip  to  Europe,  or  a  summer  at  Saratoga. 
Are  you  willing,  mother,  to  incur  the  risk  not  only  of 
blighting  the  existence  of  the  little  innocent  whom 
Nature  has  furnished  you  Avith  instincts  to  protect, 
and  to  involve  the  liability  of  paying  the  penalty  of 
your  crime  with  your  own  life,  but  also  to  render  al- 
most certain  the  destruction  of  the  prospects  of  the 
little  ones  who  may  come  to  you  in  future  years, 
should  you  still  be  capable  of  becoming  a  mother  ? 

One  thing  women  ought  to  know.  A  skillful  phy- 
sician cannot  be  easily  deceived  as  to  the  cause  of  an 
abortion.  The  symptoms  of  an  abortion  occurring 
spontaneously  from  ovarian  disease,  displacement,  a 
fall  or  other  accident,  are  different  from  those  which 


accompany  an  instrumental  abortion,  and  the  differ- 
ence will  be  readily  detected  by  a  physician  of  ex- 

The  time  has  fully  come  when  there  ought  to  be 
a  general  waking  up  on  the  part  of  all  lovers  of  hu- 
manity, with  reference  to  this  devastating  vice.  Phy- 
sicians and  clergymen  should  "  cry  aloud  and  spare 
not."  Laws  are  of  no  consequence,  or  at  any  rate 
are  of  little  avail,  since  there  are  usually  but  two  wit- 
nesses to  the  crime,  both  of  whom  are  criminals,  and 
both  of  course  desirous  of  concealing  their  crimes. 
The  professional  abortionist  is  skilled  in  the  art  of 
concealment  and  evasion  of  justice.  We  have  had 
some  experience  in  attempting  to  bring  these  human 
fiends  to  justice,  but  not  such  as  to  encourage  us  in 
repeating  the  effort.  The  evidence  may  be  clear  and 
conclusive  as  possible,  shrewd  and  unscrupulous  law- 
yers will  find  some  means  fox  befogging  the  average 
jury  to  such  an  extent  as  to  cause  a  disagreement  if 
not  an  out  and  out  acquittal. 

The  only  hope  for  any  better  state  of  things 
than  at  present  exists  is  in  the  education  of  the  peo- 
ple. Women  must  be  educated  concerning  them- 
selves, and  a  wholesome  respect  for  the  sacredness  of 
the  reproductive  function  must  be  cultivated.  Wo- 
men must  be  informed  of  the  perils  which  they  incur 
in  resorting  to  instrumental  or  medicinal  means  for  pro- 
ducing abortion.  Only  a  few  weeks  ago  a  young  wo- 
man came  to  us  for  examination  and  treatment  for 
dropsy.  Her  history  disclosed  the  fact  that  she  had 
taken  a  large  dose  of  "tansy  tea,"  as  the  result  of  which 
she  sank  into  collapse  and  remained  unconscious  for 


many  hours,  her  life  being  saved  only  by  the  greatest 
exertions.  Since  that  time,  she  stated,  she  had  been 
bloating,  and  had  not  menstruated.  A  few  questions 
elicited  the  fact  that  the  tansy  was  taken  "  to  bring  her 
around,"  as  she  said,  menstruation  not  having  occurred 
at  the  usual  time,  and  the  fear  being  entertained  that 
she  was  pregnant.  We  at  once  understood  the  cause 
of  the  bloating,  and  the  examination  made  apparent 
the  correctness  of  our  conclusions.  The  father  soon 
arrived  on  the  scene  and  made  a  most  eloquent  appeal 
to  us  to  produce  an  abortion.  We  answered  him  in 
the  usual  way,  and  he  was  apparently  satisfied  ;  but 
his  subsequent  course  was  such  as  to  lead  us  to  sus- 
pect very  strongly  that  he  was  determined  not  to 
rest  until  the  desired  end  was  accomplished.  This 
case  illustrates  the  fact  that  the  mother's  life  may  be 
greatly  imperiled  without  any  result  so  far  as  the 
foetus  is  concerned.  All  medicinal  agents  used  for 
this  purpose  are  powerful  poisons,  and  quite  as  likely 
to  produce  the  death  of  the  mother  as  the  expulsion 
of  the  foetus. 

Every  woman  who  commits  or  attempts  to  com- 
mit this  horrible  crime,  and  every  husband  who  en- 
courages it  or  even  assents  to  its  performance,  ought 
to  be  treated  as  a  criminal,  and  ostracized  from  so- 
ciety. So  long  as  the  act  of  abortion  is  looked  upon 
as  an  offense  so  trifling  as  to  be  easily  condoned,  and 
hardly  worthy  of  censure,  its  frequency  will  increase. 
Every  pulpit  in  the  land  ought  to  send  out  in  stirring 
and  unmistakable  tones,  warnings  against  the  gross 
immorality  of  this  practice,  drawing  vivid  pictures  of 
its  cruelty  and  unnaturalness,  and  pronouncing  anath- 


emas  upon  its  perpetrators.  The  crime  should  be 
considered  a  just  cause  for  church  action  to  disfellow- 
ship,  and  the  nature  of  the  crime  should  not  induce 
those  who  may  have  knowledge  of  it  to  keep  it  secret. 
The  crime  must  be  made  odious,  and  the  perpetrators 
condemned  in  unstinted  terms. 

Physicians  must  warn  women  of  the  physical  as 
well  as  the  moral  calamities  which  follow  in  the  wake 
of  this  inhuman  practice,  and  the  certainty  of  retribu- 
tion in  this  life,  as  well  as  the  next. 

Testimony  of  Eminent  Physicians. — The  follow- 
ing paragraphs  express  not  only  the  sentiments  of  the 
eminent  authorities  referred  to,  but  the  conclusions 
and  views  of  all  conscientious  physicians  of  expe- 
rience : — 

"  Yet  this  very  thing  of  criminal  abortion  means, 
in  plain  terms,  the  most  cowardly,  base  kind  of  mur- 
dering,— cowardly,  because  upon  a  helpless,  living 
embryo,  to  hide  the  result  of  sensual  gratification, 
or  to  evade  the  duty  of  caring  for  it  afterward ;  or 
simply,  with  some,  because  it  is  thought  to  be  vulgar 
to  have  children, — base  in  a  deliberate  purpose  to 
sacrifice  life,  moral  purity,  maternal  nobility  and 
loveliness,  to  degrading  desire. 

"  There  are  those  who  would  fain  make  light  of 
this  crime  by  attempting  to  convince  themselves  and 
others  that  a  child,  while  in  embryo,  has  only  a  sort 
of  vegetative  life,  not  yet  endowed  with  thought,  and 
the  ability  to  maintain  an  independent  existence.  If 
such  a  monstrous  philosophy  as  this  presents  any 
justification  for  such  an  act,  then  the  killing  of  a 
newly-born  infant,  or  of  an  idiot,  may  be   likewise 

THE  WIFE.  367 

justified.  The  destruction  of  the  life  of  an  unborn 
human  being  for  the  reason  that  it  is  small,  feeble, 
and  innocently  helpless,  rather  aggravates  than  pal- 
liates the  crime.  Every  act  of  this  kind,  with  its 
justification,  is  obviously  akin  to  that  savage  philos- 
ophy which  accounts  it  a  matter  of  no  moment,  or 
rather  a  duty  to  destroy  feeble  infants,  or  old,  help- 
less fathers  and  mothers. 

"  Perhaps  only  medical  men  will  credit  the  asser- 
tion that  the  frequency  of  this  form  of  destroying  hu- 
man life  exceeds  all  others  by  at  least  fifty  per  cent, 
and  that  not  more  than  one  in  a  thousand  of  the 
guilty  parties  receive  any  punishment  by  the  hand  of 
civil  law.  But  there  is  a  surer  mode  of  punishment 
for  the  guilty  mother,  in  the  self-executing  laws  of 
nature.  This,  in  the  majority  of  instances,  is  suf- 
ficiently severe,  far  more  so  than  any  ever  planned 
and  executed  by  the  hand  of  man.  The  punishment 
is  often  capital,  or  by  death,  as  every  physician  has 
witnessed,  and  as  the  newspapers  of  the  day  abun- 
dantly testify.  When  not  so,  there  is  usually  a  life- 
long retribution  in  store  for  them,  with  an  untimely 
and  agonizing  mode  of  death. 

"  Yearly,  thousands  of  women,  wives,  and  mothers, 
in  the  higher  walks  of  life,  risk,  or  actually  sacrifice, 
their  lives  by  this  unnatural  crime, — their  most  inti- 
mate friends  uninformed  and  unsuspicious  as  to  the 
real  cause  of  their  death." 

"  The  great  majority  of  those  who  submit  to  this 
crime  drag  through  life  in  miserable  health,  victims  to 
painful  irregularities,  to  slow  and  obstinate  irritations, 
or  to  a  predisposition  of  the  maltreated  parts  to  take 


on  disease  from  the  slightest  exposure  and  exertion. 
Frequently  the  constitutional  shock  is  so  severe  that 
the  strength  is  never  fully  recovered,  the  victim  pre- 
senting a  striking  and  permanent  absence  of  all  the 
marks  of  health  and  vigor.  Even  in  some  instances 
in  which  the  transgressor  flatters  herself  that  she  is 
uninjured,  there  is  an  insidious  and  terrible  disease 
forming  in  the  generative  organs,  which  only  awaits 
the  waning  of  the  general  strength  and  energies  to 
burst  forth  into  torturing  and  incurable  activity.  I 
allude  to  that  fearful  disease,  cancer  of  the  womb."  * 

"  The  tendency  to  serious  and  often  fatal  organic 
disease,  as  cancer,  is  rendered  much  greater  at  the  so- 
called  turn  of  life,  which  has  generally,  and  not  with- 
out good  reason,  been  considered  as  especially  the 
critical  period  of  a  woman's  existence." 

"  Not  only  is  the  foetus  endangered  by  the  at- 
tempt at  abortion,  and  the  mothers  health,  but  the 
stamp  of  disease  thus  impressed  is  very  apt  to  be  per- 
ceived upon  any  children  she  may  subsequently  bear. 
Not  only  do  women  become  sterile  in  consequence  of 
a  miscarriage,  and  then,  longing  for  offspring,  find 
themselves  permanently  incapacitated  for  conception; 
but,  in  other  cases,  impregnation,  or  rather  the  at- 
tachment  of  the  ovum  to  the  uterus,  being  but  imper- 
fectly effected,  or  the  mother's  system  being  so  insid- 
iously undermined,  the  children  that  are  subsequently 
brought  forth  are  unhealthy,  deformed,  or  diseased. 
This  matter  of  conception  and  gestation,  after  a  mis- 
carriage, has  of  late  been  made  the  subject  of  special 


THE  WIFE.  *  369 

study,  and  there  is  little  doubt  that  from  this,  as  the 
primal  origin,  arises  much  of  the  nervous,  mental,  and 
organic  derangement  and  deficiency  that,  occurring  in 
children,  cuts  short  or  embitters  their  lives." 

"  In  thirty-four  cases  of  criminal  abortion  reported 
by  Tardieu,  where  the  history  was  known,  twenty- 
two  were  followed,  as  a  consequence,  by  death,  and 
only  twelve  were  not."* 

Another  authority  states  that  of  one  hundred  and 
sixty  cases  of  instrumental  abortion,  the  death  of 
the  mother  occurred  in  sixty. 

The  Meno-Pause,  or  Change  of  Life. — Begin- 
ning at  about  the  age  of  thirteen  years,  the  men- 
strual function  usually  continues  about  thirty-two 
years,  reaching  its  conclusion,  on  an  average,  in  the 
forty-sixth  year,  but  terminating  in  the  majority  of 
women  in  the  fiftieth  year.  At  puberty  the  ovary 
enlarges  until  it  attains  its  full  development  and  be- 
gins its  work  of  casting  off  each  month  a  perfected 
ovule.  When  the  forty-fifth  year  of  a  woman's  life  is 
reached,  the  reverse  of  this  process  begins.  The 
ovary  begins  to  shrivel,  soon  reaching  the  size  and 
acquiring  much  the  appearance  of  a  peach  stone.  A 
few  months  later  it  is  still  more  shrunken ;  and  after 
the  cessation  of  the  menses  it  often  becomes  so  shriv- 
eled as  to  be  scarcely  recognizable. 

At  the  same  time  that  the  ovaries  are  undergoing 
this  remarkable  degenerative  change,  a  similar  change 
is  taking  place  in  the  other  organs  of  generation. 
The  uterus  also  diminishes  in  size,  as  does  also  the 
vagina.     The  mouth  of  the  womb  becomes  contracted, 

*  Storer. 

370  '  THE  LADIES  GUIDE. 

and  after  a  time  entirely  closed.  The  upper  part  of 
the  vagina  is  often  contracted  to  such  a  degree  as  to 
produce  folds  closely  resembling  those  which  result 
from  serious  inflammations  about  the  uterus.  The 
breasts  also  diminish  in  size.  These  changes  indicate 
unmistakably  the  decline  of  the  function  of  reproduc- 
tion preparatory  to  its  entire  suspension. 

As  a  rule,  the  capability  of  procreation  ceases  with 
the  cessation  of  menstruation;  but  this  is  not  uni- 
formly the  case.  Instances  are  on  record  in  which 
pregnancy  has  occurred  before  the  appearance  of  men- 
struation ;  and  so  it  may  also  occur  after  the  disap- 
pearance of  menstruation.  This  seeming  anomaly  is 
due  to  the  fact  that  ovulation  and  menstruation  are 
really  two  distinct  acts,  although  usually  coincident. 

As  before  stated,  menstruation  usually  ceases 
somewhere  between  forty-five  and  fifty  years;  but 
cases  are  recorded  in  which  the  meno-pause  has  oc- 
curred at  much  earlier  and  much  later  periods.  In 
one  instance  which  came  under  our  observation  a  few 
years  ago,  the  change  of  life  was  complete  at  twenty- 
eight;  and  in  a  case  now  under  our  care  for  treat- 
ment for  a  mental  affection,  the  meno-pause  was  de- 
layed to  the  sixty-first  year.  Cases  are  recorded  in 
which  the  function  was  continued  as  late  the  eightieth 
year,  but  there  may  be  some  doubt  as  to  the  authen- 
ticity of  these  reports. 

As  at  the  establishment  of  the  function  it  is  at- 
tended  with  a  considerable  degree  of  irregularity,  so 
also  at  the  conclusion.  There  seems,  indeed,  to  be  a 
remarkable  correspondence  between  the  morbid  con- 

THE    WIFE.  371 

ditions  affecting  the  two  termini  of  a  woman's  sexual 
activity.  If  the  function  is  ushered  in  with  great 
irregularity,  its  conclusion  will  be  attended  with  the 
same  phenomena.  Great  pain,  local  or  general  during 
menstrual  activity,  will  pretty  certainly  be  followed 
by  the  same  sort  and  degree  of  pain  at  the  grand 
climacteric.  One  very  singular  circumstance  is  the 
fact  that  a  late  puberty  indicates  a  short  rather  than  a 
long  menstrual  life.  So  also,  habitual  pain  at  the 
menstrual  period  indicates  pretty  certainly  much  pain 
and  suffering  at  the  meno-pause. 

A  Critical  Period. — This  period  is  one  of  the 
most  critical  epochs  of  a  woman's  life.  Upon  the 
manner  in  which  she  passes  through  it,  depends 
her  future  health  and  happiness  in  a  very  great  de- 
gree. The  perturbations  in  the  general  system  which 
occur  at  this  time  are  of  a  character  so  profound 
as  to  be  wholly  inexplicable  were  not  the  intimate 
relations  of  the  ovaries  with  the  general  system 
through  their  nervous  connections  so  thoroughly  un- 
derstood. During  the  period  of  menstrual  activity, 
a  woman's  system  is  affected,  we  may  almost  say, 
dominated,  by  the  influence  of  these  two  little  glands 
in  a  most  remarkable  manner.  The  relation  between 
the  ovaries  and  the  digestive  functions  must  be 
familiar  to  every  one.  The  nausea  which  is  induced 
by  simply  pressing  upon  the  ovaries,  especially  if 
they  are  in  the  slightest  degree  irritable,  is  evi- 
dence of  the  reflex  influence  which  they  exert  upon 
other  important  abdominal  organs.  Either  an  ex- 
cess or  a  deficiency  of  the  proper  influence  of  these 


organs  over  other  parts  of  the  system  may  be  produc- 
tive of  disease,  and  to  an  extent  even  more  than  is  at 
present  well  understood. 

In  view  of  these  facts  it  is  not  to  be  wondered 
at  that  the  removal  of  an  influence  so  profound  should 
be  accompanied  by  a  greater  or  less  degree  of  general 
disturbance.  The  period  during  which  these  disturb- 
ances are  observable  lasts  from  a  few  months  to 
several  years.  The  average  period  from  the  time 
when  the  first  irregularities  are  noticed  to  the  entire 
cessation  of  the  menstrual  flow  is  about  two  and  one- 
fifth  years. 

The  degree  of  disturbance  observed  during  this 
period  is  exceedingly  variable.  Much  depends  upon 
the  condition  of  the  system  when  the  period  is 
reached.  A  woman  who  comes  to  this  critical  epoch 
of  her  life  with  a  constitution  unimpaired  by  fashiona- 
ble dressing  or  dissipation  or  by  excesses  of  any  kind, 
may  hope  to  pass  through  it  safely  and  quickly,  avoid- 
ing the  numerous  dangers  which  at  this  time  beset 
the  pathway  of  her  sister  who  has  recklessly  ignored 
the  demands  of  nature  and  the  dictates  of  reason  m 
respect  to  the  care  of  her  health.  A  woman  who  has 
ail  her  life  been  feeble,  a  sufferer  from  "  female  weak- 
nesses "  of  various  sorts,  will  find  this  period  a  verita- 
ble "Pandora's  box"  of  ills,  and  may  well  look 
forward  to  it  with  apprehension  and  foreboding.  It  is 
well,  indeed,  if  being  forewarned,  she  begins  in  time  to 
correct  the  various  faults  of  habit  and  regimen  which 
have  a  direct  or  indirect  tendency  to  increase  the 
perils  of  the  approaching  crisis.  A  proper  preparar 
tion  for  this  eventful  period  will  do  more  to  mitigate 

THE  WIFE,  373 

its  sufferings  and  hasten  it  to  a  happy  termination 
thaiuall  the  prescriptions  which  can  be  compounded 
by  the  most  skillful  physicians.  Hence  the  attention 
which  we  give  to  this  important  subject  here.  In 
this  case  as  in  many  others  the  homely  adage,  "  an 
ounce  of  prevention  is  better  than  a  pound  of  "cure," 
is  peculiarly  applicable. 

As  a  rule,  the  first  indication  ol  the  approach  of 
the  meno-pause  is  irregularity  of  the  menstrual  flow, 
either  in  time  or  in  quantity,  or  in  both.  In  excep- 
tional cases  there  is  a  sudden  cessation  of  the  flow, 
there  being  no  return  of  the  function,  even  in  a  slight 
degree.  This  should  not  be  considered  a  cause  for 
alarm,  when  it  does  occur,  as  is  likely  to  be  the  case 
on  account  of  the  numerous  popular  superstitions  re- 
specting this  period.  There  is  no  danger  to  the  sys- 
tem in  any  way  from  such  a  sudden  suspension  of 
the  function,  provided  opportunity  is  given  for  the 
system  to  recover  its  balance  by  perspiration  or  other- 
wise. The  most  common  mode  of  termination  is  a 
gradual  diminution  of  the  flow  until  it  ceases  alto- 
gether. Sometimes  a  profuse  flooding  terminates  the 
function,  and  in  other  cases  a  succession  of  such  flood- 
ings  occur.  With  some  women  the  flow  is  alternately 
scanty  and  profuse  for  a  few  months  before  it  wholly 
ceases,  while  with  others  the  quantity  is  normal  but 
the  time  either  shortened  or  lengthened  or  irregular 
in  both  ways,  until  suspension  occurs. 

Other  symptoms  besides  those  immediately  con- 
nected with  the  function,  almost  invariably  mark  the 
approach  of  this  epoch  and  characterize  its  continu- 
ance.    There  is  in  almost  all  cases  a  decline  in  health 



more  or  less  marked  in  degree.  The  strength  is  di- 
minished, and  in  many  instances  there  is  loss  of  flesh 
as  well.  The  appetite  is  capricious  and  morbid,  as  at 
the  beginning  of  the  period  of  menstrual  activity. 
Various  disturbances  of  the  stomach,  bowels,  bladder, 
and  even  kidneys  are  to  be  noted.  Cutaneous  erup- 
tions often  occur,  particularly  a  form  of  acne  of  the 
face.  The  patient  perhaps  complains  of  symptoms 
referring  to  the  heart,  also  the  lungs  and  other  vital 
organs,  all  of  which  are  found  on  examination  to  be 
of  a  purely  reflex  character.  The  expression  of  the 
face  often  changes  in  a  marked  degree;  and  some- 
times there  is  a  marked  growth  of  hair  on  the  chin  or 
upper  lip. 

-  But  by  far  the  most  noticeable  symptoms  are 
those  which  relate  to  the  nervous  system.  The  neu- 
ralgias, nervousness,  fidgets,  and  hysterias,  which  af- 
flict some  women  at  this  period  are  such  as  to  render 
life  wholly  undesirable.  "  Flushings  "  are  among  the 
most  constant  of  the  symptoms  referable  to  the  nerv- 
ous system.  This  is  due  to  the  reflex  influence  of  the 
ovaries  upon  the  vaso-rnotor  system.  A  sudden  rushing 
of  blood  to  a  part,  accompanied  by  excessive  heat  and 
often  violent  throbbing,  renders  the  patient  really 
wretched  by  its  frequency.  Any  part  of  the  body 
may  be  affected,  but  the  head  or  face  and  neck  are 
the  favorite  seat  of  the  affection.  The  hands,  feet, 
legs,  and  trunk  of  the  body  may  be  affected  in  the 
same  manner.  The  phenomenon  is  precisely  the  same 
as  that  of  blushing,  and  indeed  this  may  be  said  to  be 
a  sort  of  "pathological  blushing."  This  sudden  afflux 
of  blood  to  any  part  may  occur  as  often  as  several 

THE   WIFE.  375 

times  an  hour,  or  may  be  as  infrequent  as  half  a  dozen 
times  a  day.  The  paroxysm  usually  lasts  not  more 
than  ten  minutes,  and  is  succeeded  by  a  profuse  per- 
spiration, which  relieves  the  surcharged  blood-vessels 
of  their  repletion.  When  the  heat  is  not  succeeded 
by  the  perspiration,  it  is  familiarly  termed  "dry 
flushing,"  which  is  much  more  disagreeable  than 
the  other  form  of  the  malady,  since  the  surcharged 
blood-vessels  are  not  emptied  of  their  contents  by  the 
exudation  of  serum. 

Sometimes  nausea  and  vomiting  accompany  the 
flushing,  as  does  invariably  a  feeling  of  weakness  and 
malaise  to  which  the  patient  should  yield  herself,  se- 
curing quiet  and  repose  until  the  equilibrium  of  the 
circulation  is  restored.  Sometimes  the  congestion  of 
the  head  becomes  so  intense  as  to  make  apoplexy 
imminent;  and,  indeed,  cases  of  paralysis  have  oc- 
curred at  such  a  time  in  a  few  instances. 

Another  unpleasant  complication  of  these  attacks 
is  the  intense  mental  excitement  which  often  accom- 
panies them,  and  which  sometimes  amounts  to  actual 
delirium  or  mania.  On  account  of  this  tendency,  they 
ought  not  to  be  regarded  lightly  or  unworthy  of 
prompt  and  efficient  attention. 

Profuse  perspirations,  sometimes  so  copious  as  to 
saturate  the  bed-clothing,  is  also  a  common  symptom 
of  this  condition.  These  may  follow  a  "  flushing,"  or 
may  occur  independently.  They  are  most  apt  to 
occur  during  sleep.  They  follow,  also,  mental  or  nerv- 
ous excitement  almost  invariably. 

Other  general  symptoms  occur  with  greater  or  less 
frequency  and  prominence,  as  general  debility,  chloro- 


sis,  biliousness,  headache,  pain  in  the  back  and  bowels, 
sick  headaches,  hemorrhoids  or  piles,  diarrhoea,  con- 
stipation, dropsy,  bloating  of  the  face,  swelling  of 
the  hands  or  feet,  frequent  fainting,  irritation  and 
swelling  of  breasts,  neuralgia  or  rheumatism  of  joints, 
leucorrhoea,  pain  in  chest  with  or  without  cough, 
false  pregnancy,  nettle  rash,  water  brash,  inconti- 
nence of  urine,  numbness  in  limbs,  prickling  sensation 
in  hands  and  arms,  epilepsy,  fits  of  laughing  and 
crying,  irritation  of  the  rectum,  vicarious  hemorrhages, 
as  from  nose,  stomach,  varicose  veins,  and  even  skin, 
boils  near  the  anus,  peeling  of  nails,  falling  off  of  nails, 
inflammation  of  the  eye  and  weak  vision,  toothache, 
neuralgia  of  vulva,  itching  of  vulva,  inflammation  of 
vagina,  sciatica,  and  unnatural  drowsiness. 

The  great  liability  to  the  formation  of  morbid 
growths  at  this  time  is  also  a  prominent  feature  of 
the  pathology  of  the  meno-pause.  This  applies  par- 
ticularly to  polypi  and  fibroid  growths  of  the  uterus. 
Cancer  must  also  be  mentioned  as  one  of  the  morbid 
conditions  which  frequently  chooses  this  as  the  favor- 
able moment  for  it  to  establish  itself.  If  the  neck  of 
the  womb  has  been  previously  torn  by  childbirth,  or  if 
the  nutrition  of  the  organ  has  been  impaired  by  the 
practice  of  abortion,  the  occurrence  of  cancer  at  this 
time  is  rendered  much  more  probable. 

A  peculiar  form  of  morbid  growth  known  as  u  vas- 
cular tumor  of  the  urethra  "  is  also  likely  to  make  its 
appearance  at  this  time.  We  have  operated  upon  a 
large  number  of  these  tumors,  and  have  found  by  far 
the  greater  number  in  women  at  or  near  the  meno- 

THE   WIFE.  377 

pause,  although  the  affection  is  by  no  means  confined 
to  this  class. 

But  we  have  not  yet  mentioned  the  most  promi- 
nent class  of  symptoms  which  characterize  this  impor- 
tant period,  viz.,  those  which  relate  to  the  mind. 
The  mental  symptoms  are  quite  as  marked  and  prom- 
inent in  most  cases  as  are  those  which  relate  to  any 
part  of  the  system.  Often  there  is  an  entire  and 
most  remarkable  change  in  disposition.  A  kind,  pa- 
tient mother,  or  forbearing,  confiding,  exemplary  wife, 
becomes  irritable,  unreasonable,  and  suspicious.  Her 
natural  modesty  may  even  give  place  to  wantonness 
in  extreme  cases,  and  the  mother's  instincts  may  be- 
come so  thoroughly  obliterated  as  to  give  place  to  an 
almost  uncontrollable  desire  to  take  the  lives  of  her 
little  ones.  The  once  happy  woman  becomes  de- 
spondent, moody,  and  taciturn.  She  avoids  company, 
has  no  taste  for  amusements,  and  spends  her  time  in 
watching  her  varying  symptoms,  and  bewailing  her 
real  and  imaginary  woes.  In  many  cases,  actual  in- 
sanity, usually  of  a  temporary  character,  fortunately, 
is  the  result  of  the  profound  disturbances  which  the 
system  undergoes  at  this  time. 

Although  this  is  but  a  hasty  and  imperfect  sketch 
of  this  critical  epoch  in  a  woman's  life,  we  must 
hasten  to  consider  what  may  be  done  to  prevent  and 
ameliorate  these  various  morbid  conditions. 

Hygiene  of  the  Change  of  Life. — The  best  way 
for  a  woman  to  prepare  for  the  crisis  which  we  have 
briefly  described,  is  to  live  healthfully  and  physiologic- 
ally in  every  particular,  as  we  have  described  in  the 
foregoing  pages  of  the  work.     In  matters  pertaining 


to  dress,  diet,  and  exercise,  it  is  particularly  important 
that  all  the  laws  of  health  be  scrupulously  obeyed. 
If  this  has  been  done  from  early  childhood,  happy 
will  be  the  transit  through  the  stormy  sea  of 
the  climacteric ;  but  if  the  reverse  has  been  the  case, 
there  are  dangerous  breakers  ahead.  If  there  is  no 
time  for  preparation,  the  necessary  reforms  should  be 
at  once  adopted  as  the  most  certain  means  of  avoid- 
ing the  worst  evils,  and  by  the  aid  of  a  few  practical 
suggestions,  much  can  be  done  to  redeem  the  time. 

On  the  appearance  of  the  first  indication  of  the 
approaching  change,  the  woman  should  be  relieved  of 
all  taxing  cares,  and  should  be  placed  under  such  cir- 
cumstances as  to  secure  quiet,  and  mental  and  physi- 
cal repose.  If  she  must  remain  at  home,  she  must  be 
shielded  from  the  thousand  and  one  petty  annoyances 
which  creep  into  the  best  regulated  domestic  circles. 
Induce  her  to  take  a  liberal  allowance  of  out-of-door 
exercise  daily.  Carriage  riding  is  especially  to  be 
recommended,  as  it  provides  gentle  exercise  with  en- 
tertainment. The  diet  should  be  amply  nourishing 
and  varied,  but .  unstimulating.  Nothing  is  better 
than  the  fruits  and  grains  prepared  in  various  simple 
but  palatable  ways.  Tea  and  coffee  are  especially  ob- 
jectionable, as  are  all  forms  of  alcoholic  beverages,  to- 
gether with  "  bitters"  of  every  description. 

A  tri-weekly  warm  bath  will  be  found  exceedingly 
soothing  to  the  irritable  nerves.  Gentle  rubbing  ad- 
ministered daily  will  be  of  special  advantage  also; 
sponging  the  spine  alternately  with  hot  and  cold 
water  once  or  twice  a  day,  ten  to  twenty  minutes  at 
a  time,  will  be  found  of  special  service  also. 

THE   WIFE.  379 

The  pain  in  the  back  may  usually  be  removed  by 
means  of  hot  fomentations  applied  very  thoroughly 
for  half  an  hour  once  or  twice  a  day.  The  pain  and 
tenderness  often  present  in  the  lower  part  of  the  bow- 
els may  be  relieved  by  the  same  means  applied  over 
the  seat  of  pain.  Another  very  useful  measure  is  the 
application  <?f  heat  to  the  sacrum  by  means  of  a  hot 
brick  or  water-bag  and  a  cold  bag  over  the  seat  of  pain 
in  front.  This  application  may  be  continued  from  two 
to  four  hours  daily  with  benefit  in  these  cases  when 
quite  obstinate. 

Another  simple  measure  of  great  value  as  a  pre- 
ventive of  local  inflammations,  and  a  means  of  con- 
trolling a  tendency  to  hemorrhage  and  removing  con- 
gestion of  the  uterus  and  ovaries,  is  the  vaginal 
douche,  full  directions  for  taking  which  are  given  in 
the  appendix.  This  measure  alone  used  daily  or 
twice  a  day,  is  worth  more  than  all  the  other  measures 
known  to  the  medical  profession  combined,  if  thor- 
oughly administered. 

Warm  sitz  baths  are  also  of  advantage,  and  may 
be  recommended  for  use  in  most  cases. 

To  relieve  the  "  flushings  "  of  the  face  ana  head; 
no  remedy  works  so  promptly  as  hot  sponging  of  the 
congested  parts  and  hot  fomentations  of  the  spine. 
The  same  principle  applies  when  other  parts  of  the 
body  are  affected  as  well  as  the  head. 

For  the  profuse  sweating,  hot  salt  sponging,  at  a 
temperature  as  high  as  can  be  borne,  is  an  excellent 
means  of  treatment.  If  not  successful,  equal  parts  of 
alcohol  and  water  may  be  used  instead.  Special  ail- 
ments should  receive  special  treatment,  either  as  di- 


rected  in  the  concluding  portion  of  this  work,  or  by  a 
competent  physician. 

One  more  question  remains  to  be  answered  in  case 
the  patient  is  a  married  lady,  the  question  of  the  mar- 
ital relations  during  this  change.  There  are  undoubt- 
edly cases  in  which  the  perturbed  state  of  the  sexual 
as  well  as  of  the  nervous  system  gives  rise  to  an  un- 
natural excitement  of  the  sexual  desires  at  this  epoch, 
but  that  such  is  rarely  the  case  is  the  uniform  testi- 
mony of  those  whose  experience  qualifies  them  to 
testify  on  the  subject.  As  a  rule  the  appetite  for 
the  physical  pleasures  of  the  marriage  bed  are  during 
this  time  greatly  in  abeyance,  if  not  wholly  extin- 
guished. It  is  evidently  the  design  of  Nature  to  pro- 
tect the  nervous  system  of  the  woman  from  the  tem- 
pestuous excitements  which  she  is  unqualified  to  en- 
dure without  damage  not  only  to  the  system  as  a 
whole,  but  to  that  portion  of  the  vital  economy  chiefly 
involved  in  the  act.  There  is  no  doubt  but  that  sex- 
ual congress  at  this  time  is  a  very  common  cause  of 
intensifying  all  the  numerous  inconveniences  and 
physical,  mental,  and  nervous  ailments  which  are  at- 
tendant upon  this  period,  and  hence  continence  is  to 
be  not  only  recommended  but  enjoined  as  one  of  the 
most  essential  hygienic  measures  by  which  a  safe  and 
rapid  transit  through  the  turbulent  period  of  sexual 
decline  may  be  insured. 


The  Mother, 

I  HE  motherly  instinct  is  without  doubt  the 
ruling  passion  in  the  heart  of  the  true  wo- 
man. The  cexual  nature  of  woman  finds 
expression  in  this  channel  when  her  life  is 
a  normal  one,  rather  than  in  the  grosser 
forms  of  sexual  activity.  In  modern  times 
there  seems  to  be  a  tendency  to  the  oblit- 
eration of  the  instinct  which  makes  mother- 
hood desirable  and  regards  it  with  respect ; 
but  every  true  woman  will  recognize  the 
demoralizing  nature  of  this  unhallowed  influence,  and 
will  lift  her  voice  in  solemn  protest  against  it.  In 
no  sphere  does  woman  so  well  display  her  Eden-born 
graces  of  character  so  excellently  as  when  fulfilling  her 
duties  in  nurturing  and  training  for  usefulness  the 
plastic  minds  and  forms  which  have  been  intrusted  to 
her  care.  We  behold  with  admiration  the  canvass  of 
a  Raphael  or  a  Michael  Angelo ;  we  stand  with 
speechless  wonderment  before  the  recovered  marble 
of  a  Phidias  or  a  Praxiteles ;  we  are  almost  ready 
to  bend  the  knee  in  adoration  of  the  lofty  genius 
which  gave  birth  to  these  marvelous  works  of  art  which 
have  immortalized  their  creators ;  but  which  of  all 
of  these  can  for  a  moment  compare  with  the  work  in- 



trusted  to  the  mother,  the  task  of  molding  a  mind, 
of  modeling  a  character,  not  for  time  only,  but  for 

Let  the  purity  and  dignity  of  motherhood  be 
magnified.  Let  woman  be  taught  that  in  the  per 
formance  of  her  Heaven-intrusted  task  she  is  fulfill- 
ing a  mission  so  lofty  and  so  sacred  that  none  other 
can  ever  approach  to  it.  We  do  not  say  that  woman 
should  never  aspire  to  any  calling  outside  the  prov- 
ince of  the  domestic  circle ;  but  we  do  most  emphatic- 
ally denounce  as  false  and  in  the  highest  degree 
perverting  in  its  tendency,  the  notion  that  the 
mother's  mission  is  a  lowly  one,  unsuited  to  the  capa- 
bilities of  a  brilliant  intellect.  Such  teaching  is  in 
the  highest  degree  mischievous.  Any  mother  may 
find  within  the  scope  of  her  own  family  circle  ample 
opportunity  for  the  full  employment  of  the  noblest 
endowments  of  mind  and  soul  which  have  ever  been 
bestowed  upon  a  human  being. 

The  Prospective  Mother. — The  woman  who  for 
the  first  time  recognizes  the  fact  that  she  will  in  the 
natural  course  of  events  in  a  few  months  become  a 
mother,  naturally  finds  her  mind  occupied  with  new 
thoughts  and  curious  questions  on  a  variety  of  themes 
which  may  never  have  interested  her  before.  If  she 
possesses  the  true  mother's  instincts  she  will  earnestly 
inquire  how  her  own  habits  of  life,  her  thoughts  and 
actions,  may  affect  the  well-being  of  her  developing 
child.  Possibly  she  may  never  have  heard  of  the 
marvelous  influence  of  heredity  in  molding  not  only 
the  form  but  the  character  of  the  unborn;  but  in- 
stinct teaches  her  that  her  own  conditions  in  some 


way  affect  those  of  her.  child,  and  that  for  a  period 
she  must  think,  act,  and  live  for  another  besides  her- 
self. One  of  the  most  powerful  means  of  impressing 
indelibly  upon  the  mind  the  necessity  for  care  and 
proper  training,  mental  and  moral,  as  well  as  physi- 
cal, during  the  period  of  pregnancy  and  lactation,  is  a 
presentation  of  the  principles  and  facts  of 


We  have  not  space  here  to  enter  into  the  de^ 
tails  of  this  somewhat  intricate  department  of  biol- 
ogy, and  can  only  call  attention  to  a  few  of  its 
leading  features  which  are  of  special  practical  value 
in  this  connection. 

"  Like  father  like  son,'11  is  a  homely  adage,  the  cor- 
rectness of  which  is  rarely  questioned ;  and  "  like 
mother  like  daughter"  would  be  equally  true.  A 
careful  study  of  the  subject  of  heredity  has  estab- 
lished as  a  scientific  fact  the  principle  that  sons  as  a 
rule  most  resemble  the  father,  and  daughters  the 
mother,  although  there  are  often  observed  marked 
exceptions  to  the  rule.  The  degree  to  which  this 
hereditary  tendency  exists,  and  how  it  may  be  utilized 
to  the  improvement  of  the  race  is  a  question  of  inter- 
est which  we  may  profitably  consider.  Unfortu- 
nately, the  question  of  "  pedigree  "  receives  very  little 
attention  so  far  as  human  beings  are  concerned.  If  a 
man  is  about  to  expend  a  thousand  dollars  for  a  fine 
horse,  he  inquires  with  great  care  into  the  ancestry 
of  the  animal.  The  owner  must  be  able  to  show  a 
record    of  lineal  and  unmixed  descent  from  parents 


of  pure  stock,  or  its  value  will  be  greatly  depreciated 
in  the  eyes  of  the  purchaser. 

Stock  raisers  appreciate  in  the  highest  degree  the 
fact  that  "  blood  "  is  a  thing  of  market  value,  and  not 
to  be  ignored  in  the  slightest  degree.  In  matters 
which  relate  to  the  welfare  of  their  own  race,  how- 
ever, eternal  as  well  as  temporal,  human  beings  seem 
to  ignore  the  principles  which  they  so  readily  recog- 
nize in  lower  species. 

A  young  man  seeking  a  wife,  or  a  young  woman 
considering  the  eligibility  of  a  young  man  to  be- 
come her  husband,  asks  no  questions  about  pedigree. 
The  question,  At  what  age  did  your  father  or  mother, 
or  grandfather  or  grandmother  die,  or  of  what  disease, 
is  rarely  if  ever  asked  as  having  any  bearing  on  the 
subject  of  marriage.  Family  tendencies  to  scrofula, 
consumption,  insanity,  epilepsy,  or  any  one  of  numer- 
ous other  lines  of  physical  degeneracy,  to  say  nothing 
of  vicious  moral  and  mental  tendencies,  are  never 
taken  into  consideration. 

Race  Deterioration.  —  In  consequence  of  this 
neglect  of  one  of  the  primary  conditions  of  healthy 
parentage,  the  race  is  daily  deteriorating  in  spite  of 
the  efforts  of  sanitarians  and  health  teachers.  Sani- 
tary laws  respecting  the  care  of  cities  and  of  indi- 
viduals may  be  ever  so  thorough  and  complete,  and 
may  be  enforced  with  the  most  scrupulous  rigor, 
yet  the  race  will  continue  to  degenerate  so  long  as 
this  matter  of  heredity  is  neglected ;  for  "  blood  will 
tell,"  whether  good  or  bad,  and  the  great  prepon- 
derance of  "  bad  blood  "  is  the  fatal  element  at  work 
undermining  the  constitution  of  the  race  and  destined 


ultimately  to  destroy  it,  if  some  means  is  not  taken 
to  prevent  its  baneful  influence. 

We  are  fully  aware  that  this  view  of  the  pros- 
pects of  the  race  is  a  very  unpopular  one ;  but  con- 
siderable study  of  the  subject  has  convinced  us  that 
the  conclusion  we  have  drawn  is  the  only  correct  one. 
Defects  of  body  and  mind,  as  well  as  of  morals,  are 
growing  yearly  more  abundant.  Two  persons  possess- 
ing these  defects  unite  in  marriage,  and  their  defects 
are  many  times  increased  in  intensity  in  their  chil- 

A  quaint  writer  in  speaking  on  the  subject  of 
heredity  and  indiscriminate  marriage,  utters  the  truth 
in  the  following  very  forcible  words  : — 

"  By  our  too  much  facility  in  this  kind,  in  giving 
way  for  all  to  marry  that  will,  too  much  liberty  and 
indulgence  in  tolerating  all  sorts,  there  is  a  vast  con- 
fusion of  breed  and  diseases,  no  family  secure,  no  man 
almost  free  from  some  grievous  infirmity  or  other, 
when  no  choice  is  had,  but  still  the  eldest  must 
marry  .  .  .  .  or,  if  rich,  be  they  fools  or  diz- 
zards,  lame  or  maimed,  unable,  intemperate,  dissolute, 
exhaust  through  riot,  as  it  is  said,  jure  hcereditatis 
sapere  jubentur,  they  must  be  wise  and  able  by  inherit- 
ance; it  comes  to  pass  that  our  generation  is  cor- 
rupt, we  have  many  weak  persons,  both  in  body  and 
mind,  many  feral  diseases  raging  amongst  us,  crazed 
families,  parentes  peremptores ;  our  fathers  bad,  and 
we  are  like  to  be  worse."* 

The  stock-breeder  modifies  the  form  and  mental 
and  nervous  qualities  of  his  animals  almost  at  will. 

*  Burton's  Anatomy  of  Melancholy. 


He  increases  or  lessens  length  of  body  or  legs,  and  in- 
creases or  decreases  any  particular  feature  of  muscu- 
lar development.  Under  his  manipulations,  the  com- 
mon race  of  horses  yields  in  obedience  to  his  will,  the 
carriage  horse  or  cart  horse,-  the  racer  or  the  roadster, 
each  with  special  qualities  and  characteristics  which 
enable  him  to  excel  in  a  particular  direction. 

Interesting  Illustrations. — Every  breeder  knows 
that  not  only  good  traits  but  disease  and  vicious 
tendencies  are  transmissible.  Broken  wind,  spavin, 
arid  numerous  other  diseases  are  well-known  to  be 
inherited  in  horses,  as  also  defects,  even  when  ac- 
cidentally produced.  It  is  asserted  that  when  sev- 
eral generations  of  horses  have  been  marked  with  a 
red-hot  iron  in  the  same  spot,  the  colts  sometimes 
acquire  the  same  marking. 

The  well-known  variety  of  sheep  known  as  the 
ancon  originated  in  a  male  lamb  born  of  an  ordinary 
sheep,  but  possessing  the  peculiarity  of  a  long  body, 
short  legs,  and  crooked  fore-legs.  These  qualities 
being  desirable  as  they  rendered  the  animal  unable  to 
leap  fences  with  the  usual  facility,  the  same  qualities 
were  produced  in  others  by  breeding  from  the  origi- 
nal, and  thus  a  distinct  breed  of  sheep  has  been  pro- 

It  is  undoubtedly  in  a  similar  manner  that  the 
flies  of  some  of  the  windy  islands  of  the  Pacific  Ocean 
have  lost  their  wings,  without  which  they  are  much 
better  fitted  to  meet  the  gales  to  which  they  are  al- 
most constantly  exposed. 

An  army  officer  who  had  acquired  a  deformity  of 
the   little  finger  as  the  resutt  of  a  gunshot   wound, 

THE  MOTHER.  387 

transmitted  the  same  to  his  children  and  thence  to 
his  grandchildren. 

Acquired  habits  are  often  transmitted.  This  is 
noticed  in  a  marked  degree  in  the  various  breeds  of 
dogs.  The  shepherd  dog  takes  naturally  to  his  task; 
and  the  pointer  needs  scarcely  any  training  to  make 
him  proficient  in  his  particular  line.  That  the  dispo- 
sition to  use  the  left  hand  runs  in  families  is  a  famil- 
iar fact.  A  curious  example  is  given  in  which  the 
habit  of  crossing  the  legs  in  a  peculiar  manner  during 
sleep  was  transmitted  through  two  generations. 

A  remarkable  example  of  heredity  appears  in  the 
case  of  the  Lambert  family.  More  than  a  century 
and  a  half  ago  a  boy  of  fourteen  appeared  before  the 
Royal  Society  of  England,  possessing  a  peculiarity, 
which  attached  to  him  the  appellation  of  the  "  Porcu- 
pine Man,"  consisting  of  a  thick  covering  of  horny 
scales  or  bristles  which  gave  to  his  integument  the 
appearance  of  that  of  a  hedgehog  with  its  quills 
trimmed  to  about  an  inch  in  length.  This  peculiarity, 
accidentally  acquired  through  some  abnormality  of  the 
developmental  process,  was  transmitted  to  his  sons 
and  grandsons.  The  narrator  remarks  concerning 
this  curious  freak  of  nature,  "  It  appears,  therefore, 
past  all  doubt,  that  a  race  of  people  may  be  propa- 
gated by  this  man  having  such  rugged  coats,  or  cov- 
erings as  himself;  and  if  this  should  ever  happen, 
and  the  accidental  original  be  forgotten,  it  is  not  im- 
probable they  might  be  deemed  a  different  species  of 

Dr.  Brown  Sequard,  an  eminent  French  physiolo- 
gist, has  succeeded  in  inducing  epilepsy  in  Guinea-pigs, 


and  has  observed  that  even  when  thus  artificially  in- 
duced, the  disease  is  transmitted  to  the  young  of  the 
diseased  animals. 

It  has  also  been  observed  that  the  conditions  re- 
sulting from  overwork  or  ill  usage  of  an  animal  are 
readily  transmitted  to  the  young. 

Mr.  Francis  Galton,  who  has  probably  made  the 
most  careful  study  of  the  hereditary  influences  which 
produce  men  of  genius,  tells  us  that  nearly  all  men  of 
great  talent,  jurists,  statesmen,  commanders,  artists, 
scientists,  poets,  and  clergymen,  have  had  parents  of 
marked  ability.  Of  the  two  parents,  the  father  has 
the  precedence  in  the  proportion  of  seven  to  three ; 
but  this  is  no  greater  difference  in  favor  of  the  male 
than  would  naturally  result  from  the  superior  adva% 
tages  afforded  men  for  the  development  of  genius. 

One  curious  fact  is  that  eminent  divines  seem  to 
inherit  their  ability  from  their  mothers  much  more 
frequently  than  their  fathers,  the  proportion  being 
nearly  three  to  one  in  favor  of  mothers,  from  which 
he  concludes  that  mothers  transmit  piety  to  their 
children  in  a  larger  measure  than  fathers. 

If  true,  this  certainly  speaks  well  for  the  piety  of 
women ;  but  we  question  the  correctness  of  the  con- 
clusion, for  we  are  by  no  means  certain  that  the 
qualities  which  contribute  the  most  largely  to  the 
eminence  of  distinguished  divines  are  not  other  than 
those  which  constitute  piety.  Learning,  eloquence, 
and  other  traits  which  make  men  famous  in  other 
callings  are  more  often  the  chief  factors. 

The  difference  in  the  aptitude  for  acquiring  knowl- 
edge, which  is  very  apparent  between  the  negro  and 

THE  MOTHER.  389 

the  Caucasian  races,  is  almost  equally  marked  when 
the  children  of  the  ignorant  and  the  cultivated  classes 
of  the  white  race  are  compared.  In  both  cases  the 
influence  of  heredity  is  apparent. 

That  moral  as  well  as  mental  qualities  are  trans- 
mitted from  parent  to  child  is  also  evident  from  the 
observation  of  what  are  known  as  the  criminal  classes, 
in  whom  the  hereditary  tendency  to  crime  is  so  appar- 
ent that  in  England,  institutions  have  been  organized 
to  provide  for  the  care  of  the  children  of  criminals  in 
the  hope  that  by  correct  early  training  something  may 
be  done  toward  reclaiming  them. 

The  habit  or  vice  of  the  parent  becomes  in  the 
child  an  almost  irresistible  tendency.  This  is  appar- 
ent in  the  children  of  drunkards,  thieves,  libertines, 
and  prostitutes,  and  we  do  not  doubt  that  farther  in- 
vestigation and  careful  study  of  the  subject  will  show 
that  the  tobacco,  opium,  chloral,  and  other  similar 
habits,  and  possibly  also  the  excessive  use  by  parents 
of  tea  and  coffee  and  of  stimulating  condiments, 
stamp  the  progeny  with  vicious  tendencies  which 
either  lead  directly  to  the  formation  of  similar  habits 
or  worse  ones,  or  establish  diseased  conditions  which 
sooner  or  later  develop  into  serious  or  even  fatal  mal- 

No  better  illustration  of  the  fact  of  the  inheritance 
of  a  tendency  to  vice  could  be  asked  than  is  afforded 
by  the  notorious  Juke  family  of  New  York.  From 
five  unchaste  sisters  have  sprung  a  family  of  1200 
persons,  nearly  all  of  whom,  at  least  of  those  living, 
are  the  occupants  of  jails,  work-houses,  poor-houses, 
or  houses  of  bad  repute.     Nearly  half  are  known  to 



be  contaminated  with  the  foulest  of  all  diseases  to 
which  human  beings  are  subject 

The  hereditary  tendency  to  vice  and  crime  Is  one 
which  deserves  more  attention  than  it  now  receives 
from  our  law-makers  and  administrators  as  well  as 
from  parents.  It  is  really  impossible  to  justly  esti- 
mate the  degree  of  an  individual's  guilt  without  know- 
ing something  of  his  hereditary  tendencies.  We  do 
not  propose  that  persons  with  hereditary  tendencies 
to  theft  and  other  crimes  shall  be  excused  on  that 
account,  but  rather  that  they  should  be  punished  in  a 
different  manner  from  other  criminals. 

The  Chinese  are  certainly  a  hundred  years  ahead  of 
us  in  their  administration  of  justice,  at  least  in  this 
particular.  In  that  country,  careful  inquiry  is  made 
in  each  case  as  to  the  family  history  of  the  prisoner 
and  the  possible  hereditary  tendencies  which  he  may 
have  received  from  his  parents. 

Very  recently  an  example  of  hereditary  influence 
in  a  bad  direction  has  been  exhibited  before  the  whole 
country  in  the  person  of  the  assassin,  Guiteau.  Ac- 
cording to  the  testimony  given  in  this  case,  the  pris- 
oner's mother  was  wholly  unreconciled  to  her  condi- 
tion during  pregnancy  previous  to  his  birth,  and 
resorted  to  every  possible  means  of  producing  an 
abortion  by  means  of  drugs.  He  came  into  the  world 
an  "unwelcome  child,"  his  body  weakened  by  the 
violence  done  it,  his  nervous  system  depraved  by  the 
excited  and  turbulent  condition  of  his  mother  during 
his  development,  and  his  mind  stamped  with  the  reck- 
less disregard  for  human  life  felt  by  his  mother  in  her 
unsuccessful  attempts  to  destroy  her  helpless,  unborn 


babe.  Are  there  not  thousands  of  just  such  unbal- 
anced and  erratic  minds  whose  bias  toward  evil  has 
been  obtained  in  the  same  manner  ?  What  would  be 
the  children  of  such  a  father  as  Guiteau  ?  Are  there 
not  thousands  of  just  such  little  ones  growing  up  in 
the  heart  of  every  large  city  at  this  very  moment  ? 
Is  it  any  marvel  that  our  prisons  and  insane  asylums 
are  full  to  overflowing  ? 

The  poets  Coleridge,  father  and  son,  illustrate 
this  same  principle.  The  father  was  an  opium-eater, 
and  as  a  result  of  yielding  to  the  fascination  of  the 
habit,  he  was  reduced  to  such  a  state  that  he  said  of 
himself  that  not  only  in  reference  to  his  habit  but  in 
all  the  relations  of  life  his  will  was  utterly  powerless. 
His  son  inherited  his  father's  propensities  and  weak- 
ness of  will.  His  favorite  poison  was  alcohol,  how- 
ever, instead  of  opium.  The  following  is  his  brother's 
description  of  him :  "  A  certain  infirmity  of  will  had 
already  shown  itself.  His  sensibility  was  intense, 
and  he  had  not  wherewithal  to  control  it.  He  could 
not  open  a  letter  without  trembling.  He  shrank  from 
mental  pain;  he  was  beyond  measure  impatient  of 
constraint.  .  .  .  He  yielded,  as  it  were  uncon- 
sciously, to  slight  temptations, — slight  in  themselves, 
and  slight  to  him,  as  if  swayed  by  a  mechanical  impulse 
apart  from  his  own  volition.  It  looked  like  an  organic 
defect,  a  congenital  imperfection." 

He  well  understood  his  condition,  as  is  evidenced 
by  the  following  reference  to  himself  which  occurs  in 
one  of  his  works  : — 

"  Oh  !  woful  impotence  of  weak  resolve, 
Recorded  rashly  to  the  writer's  shame, 


Days  pass  away,  and  time's  large  orbs  revolve, 
And  every  day  beholds  me  still  the  same, 
Till  oft-neglected  purpose  loses  aim, 
And  hope  becomes  a  flat,  unheeded  lie." 

The  senior  Coleridge,  as  well  as  the  younger,  was 
well  aware  of  his  weakness,  and  kept  himself  con- 
stantly under  the  care  of  an  attendant  to  prevent  him 
from  yielding  to  his  propensities. 

One  of  the  most  talented  of  modern  essayists  * 
has  looked  deeply  into  this  subject  and  thus  coined 
his  thoughts  into  words  : — 

"  It  is  very  singular,  that  we  recognize  all  the 
bodily  defects  that  unfit  a  man  for  military  service, 
and  all  the  intellectual  ones  that  limit  his  range  of 
thought;  but  always  talk  at  him  as  though  all  his 
moral  powers  were  perfect.  .  .  .  Some  persons 
talk  about  the  human  will  as  if  it  stood  on  a  high 
lookout,  with  plenty  of  light,  and  elbow-room  reaching 
to  the  horizon.  Doctors  are  constantly  noticing  how 
it  is  tied  up  and  darkened  by  inferior  organization, 
by  disease,  and  all  sorts  of  crowding  interferences ; 
until  they  get  to  look  upon  Hottentots  and  Indians, 
— and  a  good  many  of  their  own  race,  too, — as  a  kind 
of  self-conscious  blood-clocks,  with  very  limited  power 
of  self-determination;  and  they  find  it  as  hard  to 
hold  a  child  accountable  in  any  moral  point  of  view 
for  inherited  bad  temper,  or  tendency  to  drunkenness, 
as  they  would  to  blame  him  for  inheriting  gout  or 

Notwithstanding  these  facts,  we  must  still  main- 
tain that  man  is  morally  responsible  for  his  acts,  al- 

*  Holmes. 


though  in  somewhat  less  degree  than  has  been  in 
generations  past  supposed.  The  light  thrown  upon 
the  subject  of  heredity  by  modern  scientific  re- 
searches explains  the  divine  mandate,  "  The  sins  of 
the  fathers  shall  be  visited  upon  the  children  unto 
the  third  and  fourth  generations." 

All  of  these  facts  are  of  practical  interest  as 
showing  the  mother  how  she  may  determine  some- 
thing of  the  character  to  expect  in  her  children,  and 
knowing  beforehand  what  their  deficiences  and  mor- 
bid tendencies  may  be,  will  be  prepared  to  meet 
them  in  such  a  manner  as  to  correct  them  so  far  as 
may  be  by  proper  training  during  the  period  when 
the  mind  is  plastic  and  impressible.  But  there  is  a 
still  more  valuable  lesson  to  be  learned  from  heredity, 
one  which  ought  to  be  indelibly  fixed  in  the  mind  of 
every  woman  who  may  possibly  become  a  mother; 
viz.,  the  fact  that  during  the  period  of  gestation,  or 
pregnancy,  the  mental  and  bodily  states  of  the 
mother  affect  those  of  the  embryonic  being  to  whom 
she  is  destined  in  due  time  to  give  birth.  This  posi- 
tion has  been  disputed,  but  the  accumulated  evidences 
have  become  too  strong  to  allow  of  room  for  doubt. 
The  following  are  a  few  illustrations  out  of  many 
which  we  might  cite : — 

According  to  Carpenter,  in  his  large  and  excellent 
work  on  physiology,  a  state  of  anxiety  long  main- 
tained during  pregnancy  has  a  tendency  to  produce 
idiocy  in  the  children.  He  cites  in  support  of  this 
idea  the  fact  that  out  of  ninety-two  births  which  oc- 
curred in  the  district  of  Londan,  France,  within  a  few 
months  after  the  siege  of  1793,  during  which  a  terri- 


ble  cannonading  was  kept  up  for  days  and  the  arsenal 
was  blown  up,  sixteen  died  at  birth,  thirty-three  died 
before  the  expiration  of  the  first  year,  eight  were 
idiots  and  died  before  they  were  five  years  of  age, 
two  were  found  at  birth  to  have  numerous  fractures 
of  the  limbs,  making  nearly  two-thirds  of  the  entire 
number  lost  to  the  world  through  the  unhappy  men- 
tal influence  of  a  continual  state  of  alarm  on  the  part 
of  the  mother. 

James  I.  was  a  monarch  noted  for  his  cowardice. 
Emotions  of  fear  would  sometimes  sieze  upon  him  so 
that  he  would  shudder  at  the  mere  sight  of  a  sword. 
This  was  not  a  trait  of  his  immediate  ancestors,  and 
can  only  be  accounted  for  by  the  fact  that  his 
mother,  Queen  Mary,  of  Scotland,  was  terrorized  by 
the  assassination  in  her  presence  of  David  Rizzio, 
shortly  before  the  birth  of  James. 

Napoleon  was  a  character  in  striking  contrast  with 
the  monarch  just  mentioned.  Before  his  birth  his 
mother  was  accustomed  to  warlike  scenes,  *  accom- 
panying her  husband  on  military  expeditions,  and 
sharing  with  him  the  scenes  of  civil  war;  not  in  a 
state  of  alarm,  but  of  firmness  and  bravery. 

Another  author  f  quotes  the  case  of  a  woman  who 
was  during  her  pregnancies  always  afflicted  with  a 
mania  for  theft,  the  result  of  which  was  that  she  trans- 
mitted the  propensity  to  all  her  children. 

Numerous  other  cases  might  be  cited,  did  space 
permit ;  but  sufficient  has  been  said  to  show  clearly 

*  Life  of  Napoleon  Bonaparte,  by  Sir  Walter  Scott, 
t  M.  Lucas. 


that  ante-natal  influence  upon  the  mother  is  a  power- 
ful factor  in  determining  the  character  of  offspring. 

Influences  operating  upon  the  father,  and  perhaps 
also  upon  the  mother  at  the  time  of  impregnation, 
have  also  an  important  bearing  on  the  character  of 
offspring.  This  fact  was  recognized  by  the  ancients, 
who  attributed  to  influences  of  this  character  greater 
importance  than  the  facts  will  support. 

Combe  gives  an  account  of  a  case  reported  by  a 
physician  of  the  Isle  of  Man  as  follows :  "  A  man's 
first  child  was  of  sound  mind ;  afterwards  he  had  a 
fall  from  his  horse,  by  which  his  head  was  much  in- 
jured. His  next  two  children  proved  to  be  both 
idiots.  After  this  he  was  trepanned,  and  had  other 
children,  and  they  turned  out  to  be  of  sound  mind." 

One  more  fact  should  be  mentioned  in  this  con- 
nection. It  has  been  observed  that  the  young  of  an- 
imals who  are  immature  in  years  or  development  are 
small  and  dwarfed,  and  incapable  of  perfect  develop- 
ment. Lambs,  goats,  calves,  and  colts  born  of  young 
parents,  remain  undeveloped,  weak,  lymphatic,  and 
incapable  of  performing  their  full  functions.  The 
same  is  true  of  the  stag.  It  has  been  noticed  that  the 
young  of  such  animals  do  not  reach  maturity  so  soon 
as  those  born  of  older  parents. 

It  is  asserted  by  Aristotle  that  in  those  cities  of 
Greece  where  it  was  the  custom  for  young  people  to 
marry  early,  before  complete  maturity,  the  children 
were  of  small  stature  and  puny. 

An  eminent  French  authority  *  observed  the  same 
thing  in  his   native   country  where  the  fear  of  con- 

*  Montesquieu. 


scription  induced  many  young  persons  to  marry  be- 
fore the  proper  age.  He  states  that  although  the 
unions  were  fruitful,  the  children  were  small,  wretched, 
and  unhealthy.  Another  authority,  M.  Lucas,  states 
that  the  same  thing  occurred  in  France  in  1812  and 

If  the  race  is  ever  to  be  redeemed  from  the  pres- 
ent state  of  physical  degeneracy  into  which  it  has 
fallen,  it  must  be  by  means  of  attention  to  the  laws  of 
heredity.  By  this  means  only  can  diseased  tenden- 
cies be  successfully  combated.  Without  the  aid  of 
this  powerful  redeeming  agency,  all  other  means  will 
be  unavailing.  The  keeping  alive  of  weak  and  physic- 
ally depraved  individuals,  thus  allowing  them  to  marry 
and  impress  their  own  weakness  and  morbid  tenden- 
cies upon  the  race,  directly  contributes  to  the  further- 
ance of  race  deterioration  rather  than  the  reverse. 
This  is  one  of  the  most  interesting  and  important  of  the 
numerous  problems  to  be  grappled  with  by  students 
of  social  science.  How  can  the  laws  of  heredity  be 
applied  to  the  human  species  in  such  a  manner  as  to 
make  them  of  practical  value  to  the  race?  Men 
ought  to  be  born  into  the  world  with  a  bias  toward 
good  instead  of  evil,  "  weighted "  toward  health  in- 
stead of  toward  disease.  We  do  not  look  for  the 
dawn  of  the  Utopian  day  when  such  will  be  the  case, 
in  the  present  generation  at  least ;  but  every  mother 
ought  to  study  and  ponder  the  subject  with  the  great- 
est care  and  thoughtfulness,  and  seek  so  far  as  possible 
to  make  a  practical  application  of  these  principles  in 
the  rearing  of  her  children. 

THE  MOTHER.  397 


Signs  of  Pregnancy. — The  cessation  of  the  men- 
ses is  usually  the  first  indication  that  conception  has 
taken  place  and  that  the  period  of  gestation  has  be- 
gun. As  remarked  in  a  previous  portion  of  the  work, 
however,  some  women  seem  to  have  certain  symptoms 
indicative  of  the  occurrence  of  conception,  such  as 
slight  faintness,  or  some  nervous  symptom  peculiar 
to  the  individual.  These  cases  must  be  regarded, 
however,  as  quite  exceptional.  When  the  menstrual 
function  is  interrupted  without  the  occurrence  of  any- 
thing to  which  it  may  be  fairly  attributed,  as  taking 
cold,  or  some  serious  general  or  local  disease,  a  mar- 
ried woman  who  has  been  exposed  to  the  liability  of 
conception  may  consider  that  she  has  good  grounds 
for  suspecting  that  she  has  become  pregnant.  It 
should  be  borne  in  mind,  however,  that  pregnancy 
sometimes  occurs  without  inturrupting  the  menstrual 
function,  at  least  during  the  first  months.  Cases  are 
also  on  record  in  which  pregnancy  has  occurred  with- 
out the  menstrual  function  ever  having  made  its  ap- 
pearance, and  after  the  change  of  life  had  occurred, 
the  menstrual  discharge  having  been  absent  for 

"Morning  Sickness/9  is  a  symptom  which  makes 
its  appearance  very  early  in  the  period  of  pregnancy, 
usually  in  the  second  month,  and  often  in  the  first 
week,  continuing  six  or  eight  weeks.  There  is  nau- 
sea and  sometimes  vomiting,  the  symptom  usually 
occurring  just  after  rising  in  the  morning,  whence  its 


name.  This  form  of  vomiting  is  due  to  sympathetic 
influences,  and  while  generally  not  so  serious  but  that 
it  may  be  easily  controlled  by  the  simple  means  which 
will  be  hereafter  described,  sometimes  becomes  so  vio- 
lent and  uncontrollable  as  to  endanger  not  only  the 
life  of  the  foetus  but  of  the  mother.  Many  wonren 
do  not  suffer  at  all  with  this  symptom. 

One  of  the  most  constant  and  important  signs  of 
pregnancy  is  the  change  which  takes  place  in  the 
breasts.  At  the  middle  or  end  of  the  second  month 
the  mammary  glands  begin  to  enlarge,  become  firmer 
to  the  touch  and  somewhat  sensitive,  and  other 
marked  changes  occur  in  the  nipple  and  adjacent 
tissue.  Its  color  becomes  darker,  and  the  dark  ring 
about  it,  known  as  the  areola,  acquires  a  considerable 
increase  in  color,  becomes  somewhat  enlarged,  and 
presents  on  its  surface  many  little  tubercules,  formed 
by  the  enlargement  of  the  peculiar  glands  which  are 
found  in  this  locality,  each  of  which  is  in  fact  a  minia- 
ture breast  in  its  structure,  and  hence  ready  to  take 
on  the  same  development  as  the  gland  itself  when  in- 
fluenced by  the  same  exciting  cause. 

In  many  cases,  dark  spots  appear  at  this  period 
upon  the  face  and  hands  or  other  parts  of  the  body, 
which  closely  resemble  liver  spots,  but  are  distin- 
guished from  them  by  the  fact  that  they  speedily 
disappear  after  childbirth. 

By  the  end  of  the  second  month  the  womb  has 
acquired  a  considerable  increase  in  size,  in  consequence 
of  which  it  settles  down  into  the  pelvis,  giving  to  the 
abdomen  an  unnatural  flatness  characteristic  of  this 


Between  the  third  and  fourth  months  the  foetus 
reaches  a  degree  of  development  sufficient  to  enable 
an  acute  observer  to  hear  distinctly  the  beating  of 
the  heart.  Observations  respecting  the  foetal  heart- 
beat and  the  means  for  detecting  it  have  been  made 
at  page  98  and  need  not  be  repeated  here.  This  is 
a  certain  sign  of  pregnancy. 

"  Quickening,"  is  the  term  applied  to  the  first 
movements  of  the  child  which  are  observed  by  the 
mother.  The  term  originated  in  an  age  of  ignorance 
when  it  was  supposed  that  at  the  time  motion  was 
first  felt,  a  change  took  place  in  the  development  of 
the  child  by  which  it  acquired  individual  life,  which 
it  did  not  possess  prior  to  that  time.  The  fallacy  of 
this  theory  has  been  already  shown  in  this  work.  It 
is  necessary  only  to  say  that  motions  are  made  by 
the  foetus  at  a  very  early  period ;  but  as  the  uterus 
does  not  become  sufficiently  enlarged  to  bring  its  walls 
in  contact  with  the  abdominal  walls  until  the  fourth 
or  fifth  month,  the  mother  does  not  observe  them 
until  this  period. 

The  movements  are  described  as  resembling  the 
fluttering  of  a  bird,  or  strong  pulsation.  They  may 
be  easily  observed  by  others  besides  the  mother  by 
placing  the  hand  upon  the  abdomen  for  a  few  mo- 
ments. If  they  do  not  occur  promptly,  a  slight  tap  of 
the  fingers  will  occasion  them,  or  dipping  the  hand  in 
cold  water  before  placing  it  upon  the  abdomen. 
Sometimes  these  movements  are  imitated  either  pur- 
posely or  as  the  result  of  disease ;  when  this  is  the 
case,  the  fact  may  be  discovered  by  observing  that 
the  means  just  given  for  exciting  them  does  not  succeed. 


Sometimes  women  who  greatly  desire  children  mis- 
take the  movements  of  the  intestines  occasioned  by 
flatus  or  indigestion  for  those  of  a  foetus.  These 
imitations  of  foetal  movements  are  so  rare,  however, 
that  this  may  be  considered  an  almost  positive  symp- 
tom of  pregnancy. 

By  the  time  the  foetal  movements  begin  to  be  felt, 
the  uterus  has  increased  in  size  to  such  a  degree  that 
there  is  a  very  considerable  increase  in  size  in  the  ab- 
domen. This  symptom  must  not  be  relied  upon,  how- 
ever, as  constituting  a  reliable  sign  of  pregnancy,  as 
there  are  so  many  causes  which  occasion  abdominal 
enlargements,  particularly  dropsy  and  flatulence  of 
the  bowels,  both  of  which  conditions  have  often  been 
mistaken  for  pregnancy.  The  enlargement  of  preg- 
nancy is  somewhat  peculiar,  however,  being  greater 
at  the  center  than  the  sides,  as  a  rule,  and  frequently 
appearing  greatest  on  the  right  side.  Ovarian  tumors 
have  been  mistaken  for  pregnancy  and  the  reverse. 

A  case  of  the  latter  kind  came  under  our  observa- 
tion some  time  ago.  We  were  called  to  see  a  lady 
who  was  said  to  have  a  tumor,  the  enlargement  of  the 
abdomen  having  been  pronounced  by  several  physi- 
cians to  be  an  ovarian  or  uterine  tumor  which  should 
be  removed.  A  subscription  had  been  raised  by  the 
friends  to  pay  the  expenses  of  the  patient  to  a  large 
city  hospital  for  the  purpose  of  having  the  operation 
performed.  She  expected  to  start  for  her  destination 
in  a  day  or  two.  On  examination  we  found  the 
usual  appearances  of  pregnancy,  although  the  woman 
denied  having  had  any  of  the  usual  symptoms,  and  of 
course  advised  a  postponement  of  the  intended  jour- 


ney.  A  few  days  later,  other  medical  advice  was 
called,  and  the  physicians  present  were  so  completely 
deceived  that  they  resorted  to  the  use  of  a  "sound,"  as 
the  result  of  which  the  woman  was  in  a  few  hours 
obliged  to  send  for  a  physician  who  delivered  her  of 
a  nearly  developed  child. 

Several  cases  have  occurred  in  which  operations 
have  been  begun  for  what  was  supposed  to  be  uterine 
or  ovarian  tumors.  In  nearly  all  of  these  cases  the 
surgeon  has  been  led  astray  by  the  representations  of 
the  patient.  It  is  important  that  women  should  be- 
come thoroughly  instructed  on  this  subject,  so  as  to 
be  able  to  give  an  intelligent  account  of  their  symp- 
toms and  conditions,  and  to  observe  more  accurately, 
thus  themselves  avoiding  deception. 

Near  the  termination  of  pregnancy  the  uterus  be- 
comes so  greatly  enlarged  that  it  presses  seriously 
upon  the  stomach  and  occasions  a  return  of  the  nau- 
sea and  vomiting. 

A  few  weeks  before  the  conclusion  of  gestation, 
the  turgid  condition  of  the  blood-vessels  of  the  vagina 
gives  rise  to  a  leucorrhoea. 

At  the  very  termination  of  pregnancy,  or  just 
previous  to  the  final  act  of  parturition,  the  uterus 
again  settles  down  into  the  pelvis  and  rapidly  under- 
goes preparation  for  the  process  by  which  its  contents 
are  expelled. 

During  the  period  of  gestation  the  uterus  in- 
creases to  more  than  twenty  times  its  natural  size, 
and  becomes  capable  of  holding  more  than  five  hun- 
dred times  its  normal  quantity. 

The  size  of  the  embryo  and   foetus   at  different 


stages,  and  of  the  child  at  birth,  have  been  fully  de- 
scribed elsewhere  in  this  work.     (See  page  100.) 


During  the  period  of  gestation  the  mother  has 
the  responsibility  of  another  life  besides  her  own; 
and  it  should  be  known  and  understood  by  every 
mother  that  by  her  own  acts  during  this  time  not 
only  her  own  health  is*  affected,  but  the  physical, 
mental,  and  even  moral  well-being  of  her  child. 

Sufficient  reference  has  already  been  made  to  the 
way  in  which  hereditary  and  ante-natal  influences  may 
affect  the  unborn  infant,  and  we  shall  not  recapitulate 
here,  but  wish  to  point  out  some  of  the  ways  in 
which  a  mother  may  so  relate  herself  to  the  laws  of 
Nature  as  to  secure  to  her  offspring  the  highest  possi- 
ble realization  of  the  ideal  worshiped  by  the  ancient 
Greeks,  "  A  sound  mind  in  a  sound  body." 

The  condition  of  pregnancy  is  in  many  respects  a 
critical  one.  This  is  true  of  this  period  in  all  species 
of  animals,  but  especially  with  human  females,  ow- 
ing to  certain  peculiarities  of  structure  to  which  we 
have  elsewhere  called  attention.  The  necessity  for 
special  care  at  this  time  has  prompted  nearly  all  na- 
tions to  surround  their  females  when  pregnant,  with 
special  safe-guards  from  violence  and  injuries.  The 
laws  of  ancient  nations,  as  well  as  the  usages,  even 
at  the  present  day,  of  barbarous,  tribes,  make  appar- 
ent the  fact  that  the  state  of  pregnancy  has  always 
been  regarded  by  the  race  as  one  to  be  held  sacred 
from  invasion. 

THE  MOTHER.  403 

We  will  first  call  attention  to  measures  of  regimen 
and  treatment  which  conduce  to  the  comfort  and 
safety  of  the  mother  during  gestation  and  while  pass- 
ing through  the  process  of  childbirth,  by  the  aid  of 
which  the  pains  of  parturition  and  the  perils  of  ma- 
ternity may  be  avoided.  Thousands  of  women  look 
forward  to  the  termination  of  pregnancy  with  con- 
stant dread  and  most  dismal  forebodings ;  and  thou- 
sands of  others  adopt  every  possible  device  to  avoid 
pregnancy  through  fear  of  the  pains  and  dangers 
which  are  commonly  attributed  to  these  physiological 
processes.  -  We  hope  to  offer  in  these  pages  sugges- 
tions which  will  afford  to  such  wives  assurance  of 
safety  and  so  great  a  mitigation  of  suffering  as  will 
lead  them  to  choose  the  slight  inconveniencies  of  nor- 
mal pregnancy  and  physiological  childbirth  rather 
than  the  dismal  comfort  of  a  childless  old  age  and  the 
increased  liability  to  disease  which  is  likely  to  result 
from  a  childless  life. 

Parturition  without  Pain. — For  ages  woman- 
kind has  submitted,  not  always  uncomplainingly, 
it  is  true,  but  with  evident  hopelessness  of  any  re- 
demption, to  the  pains  and  perils  of  maternity,  fully 
believing  that  their  sufferings  were  the  result  of  the 
curse  pronounced  upon  womankind  in  consequence  of 
the  transgression  of  their  first  mother,  Eve.  Doubt- 
less woman  must  endure  some  burdens  and  sufferings 
to  the  end  of  time  in  obedience  to  the  divine  man- 
date, "  in  sorrow  thou  shalt  bring  forth  children " ; 
but  we  are  prepared  to  show  that  the  greater  part  of 
woman's  sufferings  in  the  performance  of  this  the 
highest  of  all  physical  functions  is  the  result,  not  of 


the  curse  of  Jehovah,  but  of  Dame  Fashion.  The 
perverting  and  deteriorating  influences  of  civilization 
and  fashion  have  entailed  upon  woman  an  amount  of 
sorrow  and  suffering  many  fold  greater  than  that 
which  legitimately  results  from  the  penalty  of  the 
first  woman's  transgression. 

We  are  aware  that  some  people  whose  moral  in- 
stincts are  perverted,  will  exclaim  in  holy  horror 
against  such  a  doctrine  as  this,  and  will  even  go  so 
far  as  to  object  to  the  employment  of  any  means  for 
the  purpose  of  obviating  or  mitigating  the  pains  and 
dangers  of  childbirth  on  the  ground  that  in  so  doing 
we  are  attempting  to  thwart  the  purposes  of  the  Al- 

There  have  been  prominent  divines  who  have 
placed  themselves  in  the  attitude  of  objectors  on  this 
ground ;  but  we  shall  not  be  deterred  by  the  absurd 
arguments  of  these  over-scrupulous  persons  from  pre- 
senting to  our  readers  every  known  means  by  which 
the  discomforts  and  sufferings  attendant  upon  the 
function  of  maternity  may  be  mitigated,  and  so  far  as 
possible  altogether  obviated. 

Diet— The  kind  of  food  eaten  has  an  important 
bearing  on  the  ease  and  safety  with  which  the  func- 
tions of  childbirth  may  be  performed,  as  well  as  the 
proper  development  of  the  child.  All  rich  and  indi- 
gestible food  should  be  avoided.  The  diet  should  be 
simple,  and  should  consist  largely  of  fruits  and  grains. 
Copious  water-drinking,  especially  taking  a  glass  or 
two  of  hot  water  an  hour  or  two  before  each  meal, 
is  a  most  excellent  means  of  guarding  against  disease 
of  the  kidneys, — one  of  the  most  serious  of  all  the 


complications  of  pregnancy,  as  well  as  being  an  ex- 
cellent remedy  for  indigestion,  particularly  acid  dys- 
pepsia, so  very  common  among  pregnant  women. 
Oatmeal,  cracked  wheat,  Graham  flour,  and  the  whole- 
grain  preparations  generally,  are  to  be  recommended 
as  the  very  best  means  of  preventing  constipation, 
— one  of  the  most  common  morbid  conditions  of  the 
pregnant  state.  These  foods  also  afford  to  the  sys- 
tem of  the  mother  the  very  best  kind  of  nourish- 
ment, providing  an  adequate  supply  of  salts  for  the 
bones,  nitrogenous  material  for  the  nerves  and  mus- 
cles, and  fat-producing  elements  to  give  the  round- 
ness and  plumpness  of  form  which  is  characteristic  of 
this  condition.  The  practice  of  many  mothers  of  liv- 
ing upon  tidbits  of  various  kinds  during  this  period 
cannot  be  too  strongly  condemned.  Good,  wholesome 
food  is  needed,  in  abundance  and  sufficient  variety, 
not  only  to  sustain  the  mother,  but  to  afford  a  proper 
amount  of  nourishment  of  the  right  kind  to  the  child. 
Fine-flour  bread,  rich  sauces  and  pastry,  confection- 
ary and  everything  of  like  character  should  be  scru- 
pulously avoided.  No£  more  than  three  meals  a  day 
should  be  taken,  and  these  should  be  at  regular 

The  too  free  use  of  animal  food  during  the  period 
of  gestation  is  also  to  be  condemned.  The  stimulat- 
ing character  of  such  diet  has  an  injurious  influence 
upon  the  nervous  system,  and,  in  addition,  its  highly 
nitrogenous  character  increases  the  liability  to  acute 
inflammation  of  the  kidneys,  a  most  serious  affection 
which  is  liable  to  make  its  appearance  near  the  ter- 
mination of  pregnancy. 



The  use  of  tea  and  coffee  is  justly  condemned  by 
che  wise  physician,  especially  during  pregnancy,  as 
the  abdominal  nervous  irritability  present  at  this  time 
is  very  easily  increased  by  any  morbid  agent  of  a 
stimulating  character.  They  are  also  serious  impedi- 
ments to  digestion,  and  their  use  increases  the  ten- 
dency to  "  morning  sickness,"  one  of  the  unpleas- 
ant and  sometimes  most  serious  complications  of 

The  same  is  to  be  said  still  more  emphatically  of 
beer,  ale,  wine,  and  spirituous  liquors  of  ever  descrip- 
tion. The  idea  that  the  woman  needs  something  of  a 
stimulating  character  to  "  keep  her  up,"  is  a  serious 
error.  Nothing  of  this  sort  can  be  used  without  posi- 
tive detriment  to  both  mother  and  child.  The  only 
thing  needed  to  sustain  the  prospective  mother  and 
prepare  her  for  the  ordeal  before  her,  is^ood  healthy 
food,  and  obedience  to  all  the  laws  of  health.  Stimu- 
lants give  an  appearance  of  strength  without  the 
reality.  A  person  feels  stronger  under  their  in- 
fluence, while  in  reality  weaker  by  the  loss  of  nerve 
power  which  unnatural  excitement  always  involves. 
A  long-continued  course  of  stimulation,  even  of  a 
mild  character,  will  so  weaken  the  nervous  system  as 
to  utterly  unfit  a  woman  to  endure  the  ordeal  of  the 
final  termination  of  pregnancy,  and  a  vast  amount  of 
mischief  has  been  occasioned  in  this  way.  The  only 
time  when  stimulants  of  any  sort  are  needed  is  at  the 
very  close  of  pregnancy,  when  the  system  is  taxed  to 
the  uttermost  by  the  efforts  of  childbirth ;  and  if  the 
system  has  been  previously  accustomed  to  the  use  of 
stimulants,  it  will  not  respond  at  the  moment  when 


an  extraordinary  exhibition  of  nerve  power  is  de- 
#  manded,  the  vital  resources  having  been  previously 
exhausted  by  the  habitual  demands  made  upon  it. 
This  matter  we  consider  of  very  great  importance, 
and  worthy  of  the  most  serious  consideration  on  the 
part  of  mothers. 

What  has  been  said  of  the  common  alcoholic  liq- 
uors is  equally  true  of  hard  cider,  not  always  regarded 
as  a  stimulant,  and  especially  of  the  various  brands 
of  "  bitters,"  all  of  which  contain  alcohol,  some  of 
them  in  considerable  quantity.  We  do  not  except 
even  "temperance  bitters,"  which  we  have  proved  to 
contain  as  much  alcohol  as  many  brands  of  lager  beer. 
"Bitters"  as  a  class  are  filthy  concoctions  of  bad 
whisky  and  various  cheap  herbs  of  no  real  value  ex- 
cept as  a  means  of  enriching  the  pockets  of  their  mer- 
cenary manufacturers. 

The  idea  recently  advanced,  that  food  which  is 
rich  in  bone-making  material  should  be  avoided  dur- 
ing the  pregnant  state,  we  consider  a  mischievous 
error  which  ought  to  be  corrected.  It  is  really  dan- 
gerous to  mother  as  well  as  child  to  follow  this  ad- 
vice, since  Nature  is  not  easily  thwarted  in  the 
attainment  of  her  purposes ;  and  when  bone-making 
material  is  needed  for  the  child,  if  an  adequate  supply 
is  not  afforded  from  some  other  source,  she  will  not 
hesitate  to  seize  upon  such  material  which  has  already 
been  deposited  in  the  system  of  the  mother,  thus 
damaging,  sometimes  to  a  serious  extent,  the  osseous 
system  of  the  mother  for  the  benefit  of  the  developing 
child  whose  interests  are  sometimes  made  paramount 
to  those  of  the  parent.     The  notion  that  labor  is  made 


more  severe  or  dangerous  by  supplying  the  child  with 
such  nourishment  as  its  proper  development  really 
requires  is  so  contrary  to  the  conclusions  which  would 
be  dictated  by  ordinary  good  sense  that  we  are  as- 
tonished to  see  it  given  any  credence.  The  bony 
system  of  the  child  will  not  be  developed  to  such  an 
extent  as  to  furnish  any  impediment  to  parturition, 
even  when  bone-making  material  is  provided  in  great- 
est abundance,  unless  there  is  some  morbid  condition ; 
and  when  this  is  the  case — and  it  cannot  be  determined 
beforehand — the  omission  of  certain  articles  of  diet 
will  not  be  likely  to  affect  the  diseased  condition  to  a 
sufficient  degree  to  make  any  appreciable  difference 
with  the  result.  Fortunately,  also,  this  morbid  devel- 
opment of  the  child  before  birth  is  so  exceedingly  rare 
that  if  real  benefit  were  to  be  derived  from  a  special 
dietary  excluding  the  whole-grain  preparations  and 
other  foods  rich  in  bone-making  material,  it  would  not 
be  worth  while  to  starve  nine  hundred  and  ninety- 
nine  embryonic  human  beings  for  the  doubtful  ben- 
efit which  might  be  afforded  to  the  mother  of  the  onq- 

"Longings  " — The  craving  which  pregnant  wo- 
men often  experience  for  various  articles  of  food  can- 
not be  regarded  as  an  expression  of  a  real  want  upon 
the  part  of  the  system,  for  very  often  the  articles 
most  eagerly  desired  are  those  of  a  positively  injuri- 
ous character ;  however,  it  is  generally  best  to  yield 
to  the  demands  of  the  capricious  appetite  so  far  as 
can  be  done  without  doing  positive  injury  to  the 
digestion  or  the  interests  of  the  child,  especially  if 
there  is  much  nausea  and  loss  of  appetite.     We  feel 


confident,  however,  that  in  the  majority  of  cases  the 
craving  is  not  so  strong  that  it  cannot  be  readily  con- 
trolled by  a  little  determination  on  the  part  of  the 
prospective  mother,  and  when  the  article  craved  is 
manifestly  an  improper  one,  the  will  should  be  set 
actively  at  work  to  resist  the  morbid  appetite. 

The  popular  notion  that  if  a  craving  of  this  char- 
acter is  not  gratified,  the  child  will  be  marked  in  some 
peculiar  manner  corresponding  to  the  nature  of  the 
craving,  either  mentally  or  physically,  is  an  error. 
The  occasional  instances  of  seeming  confirmation  of 
the  notion  are  nothing  more  than  Coincidences.  We 
refer  particularly  to  the  supposition  that  "  mothers' 
marks,"  so-called,  which  often  resemble  berries  of  va- 
rious kinds,  are  produced  by  a  craving  on  the  part  of 
the  mother  for  the  variety  of  fruit  which  they  happen 
to  resemble.  It  is  of  course  possible  that  a  pro- 
longed and  absorbing  "  longing "  on  the  part  of  the 
mother  for  any  particular  article  might  so  affect  the 
mental  and  nervous  systems  of  the  child  as  to  develop 
in  it  a  similar  appetite  ;  but  we  do  not  think  the  in- 
fluence of  such  mental  conditions  on  the  part  of  the 
mother  are  usually  sufficiently  prolonged  to  produce 
any  such  effects.  "  Longings  "  are  usually  very  ca- 
pricious in  character,  and  the  constant  change  coun- 
teracts the  danger  of  the  formatioh  of  a  morbid  ten- 
dency in  the  child. 

The  appetite  of  the  mother  is  often  so  delicate 
and  capricious  that  special  pains  must  t^  taken  to 
provide  such  food  as  will  be  inviting  and  palatable ; 
but  we  do  not  approve  of  the  common  practice  of  hu- 
moring every  whim  and  fancy  which  the  mind  may 


happen  to  fasten  upon.  A  morbid  and  unnatural  ap- 
petite, if  strong  and  not  controlled  by  the  will,  may- 
be most  easily  gotten  rid  of,  sometimes,  by  being  grati- 
fied, provided  the  gratification  is  not  continued.  If 
the  "longing"  is  of  a  very  tantalizing  and  teasing 
character,  this  means  may  be  tried  as  a  last  resort; 
but  care  must  be  taken  that  the  use  of  the  injurious 
article  is  not  continued  any  length  of  time. 

Under  a  healthful  regimen,  mental,  moral,  and 
physical,  "  longings  "  are  not  usually  difficult  to  con- 
trol, and  seldom  become  at  all  troublesome.  Those 
in  whom  they  are  the  most  imperious  are  usually 
persons  who  have  habitually  yielded  to  the  demands 
of  appetite,  and  who  are  of  an  impulsive  disposition 
and  have  not  acquired  the  art  of  self-control.  The 
cultivation  of  firmness  of  character  and  subordination 
of  the  emotions  and  impulses  to  the  reason  and  judg- 
ment are  the  very  best  measures  to  be  recommended 
for  the  prevention  of  this  one  of  the  inconveniences 
involved  by  the  pregnant  state. 

Exercise. — The  advantages  to  be  derived  from 
the  taking  of  regular,  systematic  exercise  during  the 
whole  period  of  pregnancy  are  so  great  that  no  wo- 
man, whatever  her  station  in  life,  can  afford  to  ignore 
this  means  of  securing  a  safe  and  speedy  termination 
of  the  parturient  process.  Nothing  should  be  more 
unstintedly  condemned  by  physicians  than  the  habit 
many  women  form  when  pregnant,  of  yielding  to  the 
languor  \#iich  is  often  very  oppressive,  and  spend- 
ing most  of  their  time,  especially  during  the  later 
months  of  pregnancy,  in  idleness  and  inactivity.  A 
pregnant  woman  who  spends  most  of  her  time  upon 

THE  MOTHER.  411 

the  sofa  or  in  an  easy  chair,  may  look  forward  with 
certainty  to  a  childbirth,  the  dangers  and  sufferings 
of  which  will  be  greatly  increased  by  the  bad  bodily 
conditions  arising  from  her  indolence.  No  class  of 
women  pass  through  this  trying  ordeal  so  rapidly  and 
so  easily  as  those  whose  station  in  life  requires  of 
them  a  daily  use  of  the  muscles  to  such  a  degree  as 
to  maintain  good  muscular  tone  and  bodily  activity. 
We  have  often  known  washer-women  who  worked  up 
to  the  very  day  of  confinement  able  to  resume  their 
occupation  the  day  following  without  inconvenience, 
although  contrary  to  the  advice  of  their  physicians. 
The  ease  with  which  the  negro  women  of  the  South 
give  birth  to  their  children  has  long  been  remarked ; 
and  those  who  are  familiar  with  the  wild  native  tribes 
of  our  country  assure  us  that  an  Indian  woman 
thinks  little  of  the  inconveniences  of  childbirth,  and  if 
on  a  journey  stops  only  for  a  few  hours  for  rest,  and 
to  properly  care  for  her  infant,  and  then  is  ready  to 
mount  her  pony  and  proceed  to  her  destination.  The 
same  remark  is  true  of  other  savage  tribes.  It  is 
chiefly  among  the  middle  and  higher  classes  of  so- 
ciety that  the  pains  of  childbirth  are  felt  and  the  dan- 
gers of  maternity  experienced.  This  fact  is  almost 
conclusive  evidence  that  the  habits  of  luxury  and 
idleness  which  are  so  common  among  the  women  of 
these  classes  are  the  chief  causes  of  making  a  pro- 
cess which  is  naturally  attended  by  little  suffering 
and  danger,  so  extremely  painful  and  .even  haz- 
ardous that  it  is  looked  forward  to  with  indescribable 
dread  and  avoided  by  every  possible  means. 

The   obstetrical   process   is   chiefly   muscular   in 


character.  The  child  is  expelled  from  the  womb  by 
the  contractions  of  the  womb  itself,  aided  by  the  ac- 
tion of  the  muscles  of  the  abdomen.  Nearly  all  the 
muscles  of  the  trunk  are  involved  in  the  process,  if 
not  in  direct  action  upon  the  womb  or  its  contents,  in 
so  fixing  the  points  of  attachment  of  other  muscles 
as  to  enable  them  to  bring  their  whole  force  to  bear 
in  direct  expulsive  efforts.  Hence  it  is  apparent  that 
good  muscular  ability  is  one  of  the  most  excellent 
preparations  which  a  woman  can  possess  for  the  easy 
and  speedy  performance  of  this  act. 

A  woman  whose  muscles  have  wasted  away  in 
idleness  has  a  long,  lingering,  painful  childbirth  be- 
cause of  the  weak  and  inefficient  character  of  the 
muscular  efforts  which  she  is  able  to  make.  Hour 
after  hour  the  womb  makes  vigorous  contractions 
which  are  ineffectual  because  not  seconded  by  the  ac- 
tion of  other  muscles  which  are  weak  and  powerless 
from  disuse,  and  the  unaided  organ  becomes  ex- 
hausted before  it  has  accomplished  any  real  progress. 
Thus  the  process  lingers  till  the  agony  becomes  so  ex- 
treme and  unendurable  that  the  physician  is  obliged 
to  come  to  the  rescue  with  a  pair  of  forceps  and  ex- 
tract the  child  by  force,  running  the  risk  of  mutilat- 
ing its  features,  compressing  its  delicate  brain  to  such 
a  degree  as  to  injure  its  mental  development,  or  even 
destroying  its  life  entirely,  to  say  nothing  of  the  risk 
of  lacerating  or  tearing  the  neck  of  the  womb  and 
other  soft, parts  which  have  not  been  properly  dilated 
on  account  of  the  absence  of  the  successive  stages 
which  should  precede  the  final  one  of  delivery.  At 
the  present  day  no  obstetrician  thinks  of  going  to  a 


confinement  without  a  pair  of  forceps  in  his  visiting 
case,  and  many  physicians  whose  practice  is  chiefly 
among  the  higher  classes,  rarely  leave  the  lying-in 
chamber  without  making  use  of  the  obstetrical  forceps. 

Two  centuries  ago  forceps  were  not  known,  and 
were  rarely  needed.  The  conditions  which  demanded 
the  use  of  such  an  instrument  were  so  rare  that  their 
necessity  was  not  recognized.  To-day  their  use  is 
becoming  yearly  more  necessary,  and  the  prospect  is 
that  at  the  present  rate  of  progress  in  this  direction 
the  children  of  the  next  generation  will  nearly  all  be 
brought  into  the  world  by  the  aid  of  this  mechanical 

Some  persons  cry  out  against  this  increasing  use 
of  the  forceps  as  though  the  instrument  were  a  means 
of  torture  invented  by  the  doctors  for  the  purpose  of 
aggravating  the  sufferings  (tf  womankind, — a  most 
heartless  insinuation  against  the  character  of  the 
most  generous  and  self-sacrificing  of  all  professions. 
The  forceps  are  not  an  invention  made  and  utilized 
by  the  medical  profession  for  any  other  purpose  than 
the  mitigation  of  sufferings  which  women  bring  upon 
themselves  by  inattention  to  the  immutable  laws  of 

If  women  had  always  lived  physiologically,  it  is 
probable  that  such  a  thing  as  the  obstetric  forceps,  or 
such  a  person  as  a  man  midwife,  would  not  to-day  exist. 
The  fact  is  the  departures  from  healthful  modes  of 
life  have  entailed  upon  woman  so  much  suffering  and 
have  encompassed  about  the  process  of  child-bearing 
such  a  host  of  dangers  and  possible  complications, 
that  it  has  become  necessary  that  the  best  intellects 


of  the  world  should  bend  their  energies  to  the  devis- 
ing of  means  to  mitigate  the  sufferings  and  lessen  the 
dangers  to  both  mother  and  child  in  the  crowning 
process  in  the  procreation  of  the  species. 

From  the  earliest  period  of  pregnancy  moderate 
but  regular  and  systematic  exercise  should  be  daily 
taken.  Walking  is  a  most  excellent  form  of  exercise 
for  women  in  this  condition,  as  it  calls  into  gentle  ac- 
tivity nearly  all  the  muscles  of  the  trunk  as  well  as 
those  of  the  limbs.  Light  calisthenics  are  also  very 
useful.  Special  forms  of  exercise,  such  as  will 
strengthen  the  muscles  of  the  abdomen  and  back,  par- 
ticularly, are  in  the  highest  degree  desirable.  Some 
of  the  most  valuable  of  these  will  be  found  in  the  ap- 

Occupation  of  mind  as  well  as  body  is  very  desir- 
able during  the  whole  period  of  pregnancy,  and  es- 
pecially toward  the  latter  end  of  the  period.  On 
this  account  the  exercise  afforded  by  ordinary  house- 
hold duties  constitutes  one  of  the  best  forms  of 
exercise.  But  it  should  not  be  forgotten  that  the  am- 
ple supply  of  fresh  air  and  sunshine  which  can  be  ob- 
tained only  by  exercise  in  the  open  air  is  absolutely 
essential  to  the  maintenance  of  the  high  degree  of  bod- 
ily health  which  is  demanded  for  the  perfect  accom- 
plishment of  the  object  of  the  process  through  which  the 
woman  is  passing.  When  long  walks  cannot  be  taken, 
carriage  riding  may  be  substituted.  These  systematic 
exercises  should  be  taken  up  to  the  very  day  of  con- 
finement, care  being  exercised,  of  course,  to  avoid  vio- 
lent exertion  of  all  kinds,  and  especially  about  the 
third  and  seventh  months,  particularly  if  there  has  pre- 


viously  been  a  premature  birth  or  a  miscarriage,  the 
latter  being  most  likely  to  occur  at  the  third  month 
and  the  former  at  the  seventh. 

Massage. — When  the  patient  is  for  any  reason 
unable  to  take  any  of  the  forms  of  exercise  suggested, 
passive  or  active-passive  movements  may  be  substi- 
tuted. Massage  and  Swedish  movements  constitute 
the  best  forms  of  passive  movements  for  use  in  these 
cases.  Such  of  these  movements  as  we  consider 
most  useful  will  be  found  described  in  the  appendix. 
Care  should  also  be  taken  with  these  movements  not 
to  so  over-do  them  as  to  excite  premature  action  in  the 
womb.  There  is,  however,  far  less  danger  from  this 
cause  than  is  generally  supposed. 

Dress. — The  evils  of  fashionable  dress  have  been 
quite  fully  considered  in  a  preceding  section  of  this 
work,  and  hence  we  do  not  need  to  amplify  upon  the 
same  subject  here ;  but  we  wish  to  impress  the  fact 
that  all  the  objections  urged  against  the  several  evils 
involved  in  fashionable  modes  of  dressing  are  still 
more  cogent  when  applied  to  the  condition  of  preg- 
nancy. For  a  pregnant  woman  to  wear  clothing  tight 
about  the  waist  is  so  manifest  an  outrage  upon  Nature 
that  the  practice  was  prohibited  by  law  by  an  ancient 
Grecian  legislator,  and  ought  to  be  by  modern  legisla- 
tures. Whatever  a  woman  has  a  right  to  do  to  her 
own  body,  she  has  no  right  to  blight  for  all  time  the 
prospects  of  another  being  possessed  of  individual 
rights  as  well  as  herself,  although  yet  a  prisoner 
within  her  own  body.  The  practice  of  some  women 
in  lacing  themselves  all  through  the  period  of  preg- 
nancy for  the  purpose  of  "  preserving  their  form,"  is 


nothing  short  of  absolute  cruelty,  not  only  to  them- 
selves, but  to  their  unborn  infants.  Such  a  practice 
is  so  manifestly  outrageous  that  it  can  scarcely  be 
condoned.  Nothing  should  be  worn  about  the  body 
of  a  pregnant  woman  of  a  close-fitting  character.  The 
garments  should  be  perfectly  loose.  Such  a  thing  as 
a  corset  should  not  be  thought  of,  although  now  and 
then  an  elastic  abdominal  supporter  or  a  wide  bandage 
made  to  fit  the  abdomen  may  be  necessary.  The 
muscles  of  the  back  and  abdomen  should  be  so 
strengthened  by  exercise  that  they  will  be  prepared 
to  sustain  themselves  without  the  aid  of  "  bones  "  or 
anything  of  the  sort.  The  fact  that  the  need  of  such 
aids  is  felt  is  evidence  of  the  strongest  character 
that  their  use  would  be  injurious  and  that  what  is 
really  required  is  a  course  of  muscular  training  by 
which  the  weakness  may  be  overcome. 

The  remarks  which  have  elsewhere  been  made 
respecting  the  equable  protection  of  the  body  and  the 
clothing  of  the  feet,  are  all  particularly  applicable  to 
the  pregnant  condition,  but  need  not  be  repeated 

The  underclothing  should  be  of  soft  flannel,  by 
preference.  If  woolen  fabrics  are  not  well  tolerated  by 
the  skin,  as  is  sometimes  the  case,  thin  silk  or  cotton 
garments  may  be  worn  next  the  skin  with  thicker 
woolen  garments  outside ;  but  when  the  skin  is  not 
irritable,  woolen  next  the  skin  is  much  to  be  pre- 
ferred to  any  other  fabric. 

A  word  should  be  said  in  this  connection  about 
the  relation  of  clothing  to  the  breasts.  The  com- 
pression of  the  breasts  by  corsets  is  often  the  cause 


of  great  injury  and  suffering.  The  long-continued 
pressure  causes  some  degree  of  atrophy  of  the  gland 
and  also  obliteration  of  some  of  the  ducts  so  that  the 
proper  secretion  of  milk  may  be  made  impossible,  and 
if  the  secretion  is  established,  abscesses  are  likely  to 
form,  causing  "  broken  breasts  "  and  all  the  attendant 
suffering  and  subsequent  deformity.  Compression 
also  frequently  causes  so  great  a  depression  of  the 
nipple  as  to  make  nursing  difficult  or  impossible,  a 
condition  which  often  requires  a  long  and  persevering 
treatment  to  overcome,  and  may  not  be  remediable 
even  by  this  means. 

The  wearing  of  "  pads  "  over  the  breasts  is  also  a 
practice  to  be  condemned,  as  by  this  means  the  heat 
is  retained  and  an  unnatural  condition  produced  which 
renders  the  gland  susceptible  to  disease  and  less 
able  to  perform  its  proper  function.  The  unnaturally 
sensitive  condition  of  the  gland  during  pregnancy 
makes  these  facts  particularly  important  at  that  time. 

Bathing. — The  influence  of  baths  in  maintaining 
a  healthy  condition  of  the  system  in  general  has  been 
so  well  understood  for  years  that  we  need  not  say 
more  on  this  point  than  to  impress  the  importance  of 
giving  special  attention  to  the  maintenance  of  a 
healthy  action  of  the  skin  by  frequent  bathing.  A 
general  bath  should  be  taken  at  least  twice  a  week, 
and  every  other  day  is  not  too  often  for  most  persons. 
Special  attention  should  be  given  to  local  cleanliness, 
as  the  increased  blood  supply  of  the  parts  increases 
the  local  secretion  and  makes  more  frequent  cleansing 
necessary,  while  under  ordinary  circumstances  a  local 
bath  with  fine  castile  soap  and  water  may  not  be  re- 


quired  more  than  two  or  three  times  a  week.  During 
gestation  such  a  bath  is  needed  at  least  daily.  No 
fear  need  be  felt  that  the  bath  will  disturb  the 
contents  of  the  womb.  The  bath  may  be  taken  with 
an  ordinary  syringe,  care  being  taken  not  to  employ 
more  than  very  gentle  force,  and  that  the  tempera- 
ture of  the  water  is  not  above  100°  F.  nor  below  90° 
F.  The  best  means  for  taking  a  local  douche  is  the 
syphon  or  fountain  syringe.  For  further  directions, 
see  appendix.  A  little  soap  should  be  used,  and  if 
there  is  considerable  leucorrhoea,  certain  remedies, 
as  elsewhere  directed 

Aside  from  these  baths,  which  are  useful  in  a  gen- 
eral way,  other  baths  may  be  taken  which  are  of  very 
great  value  as  means  of  preparing  the  system  for 
easy  childbirth.  Among  the  most  useful  of  these  is 
the  sitz  bath,  directions  for  taking  which  will  be 
found  in  the  appendix.  The  temperature  of  the 
water  should  be  about  94°  F.  at  the  beginning  of  the 
bath,  and  should  be  cooled  to  about  88°  F.  at  the 
conclusion,  after  continuing  ten  minutes  to  half  an 
hour.  The  warm  vaginal  douche  taken  in  connection 
with  the  bath,  the  quantity  used  being  one  to  three 
or  four  gallons  of  water  at  a  temperature  as  nearly  as 
possible  that  of  the  body,  is  a  most  valuable  additional 
means  of  obviating  many  of  the  dangers  of  childbirth, 
$nd  facilitating  the  exit  of  the  new  being  into  the 
world.  These  two  baths  combined  will  accomplish 
more  to  lessen  the  suffering  of  childbirth  than  all 
other  known  means.  They  are  especially  serviceable 
in  cases  in  which  there  has  been  previous  disease  of 
the  womb.    We  should  add  in  this  connection  the  cau- 

THE  MOTHER.  419 

tion  that  the  temperature  should  not  vary  much  from 
that  of  the  body,  as  either  a  hot  or  a  cold  douche 
might  occasion  a  miscarriage. 

The  baths  above  described  should  be  taken  during 
the  early  months  of  pregnancy,  two  or  three  times  a 
week,  and  daily  or  even  twice  a  day  during  the  last  few 
weeks.  We  have  seen  the  most  satisfactory  results 
follow  the  employment  of  these  simple  measures  when 
perseveringly  used,  even  when  the  same  persons  had 
on  previous  occasions  suffered  extremely. 

Care  of  the  Breasts. — By  proper  care  of  the 
breasts  during  the  few  months  preceding  childbirth, 
much  suffering  during  the  nursing  period  may  be 
saved  to  the  mother,  and  dangers  to  the  child  may 
be  avoided.  As  previously  observed,  the  breasts 
should  not  be  compressed  by  tight  clothing,  nor  heated 
by  "  pads."  They  should  be  protected  from  pressure 
and  from  overheating.  The  effect  of  pressure  is  to  de- 
press the  nipple  so  that  it  cannot  be  grasped  by  the 
mouth  of  the  child,  thus  making  nursing  impossible, 
and  also,  when  severe  and  long-continued,  to  obliter- 
ate the  ducts  of  some  of  the  gland  lobules,  thus  con- 
fining the  milk  secretion  and  giving  rise  to  abscesses 
or  "  broken  breast "  after  childbirth. 

When  tender,  as  is  often  the  case  during  preg- 
nancy, a  hot  fomentation  or  a  hot  poultice  may  be  ap- 
plied.    Pain  accompanied  by  excessive  heat  may  be* 
relieved  by  the  application  of  cool  compresses. 

When  the  nipple  is  small  and  retracted,  it  should 
be  drawn  out  daily  by  the  fingers  of  the  mother  or 
nurse,  and  friction  and  manipulation  should  be  em- 


ployed  so  as  to  secure  a  proper  degree  of  develop- 
ment to  prepare  it  for  the  child. 

When  the  breasts  are  small  and  undeveloped,  and 
there  is  apprehension  that  they  will  fail  to  supply 
the  necessary  nourishment  for  the  child,  daily  manipu- 
lation with  the  hands  should  be  practiced,  together 
with  the  daily  application  of  alternate  hot  and  cold 
sponging  or  compresses.  By  this  means  much  can  be 
done  to  overcome  deficiency  of  development  and  often 
to  a  remarkable  degree. 

When  the  surface  of  the  nipple  or  of  the  breast 
in  the  immediate  vicinity  is  sore  or  tender,  some 
hardening  lotion  should  be  used,  as  alum  or  borax  in 
whisky,  decoction  of  oak  bark  or  solution  of  tannin, 
or  sulphate  of  zinc  solution.  See  appendix  for 

Hygiene  of  Ante-Natal  Life. — The  influence  of 
the  mother  upon  the  child  during  gestation  has  al- 
ready been  referred  to  under  the  head  of  "  Heredity," 
and  the  facts  there  presented  need  not  be  repeated 
here.  We  wish,  however,  to  impress  still  further  a  few 
points,  and  especially  to  call  attention  to  the  fact  that 
since  it  is  evident  that  accidental  influences  and  cir- 
cumstances acting  upon  the  mother  affect  the  child 
either  favorably  or  unfavorably,  it  becomes  the  duty 
of  the  mother  to  surround  herself  with  such  influences 
#and  to  supply  such  conditions  and  circumstances  as 
she  knows  will  be  for  the  best  good  of  her  develop- 
ing infant.  In  this  work  she  should  be  aided  so  far 
as  possible  by  her  husband  and  by  all  those  about 
her  who  have  an  opportunity  to  render  her  assist- 
ance.    Work  of  so  important  a  character  as  this,  the 

THE  MOTHER.  421 

influence  of  which  can  only  be  estimated  in  eternity, 
such  work  demands  the  earnest  and  prayerful  atten- 
tion of  every  prospective  mother.  The  self-denial 
which  must  be  exercised,  the  subordination  of  the  ap- 
petites, desires,  tastes,  and  convenience  to  the  inter- 
ests of  another  being  which  the  duties  of  the  mother 
involve,  afford  a  moral  discipline  which  if  rightly  ap- 
preciated must  result  in  good  to  the  mother  as  well 
as  to  the  child,  and,  like  every  act  of  duty  in  life,  no 
matter  how  remotely  relating  to  the  individual,  reacts 
upon  the  doer  through  the  reflex  influence  of  mental 
and  moral  discipline. 

The  special  influence  of  the  mother  begins  with 
the  moment  of  conception.  In  fact  it  is  possible  that 
the  mental  condition  at  the  time  of  the  generative 
act  has  much  to  do  with  determining  the  character  of 
the  child,  though  it  is  generally  conceded  that  at 
this  time  the  influence  of  the  father  is  greater  than 
that  of  the  mother.  Any  number  of  instances  have 
occurred  in  which  a  drunken  father  has  impressed 
upon  his  child  the  condition  of  his  nervous  system  to 
such  a  degree  as  to  render  permanent  in  the  child 
the  staggering  gait  and  maudlin  manner  which  in  his 
own  case  was  a  transient  condition  induced  by  the 
poisonous  influence  of  alcohol.  A  child  born  as  the 
result  of  a  union  in  which  both  parents  were  in  a 
state  of  beastly  intoxication  was  idiotic. 

Another  fact  might  be  added  to  impress  the  im- 
portance that  the  new  being  should  be  supplied  from 
the  very  beginning  of  its  existence  with  the  very  best 
conditions  possible.  Indeed,  it  is  desirable  to  go 
back   still  further,  and  secure  a  proper  preparation 



for  the  important  function  of  maternity.  The  quali- 
ties which  go  to  make  up  individuality  of  character 
are  the  result  of  the  summing  up  of  a  long*  line  of  in- 
fluences, too  subtle  and  too  varied  to  admit  of  full 
control,  but  still,  to  some  degree  at  least,  subject  to 
management.  The  dominance  of  law  is  nowhere 
more  evident  than  in  the  relation  of  ante-natal  influ- 
ences to  character. 

The  hap-hazard  way  in  which  human  beings  are 
generated  leaves  no  room  for  surprise  that  the  race 
should  deteriorate.  No  stock-breeder  would  expect 
anything  but  ruin  should  he  allow  his  animals  to  prop- 
agate wTith  no  attention  to  their  physical  conditions 
or  previous  preparation. 

Finding  herself  in  a  pregnant  condition,  the 
mother  should  not  yield  to  the  depressing  influences 
which  often  crowd  upon  her.  The  anxieties  and 
fears  which  women  sometimes  yield  themselves  to, 
grow  with  encouragement,  until  they  become  so  ab- 
sorbed as  to  be  capable  of  producing  a  profoundly 
evil  impression  on  the  child.  The  true  mother  who 
is  prepared  for  the  functions  of  maternity,  will  wel- 
come the  evidence  of  pregnancy,  and  joyfully  entei 
upon  the  Heaven-given  task  of  molding  a  human 
character,  of  bringing  into  the  world  a  new  being 
whose  life-history  may  involve  the  destinies  of  na- 
tions, or  change  the  current  of  human  thought  for 
generations  to  come. 

The  pregnant  mother  should  cultivate  cheerfulness 
of  mind  and  calmness  of  temper,  but  should  avoid  ex- 
citements of  all  kinds,  such  as  theatrical  performances, 
public  contests  of  various  descriptions,  etc.     Anger. 

THE  MOTHER.  423 

envy,  irritability  of  temper,  and,  in  fact,  all  the  pas- 
sions and  propensities  should  be  held  in  check.  The 
fickleness  of  desire  and  the  constantly  varying  whims 
which  characterize  the  pregnant  state  in  some  women 
should  not  be  regarded  as  uncontrollable,  and  to  be 
yielded  to  as  the  only  means  of  appeasing  them. 
The  mother  should  be  gently  encouraged  to  resist  such 
tendencies  when  they  become  at  all  marked,  and  to 
assist  her  in  the  effort,  her  husband  should  endeavor 
to  engage  her  mind  by  interesting  conversation,  read- 
ing, and  various  harmless  and  pleasant  diversions. 

If  it  is  desired  that  the  child  should  possess  a 
special  aptitude  for  any  particular  art  or  pursuit,  dur- 
ing the  period  of  pregnancy  the  mother's  mind  should 
be  constantly  directed  in  this  channel.  If  artistic 
taste  or  skill  is  the  trait  desired,  the  mother  should  be 
surrounded  by  works  of  art  of  a  high  order  of  merit. 
She  should  read  art,  think  art,  talk,  and  write  about 
art,  and  if  possible,  herself  engage  in  the  close  prac- 
tical study  of  some  one  or  more  branches  of  art,  as 
painting,  drawing,  etching,  or  modeling.  If  ability 
for  authorship  is  desired,  then  the  mother  should  de- 
vote herself  assiduously  to  literature.  It  is  not 
claimed  that  by  following  these  suggestions  any 
mother  can  make  of  her  children  great  artists  or  au- 
thors at  will ;  but  it  is  certain  that  by  this  means  the 
greatest  possibilities  in  individual  cases  can  be  at- 
tained ;  and  it  is  certain  that  decided  results  have 
been  secured  by  close  attention  to  the  principles  laid 
down.  It  should  be  understood,  however,  that  not 
merely  a  formal  and  desultory  effort  on  the  part  of 
the  mother  is  what  is  required.     The  theme  selected 


must  completely  absorb  her  mind.  It  must  be  the  one 
idea  of  her  waking  thoughts  and  the  model  on  which 
is  formed  the  dreams  of  her  sleeping  hours. 

The  question  of  diet  during  pregnancy  as  before 
stated  is  a  vitally  important  one  as  regards  the  inter- 
ests of  the  child.  A  diet  into  which  enters  largely 
such  unwholesome  articles  as  mustard,  pepper,  hot 
sauces,  spices,  and  other  stimulating  condiments,  engen- 
ders a  love  for  stimulants  in  the  disposition  of  the  in- 
fant. Tea  and  coffee,  especially  if  used  to  excess, 
undoubtedly  tend  in  the  same  direction.  We  firmly 
believe  that  we  have,  in  the  facts  first  stated,  the  key 
to  the  constant  increase  in  the  consumption  of  ardent 
spirits.  The  children  of  the  present  generation  in- 
herit from  their  condiment^consuming,  tea-,  coffee-, 
and  liquor-drinking,  and  tobacco-using  parents,  not 
simply  a  readiness  for  the  acquirement  of  the  habits 
mentioned,  but  a  propensity  .for  the  use  of  stimulants 
which  in  persons  of  weak  will-power  and  those  whose 
circumstances  are  not  the  most  favorable,  becomes 

The  present  generation  is  also  suffering  in  con- 
sequence of  the  impoverished  diet  of  its  parents. 
The  modern  custom  of  bolting  the  flour  from  the  dif- 
ferent grains  has  deprived  millions  of  infants  and 
children  of  the  necessary  supply  of  bone-making  mate- 
rial, thus  giving  rise  to  a  greatly  increased  frequency 
of  the  various  diseases  which  arise  from  imperfect 
bony  structure,  as  rickets,  caries,  premature  decay  of 
the  teeth,  etc.  The  proper  remedy  is  the  disuse  of 
fine-flour  bread  and  all  other  bolted  grain  prepara- 
tions.    Graham-flour  bread,  oatmeal,  cracked  wheat, 

THE  MOTHER.  425 

and  similar  preparations,  should  be  relied  upon  as  the 
leading  articles  of  diet.  Supplemented  by  milk,  the 
whole-grain  preparations  constitute  a  complete  form  of 
nourishment,  and  render  a  large  amount  of  animal  food 
not  only  unnecessary  but  really  harmful  on  account 
of  its  stimulating  character.  It  is  by  no  means  so 
necessary  as  is  generally  supposed  that  meat,  fish, 
fowl,  and  flesh  in  various  forms  should  constitute  a 
large  element  of  the  dietary  of  the  pregnant  or  nurs- 
ing mother  in  order  to  furnish  adequate  nourishment 
for  the  developing  child.  We  have  seen  the  happiest 
results  follow  the  employment  of  a  strictly  vegetarian 
dietary,  and  do  not  hesitate  to  advise  moderation  in 
the  use  of  flesh  food,  though  we  do  not  recommend 
the  entire  discontinuance  of  its  use  by  the  pregnant 
mother  who  has  been  accustomed  to  use  it  freely. 

A  nursing  mother  should  at  once  suspend  nursing 
if  she  discovers  that  pregnancy  has  again  occurred. 
The  continuance  of  nursing  under  such  circumstances 
is  to  the  disadvantage  of  three  individuals,  the  mother, 
the  infant  at  the  breast,  and  the  developing  child. 

Sexual  indulgence  during  pregnancy  may  be  sus- 
pended with  decided  benefit  to  both  mother  and  child. 
The  most  ancient  medical  writers  call  attention  to  the 
fact  that  by  the  practice  of  continence  during  gesta- 
tion, the  pains  of  childbirth  are  greatly  mitigated. 
The  injurious  influences  upon  the  child  of  the  gratifi- 
cation of  the  passions  during  the  period  when  its 
character  is  being  formed,  is  undoubtedly  much 
greater  than  is  usually  supposed.  We  have  no  doubt 
that  this  is  a  common  cause  of  the  transmission  of 
libidinous  tendencies  to  the  child ;  and  that  the  ten- 


dency  to  abortion  is  induced  by  sexual  indulgence  has 
long  been  a  well  established  fact.  The  females  of 
most  animals  resolutely  resist  the  advances  of  the 
males  during  this  period,  being  guided  in  harmony 
with  natural  law  by  their  natural  instincts  which  have 
been  less  perverted  in  them  than  in  human  beings. 
The  practice  of  continence  during  pregnancy  is  also 
enforced  in  the  harems  of  the  East,  which  fact  leads 
to  the  practice  of  abortion  among  women  of  this  class 
who  are  desirous  of  remaining  the  special  favorites  of 
the  common  husband. 

The  general  health  of  the  mother  must  be  kept 
up  in  every  way.  It  is  especially  important  that  the 
regularity  of  the  bowels  should  be  maintained. 
Proper  diet  and  as  much  physical  exercise  as  can  be 
taken  are  the  best  means  for  accomplishing  this. 
When  constipation  is  allowed  to  exist,  the  infant  as 
well  as  the  mother  suffers.  The  effete  products 
which  should  be  promptly  removed  from  the  body, 
being  long  retained,  are  certain  to  find  their  way  back 
into  the  system  again,  poisoning  not  only  the  blood 
of  the  mother  but  that  of  the  developing  foetus. 


The  pregnant  condition  is  one  which  is  especially 
liable  to  certain  derangements  of  the  system,  some 
of  which  are  wholly  peculiar  to  this  state,  while  others 
are  frequently  the  result  of  other  causes:  It  cannot 
be  justly  supposed  that  these  morbid  conditions  are 
necessary  accompaniments  of  the  function  of  mater- 
nity, for  they  do  not  appear  when  the  function  is  per- 


formed  in  a  perfectly  physiological  manner.  They 
must  be  regarded  as  among  the  results  of  the  per- 
verted state  into  which  the  race  has  fallen,  and  in 
which  there  have  been  great  departures  in  a  great 
variety  of  ways  from  the  normal  conditions  of  the 
race.  It  §hould  be  added  that  a  careful  observance 
of  all  the  suggestions  made  in  the  preceding  section 
will  effectually  prevent  nearly  all  the  disorders  to. 
which  we  here. call  attention. 

"Morning  Sickness/9 — This  is  one  of  the  earli- 
est, and  sometimes  one  of  the  most  serious,  complica- 
tions of  pregnancy,  occurring  usually  only  in  the  ear- 
lier and  later  months  of  pregnancy.  The  nausea, 
sometimes  accompanied  by  vomiting,  most  often  oc- 
curs in  the  morning  just  after  rising. 

Treatment. — This  difficulty  is  often  very  obsti- 
nate, but  very  simple  measures  will  give  relief  in  the 
majority  of  cases. 

Give  the  patient  something  to  eat  before  getting 
up  in  the  morning,  as  a  bowl  of  brown  bread  and  milk. 
Food  should  be  taken  at  least  fifteen  or  twenty  min- 
utes before  attempting  to  get  up,  and  after  rising,  the 
patient  should  dress  quickly  and  go  out  in  the  open 
air  for  a  walk,  unless  the  weather  forbids. 

The  abdominal  bandage  is  a  very  excellent  means 
of  relieving  this  unpleasant  symptom.  It  should  be 
worn  continually  for  a  week  or  two  both  day  and 
night  and  then  should  be  omitted  during  the  night. 
Daily  sitz  baths  are  also  of  great  advantage.  In 
many  cases,  electricity  relieves  this  symptom  very 
promptly.  When  nearly  all  kinds  of  food  are  re- 
jected, milk  and  lime-water  may  be   employed.     In 


very  urgent  cases  in  which  the  vomiting  cannot  be 
repressed,  and  the  life  of  the  patient  is  threatened, 
the  stomach  should  be  given  entire  rest?  the  patient 
being  nourished  by  means  of  nutritive  injections. 
(See  appendix.)  Fomentations  over  the  stomach  and 
swallowing  of  small  bits  of  ice,  are  sometimes  effec- 
tive when  other  measures  fail. 

It  is  claimed  by  some  gynecologists  of  large  ex- 
perience that  this  symptom  is  the  result  of  disease  of 
the  neck  of  the  womb,  particularly  abrasion.  It  is 
recommended  that  slight  dilitation  of  the  os-uteri 
should  be  employed.  This  should  of  course  be  done 
by  a  physician  or  an  experienced  nurse. 

Acidity  and  Flatulence. — When  there  is  muck 
acidity  or  flatulence,  conditions  which  are  very  com- 
mon indeed,  vegetables  and  starchy  foods  should 
be  avoided,  together  with  butter,  sugar,  pastry,  and 
sweets  of  all  descriptions.  Such  persons  should 
also  for  a  time  avoid  the  use  of  raw  fruits  and 
soups,  and  should  refrain  from  taking  much  fluid 
at  meals.  The  use  of  hot  water  in  considerable 
quantity  about  three  hours  after  each  meal  is  a  most 
excellent  remedy  for  this  condition,  the  effect  being 
to  cleanse  the  stomach  from  its  souring,  fermenting 
contents  and  to  stimulate  the  sluggish,  digestive  pro- 
cesses to  more  vigorous  action.  The  use  of  hot  milt 
at  the  time  of  eating  is  also  to  be  recommended  in 
these  cases.  Both  the  water  and  the  milk  should  be 
taken  at  as  high  a  temperature  as  possible  without 

Various  disorders  of  digestion  are  exceeding*? 
common  during  this  period,  such  as  heartburn,  p)70" 

THE  MOTHER.  429 

sis,  etc.,  most  of  which  can  be  quite  promptly  re- 
lieved by  the  adoption  of  such  dietetic  measures  as 
are  required  by  the  particular  condition  present.  Ail 
of  these  conditions,  with  their  proper  treatment,  are 
thoroughly  discussed  in  a  volume  by  the  author  en- 
titled, "Digestion  and  Dyspepsia,"  to  which  the 
reader  is  respectfully  referred,  as  our  space  is  too 
limited  to  allow  of  the  full  consideration  of  the  sub- 
ject here. 

Constipation. — This  condition  is  so  very  common 
that  we  cannot  omit  noticing  it  here,  although  we 
have  treated  the  subject  more  fully  in  the  work  re 
ferred  to  above.  In  many  cases  relief  will  be  afforded 
by  the  adoption  of  a  diet  composed  chiefly  of  fruits 
and  grains.  The  large  use  of  flesh  meats  and  of  fine- 
flour  bread  is  one  of  the  most  common  causes  of  in- 
activity of  the  bowels  during  pregnancy.  The  coarse 
grain  preparations  should  be  freely  used,  and  also 
vegetables,  when  the  patient  is  able  to  digest  them. 
Figs,  stewed  prunes,  and  other  fruits  of  a  laxative 
character,  if  freely  used  by  the  patient,  will  gener- 
ally obviate  the  necessity  for  other  means.  Drink- 
ing a  glass  of  cold  water  before  breakfast  is  an  ex- 
cellent means  of  securing  a  regular  evacuation  of  the 

In  case  dietetic  measures  are  insufficient,  the 
enema  may  be  resorted  to.  As  small  a  quantity  of 
water  should  be  used  as  will  secure  the  desired 
movement.  It  is  also  better  to  employ  water  at  a 
moderately  low  temperature,  so  as  to  keep  the  blood- 
vessels of  the  part  well  toned,  as  a  means  of  prevent- 
ing hemorrhoids.     A  very  excellent  plan  by  which 


the  dependence  upon  the  enema  may  be  somewhat 
avoided,  or  overcome,  is  to  inject  into  the  rectum  at 
night,  just  before  retiring,  two  tablespoonfuls  of 
water  containing  ten  drops  of  spirits  of  camphor.  This 
will  often  provoke  a  movement  of  the  bowels  at  once. 
If  the  fluid  is  retained  over  night,  it  will  be  quite 
certain  to  secure  a  prompt  movement,  at  least  if  the 
same  quantity  of  camphor  water  is  used  as  an  enema 
soon  after  breakfast.  A  tablespoonful  of  glycerine  in 
three  or  four  spoonfuls  of  water  used  in  the  same 
manner  is  equally  useful  and  often  more  agreeable  to 
the  patient. 

Light  massage  to  the  bowels,  together  with  exer- 
cises of  the  trunk  such  as  are  recommended  for  the 
purpose  of  strengthening  the  abdominal  muscles  (see 
appendix),  are  of  great  value  in  relieving  this  un- 
pleasant symptom.  The  same  is  to  some  degree  true 
of  walking  and  gentle  calisthenic  exercises. 

It  is  very  unwise  to  become  dependent  upon  the 
use  of  the  enema,  and  hence  a  persevering  effort 
should  be  made  to  secure  a  healthy  activity  of  the 
bowels  by  regulation  of  the  diet,  and  by  the  employ- 
ment of  the  other  means  suggested.  The  same  re- 
mark is  still  more  emphatically  true  respecting  the 
use  of  the  laxatives  of  various  sorts  so  commonly  re- 
sorted to  by  pregnant  women.  The  habit  thus 
formed  is  very  often  difficult  to  overcome,  and  the  re- 
sulting mischief  more  than  can  be  well  described. 

Hemorrhoids,  or  Piles. — This  condition  is  the 
usual  accompaniment  of  the  preceding,  of  which  it  is 
commonly  the  result,  although  it  is  sometimes  fairly 
attributable  to  the  pressure  exerted  upon  the  blood- 


vessels  of  the  lower  bowels  by  the  pregnant  womb. 
The  suffering  from  this  source  is  often  very  great, 
constituting  one  of  the  most  serious  inconveniences 
of  the  pregnant  state. 

Treatment :  Keep  the  bowels  loose  by  means  of 
the  measures  mentioned  for  the  relief  of  constipation. 
Linseed  tea  is  especially  serviceable  for  an  emollient 
enema.  If  the  constipation  is  very  obstinate,  a  soap 
and  water  enema  may  be  employed  to  empty  the 
bowels.     (See  appendix.) 

The  pain  of  hemorrhoids  may  generally  be  re- 
lieved by  the  application  of  a  hot  fomentation.  A 
large,  soft  sponge  is  useful  for  the  purpose.  The 
daily  sitz  bath  which  should  be  taken  during  the 
later  months  of  pregnancy  is  a  most  excellent  means 
not  only  of  allaying  the  pain  by  relieving  local  con- 
gestion, but  also  overcoming  the  tendency  to  consti- 
pation. When  the  pain  of  moving  the  bowels  is  very 
great,  the  patient  will  find  great  relief  by  sitting  over 
a  vessel  half-filled  with  hot  water  for  a  few  minutes 
before  making  the  attempt.  In  some  cases  it  is  bet- 
ter that  the  water  should  be  in  immediate  contact 
with  the  body. 

When  there  is  hemorrhage  from  the  bowels,  or 
"  bleeding  piles,"  an  ointment  consisting  of  a  dram  of 
tannin  dissolved  in  an  ounce  of  vaseline  should  be 
thoroughly  applied  after  each  movement,  care  being 
taken  to  introduce  the  ointment  to  the  point  at  which 
the  bleeding  occurs. 

Disorders  of  the  Bladder. — The  bladder  is  often 
the  seat  of  troublesome  affections  during  the  pregnant 
condition.     Abnormal    irritability,   pain    in    passing 


urine,  inability  to  retain  the  urine  a  proper  length  of 
time,  and  the  opposite  condition,  or  failure  of  the  blad- 
der to  evacuate  its  contents  as  frequently  or  com- 
pletely as  proper,  are  among  the  most  common  troubles 
of  this  sort.  Irritability  of  the  bladder  is  most  gen- 
erally due  to  neglect  to  empty  the  bladder  of  its  con- 
tents with  proper  frequency  and  regularity.  In  some 
cases,  the  bladder  troubles  are  due  to  displacements  of 
the  womb  existing  before  pregnancy  occurred.  This 
is  especially  true  of  incontinence  of  urine,  which  gener- 
ally results  in  these  cases  from  pressure  upon  the 
bladder  by  the  enlarged  and  displaced  womb. 

Irritability  of  the  bladder  is  generally  relieved  by 
copious  water-drinking,  the  free  use  of  fruit,  and  re- 
lieving the  organ  regularly  once  in  five  or  six  hours. 
The  recumbent  position  is  the  best  remedy  for  incon- 
tinence of  urine.  Sometimes  this  difficulty  may  be 
prevented  by  the  use  of  the  abdominal  bandage  for 
the  purpose  of  holding  the  uterus  in  place.  Reten- 
tion can  often  be  overcome  by  the  employment  of 
the  warm  sitz  bath,  the  bladder  being  relieved 
while  in  the  bath.  Another  very  efficient  means  of 
overcoming  retention  is  the  warm  vaginal  douche. 
The  temperature  should  be  as  nearly  as  possible  100° 
F.,  the  internal  temperature  of  the  body.  The  blad- 
der will  generally  evacuate  itself  during  the  admin- 
istration of  the  douche.  A  hot  enema  is  also  of  serv- 
ice in  these  cases. 

Disorders  of  the  Womb. — The  occurrence  of 
pregnancy  in  a  woman  suffering  with  chronic  disease 
of  the  womb  is  generally  a  most  unhappy  event,  not- 
withstanding the  fact  that  a  cure  is  sometimes  sought 


through  this  means.  Disease  of  the  womb  greatly 
increases  the  perils  of  the  pregnant  condition,  and  is 
not  likely,  in  the  majority  of  cases,  to  be  at  all  bene- 
fited by  the  changes  induced  by  pregnancy. 

Prolapsus  and  retroversion  are  conditions  which 
often  require  the  attention  of  a  physician  to  relieve. 
If  begun  in  time,  however,  great  benefit  may  be  de- 
rived from  the  postural  treatment  described  in  the 
appendix,  and  particularly  the  knee-chest  position 
illustrated  on  Plate  XII. 

Vaginal  Discharges.  — The  discharges  which 
take  place  from  the  vagina  during  pregnancy  are 
quite  various.  The  most  common  is  a  profuse  mu- 
cous discharge  or  leucorrhcea,  the  best  remedy  for 
which  is  the  daily  use  of  vaginal  injections  adminis- 
tered with  the  syphon  or  fountain  syringe.  The 
water  should  be  at  the  temperature  of  the  body,  and 
little  force  should  be  employed.  The  various  reme- 
dies elsewhere  recommended  for  leucorrhoea  are  use- 
ful in  this  form  of  the  affection. 

Occasionally  strong  gushes  of  a  watery  fluid 
occur,  followed  for  some  time  by  a  dribbling  of  the 
same.  The  remedy  for  this  difficulty  is  complete 
rest  in  bed.  Fluid  discharges  occurring  during  preg- 
nancy should  receive  prompt  attention,  as  they  indi- 
cate a  liability  to  miscarriage. 

Itching  Genitals. — This  affection  is  usually  an 
accompaniment  of  an  acrid  leucorrhoeal  discharge. 
The  treatment  is  the  same  as  elsewhere  described  for 
the  same  affection. 

Varicose  or  Enlarged  Veins. — This  condition  of 
the  veins  of  the  lower  extremities  is  a  very  frequent 


complication  of  pregnancy,  and  is  often  the  source  of 
much  suffering  and  inconvenience  to  the  patient  not 
only  during  the  pregnancy,  but  afterward.  Hence  it 
should  receive  careful  attention.  The  cause  is  me- 
chanical, being  found  in  the  pressure  of  the  heavy 
uterus  against  the  large  veins  which  return  to  the 
heart  through  the  abdomen  the  blood  gathered  by 
the  veins  of  the  lower  extremities.  Sometimes  a 
similar  enlargement  of  the  veins  of  the  external  or- 
gans of  generation  on  one  or  both  sides  also  occurs. 

Treatment :  The  limbs  should  be  supported  by 
means  of  an  elastic  bandage,  or  elastic  silk  stocking, 
whenever  the  patient  is  on  her  feet.  A  flannel  band- 
age made  of  strips  of  flannel  torn  across  the  web  so 
as  to  give  some  elasticity  may  be  used  in  place  of  the 
rubber  bandage,  though  less  efficient.  The  bandage 
should  be  applied  evenly,  from  the  toes  upward,  as 
high  as  needed,  even  extending  to  the  body  if  nec- 
essary. When  the  patient  is  sitting  or  lying  down, 
the  feet  should  be  elevated  a  little  higher  than  the 
hips  if  possible.  If  the  labia  become  very  much 
swollen,  the  patient  should  remain  as  much  as  possi- 
ble in  a  horizontal  position,  in  the  meantime  pressing 
out  the  blood  from  the  distended  veins  by  steady 
compression  with  the  hand.  A  pad  and  bandage  can 
be  adjusted  in  such  a  way  as  to  answer  the  same 

Dropsical  Swelling  of  the  Feet  and  Limbs. — 
General  dropsy,  indicated  by  puffiness  of  the  face 
and  swelling  of  the  limbs  so  that  pitting  is  produced 
by  pressure  with  the  finger,  is  a  very  serious  compli- 
cation of  pregnancy,  indicating  probable  disease  of  the 

THE  MOTHER'  43." 

kidneys.  This  condition  should  receive  prompt  atten- 
tion from  a  competent  physician,  to  whom  should  be 
given  a  specimen  of  the  urine  for  examination.  The 
most  useful  remedies  are  such  as  will  induce  active 
perspiration,  as  the  hot-air  bath,  the  wet-sheet  pack 
the  blanket  pack,  etc.  The  patient  should  be  allowed 
no  animal  food  except  milk,  the  diet  being  made  up 
chiefly  of  fruits  and  grains.  When  the  swelling  is 
confined  to  the  feet  and  limbs,  it  may  be  treated  by 
means  of  the  bandage,  or  the  elastic  silk  stocking  as 
directed  for  varicose  veins  of  the  limbs. 

Rubbing  of  the  feet  and  limbs  in  an  upward  direc- 
tion is  a  means  of  treatment  which  should  not  be  neg- 
lected. The  rubbing  should  be  administered  two  or 
three  times  daily,  and  for  half  an  hour  at  a  time. 

Neuralgia. — The  neuralgia  of  pregnancy  is  some- 
times a  most  disagreeable  complication.  The  affection 
may  assume  a  great  variety  of  forms.  It  most  fre- 
quently affects  the  face.  Very  often  the  teeth  are 
the  seat  of  the  pain.  Sometimes  the  pain  is  mostly 
confined  to  the  back  or  chest  or  the  limbs. 

Treatment:  The  most  useful  measures  of  treat- 
ment are  fomentations  to  the  affected  part,  the  use  of 
dry  heat,  alternate  hot  and  cold  applications,  and  elec- 
tricity, particularly  the  galvanic  current.  These 
measures  are  not  usually  efficient,  however,  unless 
the  exciting  cause,  which  may  generally  be  found  to 
be  some  form  of  indigestion  or  an  impoverished  condi- 
tion of  the  blood,  is  carefully  sought  for  and  removed. 

Headache  and  Disturbances  of  Vision. — Se- 
vere, continuous  headache  and  various  disturbances  of 
vision,  such  as  blurring,  double  sight,  etc.,  are  some- 


times  of  quite  serious  import.  These  cases  should  be 
investigated  by  a  competent  physician.  Whenever 
these  symptoms  occur,  a  careful  examination  of  the 
urine  should  be  made,  to  determine  if  albumen  is 
present.  The  headache  may  generally  be  relieved  by 
cool  or  hot  compresses  to  the  head,  hot  fomentations, 
or  hot  and  cold  sponging  of  the  upper  part  of  the 
spine,  warm  sitz  or  foot  baths,  and  other  derivative 

Shortness  of  Breath. — Shortness  of  breath  or 
difficulty  of  breathing,  are  frequently  among  the 
most  prominent  inconveniences  of  the  latter  stages  of 
the  pregnant  state.  Patients  subject  to  asthma,  and 
affected  with  organic  disease  of  the  heart,  suffer 
much  more  than  do  others.  The  interference  with 
respiration  is  produced  in  most  cases  by  crowding 
upward  of  the  abdominal  organs  against  the  dia- 
phragm, thus  preventing  its  proper  descent,  and 
making  it  impossible  for  the  patient  to  take  a  full  in- 
spiration. Shortness  of  breath  is  sometimes  due  to 
poverty  of  the  blood. 

The  first  class  of  cases  can  be  relieved  but  little, 
as  the  cause  cannot  be  removed.  Some  advantage 
may  be  derived,  however,  by  the  application  of  far- 
adization to  the  chest,  for  the  purpose  of  strengthen- 
ing the  respiratory  muscles.  In  cases  in  which  the 
difficulty  arises  from  debility,  the  patient  should  re- 
ceive such  treatment  as  will  secure  improvement  of 

Fainting. — This  symptom  occurs  quite  frequently 
during  the  first  few  months  of  pregnancy.  The 
cause  is   the  morbidly  susceptible   condition  of  the 


nervous  system  during  this  period,  very  slight  causes 
being  sufficient  to  occasion  intense  mental  excitement 
and  profound  disturbance  of  the  circulation. 

Miscarriage  and  Abortion. — These  terms  are 
applied  to  cases  in  which  the  foetus  is  discharged  be- 
fore the  seventh  month.  Miscarriage  occurs  most 
frequently  in  fleshy  persons  and  those  who  are  sub- 
ject to  menorrhagia,  or  profuse  menstruation.  Nearly 
all  the  severe  acute  diseases  may  give  rise  to  miscar- 
riage. Violent  excitement  or  exertion,  either  mental 
or  physical,  displacements  of  the  uterus,  together 
with  chronic  inflammation  and  tumors  of  the  organ, 
falls,  and  other  violent  accidents,  severe  vomiting  or 
coughing,  bad  hygiene,  and  sexual  indulgence,  may 
be  enumerated  as  the  principal  causes  of  abortion. 

The  symptoms  of  abortion  within  the  first  two 
weeks  do  not  differ  very  greatly  from  those  attending 
profuse  menstruation.  Not  infrequently  miscarriages 
occur  at  this  period  without  the  woman  being  con- 
scious of  the  fact.  In  the  third  or  fourth  month, 
there  is  considerable  hemorrhage,  and  some  portion  01 
the  foetus  is  likely  to  be  retained  in  the  womb,  where 
decomposition  not  infrequently  takes  place,  imperiling 
the  patient's  life.  Criminal  abortion  is  very  fre- 
quently attended  by  fatal  results.  The  moral  aspect 
of  this  question  has  been  fully  considered  else- 
where. (See  pages  351-369.)  Miscarriage  occur- 
ring as  late  as  five  or  six  months,  very  closely  resem- 
bles labor. 

It  has  been  observed  that  miscarriage  is  most  £pt 
to  occur  at  or  near  the  regular  time  for  menstruation, 


if  the  function  had  continued,  and  hence  special  care 
should  be  observed  at  these  periods. 

Treatment :  In  cases  in  which  abortion  habitually 
occurs  at  a  certain  time,  complete  rest  should  be  en- 
joined upon  the  patient.  She  should  not  be  upon  her 
feet  at  all  until  the  dangerous  period  is  past.  Sexual 
excitement  should  also  be  strictly  prohibited.  In 
case  flooding  occurs,  or  other  symptoms  of  abortion, 
the  patient  should  at  onee  go  to  bed  and  apply  cold 
compresses  over  the  bowels,  and  tepid  injections  of 
tannin  or  a  decoction  of  white-oak  bark  into  the 
vagina.  Abortion  or  miscarriage  is  much  more  likely 
to  be  followed  by  di^pase  of  the  womb  than  natural 
labor,  and  hence  every  possible  precaution  should  be 
taken  to  prevent  exposure  and  overdoing  in  these 

Premature  Labor. — Births  occurring  after  'the 
beginning  of  the  seventh  month  are  termed  prema- 
ture. The  causes  are  essentially  the  same  as  those 
which  produce  abortion.  The  rules  laid  down  for  the 
management  of  labor  at  full  term,  are  equally  applica- 
ble to  premature  labors.  It  should  be  remarked  that 
extra  preparations  should  be  made  to  give  the  feeble 
infant  likely  to  be  born  in  these  cases  the  best  possi- 
ble chances  for  life. 

Death  of  the  Foetus. — When  many  symptoms  of 
pregnancy  which  have  been  distinctly  present  disap- 
pear, there  are  grounds  for  suspicion  that  death  oi 
the  foetus  has  been  occasioned  by  some  cause.  The 
causes  which  occasion  death  of  the  foetus  are  essen- 
tially the  same  as  those  which  give  rise  to  abortion 
and  premature  labor.     The  foetus  is  generally  expelled 


a  week  or  ten  days  after  it  dies,  but  cases  are  re- 
corded in  which  it  has  been  retained  many  months. 

Molar  or  False  Pregnancy. — Two  forms  of 
false  pregnancy  occur.  In  one  of  these,  after  the 
usual  symptoms  of  abortion,  and  with  considerable 
pain  and  hemorrhage,  a  fleshy  body  of  varying  size 
is  expelled,  which  may  be  shown  by  a  close  examin- 
ation to  be  an  undeveloped  foetus.  This  form  of  false 
pregnancy  is  attended  by  little  danger. 

In  the  other  form,  the  symptoms  of  pregnancy 
continue  Up  to  the  fourth  or  fifth  month,  though  no 
foetal  movements  are  ever  felt.  The  abdominal  walls 
are  generally  extended  more  than  at  the  same  time  in 
true  pregnancy.  After  a  time,  a  large  quantity  of 
bloody  serum  is  discharged,  along  with  severe  hemor- 
rhage, the  escaping  fluid  containing  small,  bladd«r-like 
bodies  resembling  grapes.  This  is  knowu  as  the  hy- 
datfdi-forjn.  This  form  of  false  pregnancy  is  by  no 
means  free  from  danger,  and  requires  the  attention  of 
a  skilled  physician. 

Flooding.— -When  this  serious  symptom  occurs, 
the  patient,  if  not  already  in  a,  decumbent  position, 
should  at  once  go  to  bed.  Cold  compresses  should 
be  applied  over  the  lower  part  of  the  bowels.  She 
should  be  given  an  abundance  of  cold  water  to  drink. 
Cold  water  may  al^o"be  injected  into  the  rectum  with 
advantage.  Id  » ease  of  a  severe  hemorrhage  after 
miscarriage  or  premature  labor,  the  best  remedy  is 
the  jrfblonged  hot-water  vaginal  douche.  If  not 
speedily  effective,  a  strong,  hot,  saturated  solution  of 
alum,  ^bout  one  pint  in  quantity,  should  be  injected 
into  the   vagina.     If  necessary,  a  tablespoonful  of 


powdered  alum  may  be  carefully  inclosed  in  a  bag  of 
thin  muslin  and  introduced  into  the  vagina  and  re- 
tained for  a  few  hours. 

Puerperal  Convulsions. — This  is  a  very  serious 
disease  which  may  occur  during  pregnancy,  or  during 
or  after  labor.  It  generally  occurs  in  patients  who 
have  suffered  with  disease  of  the  kidneys  during 
pregnancy,  as  shown  by  swelling  of  the  feet  and 
limbs,  puffiness  of  the  face,  and  the  presence  of  albu- 
men in  the  urine.  Among  the  first  symptoms  are 
disorders  of  vision,  as  blurred  sight,  double  vision,  and 
continuous  headache.  The  attack  generally  begins 
with  strong  muscular  contractions,  in  which  the 
muscles  of  the  limbs  become  rigid,  and  respiration 
ceases  through  the  rigidity  of  the  muscles  of  the 
chest.  This  is  followed  in  a  short  time  by  spasmodic 
twitching  of  the  various  muscles.  Sometimes  the 
contortions  of  patients  suffering  with  this  affection 
are  frightful.  The  most  common,  and  probably  the 
sole,  cause  of  true  puerperal  convulsions,  is  poisoning 
of  the  blood  by  the  elements  of  the  urine  which  are 
not  eliminated  on  account  of  congestion  or  inflamma- 
tion of  the  kidneys. 

Sometimes  attacks  occur  resembling  those  of  epi- 
lepsy. These  cases  are  probably  due  to  some  other 

Treatment:  The  preventive  treatment  of  this  dis- 
ease is  by  far  the  most  important.  It  consists,  first, 
in  thorough  attention  to  the  laws  of  hygiene  relating 
to  the  pregnant  state.  The  diet  should  be  chiefly 
fruit,  and  farinaceous  articles  of  food  Sugar  and 
meat  should  be  carefully  discarded.     As  soon  as  the 


swelling  of  the  feet  and  puffiness  of  the  face  are  ob- 
served, the  patient  should  take  frequent  warm  baths 
with  wet-sheet  packs,  vapor  baths,  and  other  treat- 
ment which  will  induce  active  sweating.  Consider- 
able quantities  of  water  should  be  daily  drank,  so  as 
to  replace  the  water  removed  by  the  sweating  pro 
cess,  which  should  be  made  almost  continuous. 

At  the  time  of  the  attack,  vigorous  efforts  snould 
be  made  to  relieve  the  system  of  the  obnoxious  ele- 
ment by  which  the  brain  and  nervous  system  is  be- 
ing poisoned,  through  the  medium  of  perspiration. 
If  possible,  the  patient  should  be  given  a  hot  blanket 
pack,  hot  bottles  being  packed  around  her  to  induce 
copious  sweating.  If  the  bowels  are  constipated  they 
should  be  relieved  by  a  warm  enema.  A  spoon  han- 
dle wrapped  with  cloth  should  be  placed  between  the 
teeth  to  prevent  the  tongue  being  bitten.  The  pa- 
tient should  not  be  violently  restrained,  but  should 
be  gently  prevented  from  injuring  herself.  When 
coma  is  present,  as  is  frequently  the  case,  cold  or  iced 
compresses  should  be  applied  to  the  head.  Hot  and 
cold  applications  should  be  made  to  the  spine.  If 
these  measures  do  not  bring  relief,  chloroform  may  be 
used  to  subdue  the  spasms.  This  remedy  is  gener- 
ally effective.  When  the  contractions  have  ceased,  en- 
ergetic measures  should  be  taken  to  prevent  their  re- 
currence by  exciting  activity  of  the  kidneys  and 

Cramps. — Spasmodic  contraction  of  the  muscles 
of  the  limbs  is  a  very  common  and  often  troublesome 
affection  incident  to  pregnancy.  Measures  to  im- 
prove and  maintain  the  tone  of  the  nervous  system 


should  be  thoroughly  employed  as  preventive  means. 
When  the  cramping  occurs,  the  affected  muscles 
should  be  firmly  grasped  and  vigorously  rubbed. 
Sometimes  the  cramping  may  be  made  to  cease  by 
simply  walking  about  for  a  few  minutes.  Fomenta- 
tions or  hot  and  cold  applications  made  to  the  lower 
part  of  the  spine  usually  afford  relief  in  a  prolonged 
attack  where  other  measures  fail.  Hot  sponging  of 
the  cramping  muscles  is  also  a  useful  remedy. 

Painful  Breast. — This  unpleasant  affection  is  not 
infrequently  a  cause  of  very  great  discomfort  to  the 
pregnant  woman.  When  there  is  much  heat  and  a 
tense  feeling  or  hardness,  cool  compresses  should  be 
applied,  cloths  being  dipped  in  cool  or  cold  water 
and  applied,  being  changed  as  often  as  they  become 
warmed.  Alternate  hot  and  cold  sponging  will  some- 
times afford  more  prompt  relief.  When  there  is  pain 
without  heat,  fomentations  or  hot  sponging  may  be 
employed  two  or  three  times  a  day  with  benefit,  or 
soothing  liniments  may  be  employed. 

Palpitation  of  the  Heart — This  symptom  is  the 
result  of  reflex  action,  and  may  generally  be  relieved 
by  alternate  hot  and  cold  sponging  of  the  spine,  and 
either  hot  or  cold  applications  over  the  heart.  It  is 
generally  occasioned  by  some  disturbance  of  diges- 

Rigid  Skin. — In  some  cases  the  skin  of  the  abdo- 
men is  wanting  in  elasticity  to  such  a  degree  that 
great  pain  and  uneasiness  is  caused  by  the  strain 
upon  the  abdominal  walls  during  the  later  months  of 
pregnancy.  To  relieve  this  condition,  the  skin  of  the 
abdomen  should   be   daily   rubbed   with  vaseline  or 


olive-oil  and  thoroughly  manipulated.  Hot  sponging 
is  also  a  useful  measure  for  increasing  the  activity  of 
the  skin  and  developing  a  healthy  condition. 

Malpositions. — The  best  time  to  treat  malposi- 
tions is  before  the  critical  period  of  childbirth  has  ar- 
rived. This  may  seem  to  be  a  singular  statement, 
but  a  careful  consideration  of  the  subject  will  be  suf- 
ficient to  convince  any  one  of  its  truth.  Active  mus- 
cular exercise  is  one  of  the  very  best  means  of  pre- 
venting malpositions.  The  head  of  the  child  being 
the  heaviest  portion,  it  naturally  gravitates  down- 
ward, thus  securing  a  natural  presentation.  When, 
however,  from  any  cause,  a  malposition  has  been  pro- 
duced, it  is  of  the  utmost  importance  that  it  should 
be  discovered  and  corrected  before  the  period  of  child- 
birth arrives.  That  this  is  possible  has  been  demon- 
strated again  and  again.  It  is  now  well  understood 
by  scientific  obstetricians  that  under  ordinary  circum- 
stances the  "presentation"  can  be  made  out  weeks 
before  the  hour  of  confinement,  and  that  when  this 
knowledge  has  been  gained,  the  position,  if  wrong, 
can  be  readily  corrected  by  the  employment  of  such 
external  manipulations  as  the  case  may  require. 
Every  physician  who  undertakes  the  practice  of  ob- 
stetrics ought  to  be  practically  familiar  with  the 
proper  method  of  procedure,  and  should  make  an  ex- 
amination of  all  expected  cases  sufficiently  early  to 
enable  him  to  apply  the  remedy.  Something  of  an 
idea  of  the  mode  of  applying  this  remedy  for  malposi- 
tions may  be  obtained  by  reference  to  Fig.  1,  Plate 

Women  ought  to  know  that  by  the  use  of  this 


means  the  pains  and  perils  of  childbirth  may  be  al- 
most infinitely  lessened.  Most  obstetrical  operations, 
so  fraught  with  danger  to  both  mother  and  child,  are 
made  necessary  by  malpositions  which  may  be  easily 
corrected  without  pain  or  inconvenience  to  the 
mother  or  danger  to  the  child  by  proper  manipulation 
prior  to  confinement.  In  view  of  this  fact,  every  wo- 
man will  recognize  the  importance  of  consulting  an 
experienced  and  intelligent  physician  at  intervals  dur- 
ing the  last  months  of  pregnancy  to  assure  her- 
self that  all  is  well,  or  to  submit  to  the  proper  treat- 
ment for  correcting  any  faulty  position,  thus  avoiding 
the  danger  and  suffering  which  might  otherwise  be 

In  some  cases  it  becomes  necessary  that  a  prop- 
erly constructed  supporter  should  be  worn  to  prevent 
a  return  of  the  difficulty  after  the  malposition  has 
been  corrected. 


The  period  of  gestation,  or  labor,  usually  lasts,  in 
the  human  female,  from  278  to  300  days,  at  the  end 
of  which  time  it  is  terminated  by  labor  or  parturition. 
The  approach  of  labor  is  usually  indicated  by  pre- 
monitory symptoms  for  some  hours  or  even  days  be- 
fore-hand, but  sometimes  occurs  suddenly  without  any 
premonitory  symptoms. 

The  following  are  the  leading  signs  of  the  approach 
of  the  termination  of  pregnancy :  Gradually  increasing 
irritability  of  the  bladder,  with  much  difficulty  in 
standing  or  walking,  and  a  change  in  form  of  the  ab- 

THE  MOTHER.  445 

domen  which  results  from  the  settling  down  of  the 
womb,  leaving  the  waist  smaller,  but  increasing  the 
prominence  of  the  lower  portion  of  the  abdomen  a 
short  time  before  the  labor  is  to  begin.  Also  the  ex- 
ternal parts  become  swollen,  and  there  is  a  leucor- 
rhoeal  discharge  of  a  thick,  clear  matter  somewhat  re- 
sembling the  white  of  an  egg.  Uterine  contractions, 
quite  painless  in  character,  are  also  indicative  of  the 
approaching  crisis.  These  contractions  at  first  occur 
at  irregular  intervals.  When  they  become  regular, 
the  labor  has  begun.  The  pains  usually  begin  in  the 
back  and  sacrum,  and  extend  to  the  front  part  of  the 
abdomen.  What  are  termed  false  labor  pains  arise 
from  colic,  constipation,  or  irritation  of  the  bowels. 
They  differ  from  labor  pains  in  being  irregular.  The 
term  pain,  as  used  in  obstetrics,  is  applied  to  the  spas- 
modic uterine  contractions  which  take  place,  together 
with  the  pain  incident  to  the  same. 

Presentation  and  Position. — The  term  presen- 
tation has  reference  to  the  particular  part  of  the  body 
which  presents  at  the  mouth  of  the  womb.  The  term 
position  has  reference  to  the  location  of  the  present- 
ing part  in  the  passages  of  the  mother.  The  most 
usual  presentation  is  the  head.  Occasionally  the 
other  extremity  of  the  trunk  takes  precedence,  form- 
ing what  is  termed  a  "  breech  presentation."  In  still 
other  cases  the  body  lies  crosswise  of  the  outlet,  a 
presentation  which  must  be  modified  in  some  way  be- 
fore the  infant  can  be  born. 

There  are  various  modifications  of  each  of  these 
classes  of  presentation,  that  is,  other  parts  of  the 
head  may  present.     In  a  perfectly  natural  labor,  the 


vertex  of  the  head  is  the  presenting  part.  But  vari- 
ous other  parts  of  the  head  may  be  presented,  more 
or  less  complicating  the  process. 

Stages  of  Labor. — Labor  is  divided  into  three 

1.  Dilation  of  the  mouth  of  the  womb.  This  is 
indicated  by  c^fting  pains  felt  mostly  in  the  back, 
contractions  taking  place  in  the  womb  only,  and 
gradually  growing  more  and  more  frequent  until  the 
neck  of  the  womb  is  fully  dilated. 

2.  Expulsion  of  the  child,  by  means  of  stronger 
contractions  in  which  the  abdominal  muscles  contract, 
as  well  as  the  uterus. 

3.  The  expulsion  of  the  after-birth. 

The  average  length  of  labor  in  women  who  have 
previously  borne  children  is  about  six  hours,  the  first 
four  of  which  are  occupied  in  the  first  stage,  and  the 
latter  two  in  the  second  stage.  The  after-birth  is 
often  expelled  at  once  after  the  expulsion  of  the  child, 
but  is  more  often  retained  five  to  thirty  minutes. 

The  first  and  second  stages  of  laboi  are  often 
considerably  prolonged.  Some  women,  especially 
those  who  have  broad  hips  and  are  well  adapted  to 
childbirth,  pass  through  the  process  of  labor  in  a 
much  shorter  space  of  time,  in  some  cases  not  more 
than  thirty  minutes  or  an  hour  being  occupied.  In 
women  who  have  not  borne  children  before,  espe- 
cially those  who  are  somewhat  advanced  in  life,  labor 
is  often  very  greatly  prolonged. 

Various  obstacles  frequently  arise  to  delay  the 
process ;  such  as  inactivity  of  the  womb,  rigidity  of 


the  neck  of  the  womb  or  of  the  perinaeum,  con- 
tracted pelvis,  and  malpositions  of  the  child. 

Simple  minded,  primitive  people,  in  a  savage 
state,  by  the  study  of  Nature  have  in  all  parts  of  the 
world  arrived  at  the  discovery  of  very  much  the 
same  means  for  facilitating  the  painful  processes  of 
childbirth.  The  most  important  of  all  these  natural 
methods  is  massage,  which  is  almost  universally  prac- 
ticed, not  only  by  the  Chinese,  among  whom  it  seems 
to  have  originated,  under  the  name  of  Cong-feu,  but 
by  their  neighbors,  the  Siamese  and  Japanese,  being 
termed  by  the  latter  Ambouk.  Our  own  native  tribes, 
the  North  American  Indians,  as  well  as  the  aboriginal 
inhabitants  of  Mexico,  and  the  Pueblos,  also  prac- 
tice methodically  a  sort  of  massage,  the  purpose  of 
which  is  to  assist  Nature  in  bringing  into  the  world 
the  new  being.  The  natives  of  Africa,  India,  the 
South-Sea  Islands,  and  the  savage  tribes  of  Central 
Asia,  all  employ  certain  modifications  of  the  same  art 
peculiar  to  themselves,  some  of  which,  however,  are 
so  rude  and  violent  as  to  be,  apparently,  dangerous  to 
the  life  of  both  mother  and  child. 

Some  of  the  ancient  and  rude  practices  referred  to 
have  been  in  use  among  the  lower  classes  of  civilized 
nations,  particularly  the  Welch  and  Dutch  peasantry, 
and  some  of  the  older  medical  practitioners  of  the 
present  day  can  recollect  of  meeting  with  relics  of 
such  methods  among  the  earlier  settlers  of  Kentucky 
and  Ohio. 

Massage,  as  referred  to  in  this  connection,  has 
reference  to  various  manipulations  practiced  upon  the 
abdomen  and  back,  the  purpose  of  which  is  to  expel 


the  child  or  the  after-birth,  to  excite  uterine  contrac- 
tion, or  to  correct  malpositions.  The  exact  mode  of 
administering  such  manipulations  will  be  described  a 
little  later.  The  object  of  this  mention  is  to  call  at- 
tention to  the  fact  that  this  one  of  the  most  recent 
additions  to  scientific  obstetrical  practice  is  almost  as 
old  as  the  race,  and  simply  an  adoption  of  what  has 
been  practiced  by  savages  from  time  immemorial, 
with,  of  course,  such  improvements  as  civilized  man 
with  his  greater  intelligence  is  easily  able  to  add. 

Preparation  for  Labor. — The  whole  period  of 
pregnancy  should  be  a  course  of  preparation  for  its 
termination ;  but  in  addition  to  the  various  measures 
previously  described,  special  measures  may  be  adopted 
at  its  very  termination  by  which  the  pains  and  dan- 
gers of  childbirth  may  be  greatly  lessened  and  the 
process  expedited. 

First  we  mention  the  vaginal  douche.  No  better 
means  is  known  for  securing  natural  and  ready  dilata- 
tion of  the  neck  of  the  womb  at  delivery  than  the  hot 
water  douche.  It  should  be  administered  two  or 
three  times  dail£  for  the  last  week  or  two  of  preg- 
nancy, and  when  the  pains  of  childbirth  begin,  may 
be  employed  continuously  for  hours  with  benefit.  It 
is  one  of  the  most  effectual  means  of  relieving  the 
annoying,  ineffectual  pains  of  the  first  stage  of  labor. 
The  temperature  should  not  be  over  110°  F.,  and  the 
patient  should  be  placed  in  such  a  position  as  to 
make  her  as  comfortable  as  possible.  We  have  wit- 
nessed the  most  excellent  results  from  this  method, 
and  can  recommend  it  as  well  worth  a  trial,  and  cer- 


tain  to  yield  satisfactory  results  without  any  possible 
danger  of  doing  harm. 

Another  important  means  of  preparation  is  the 
employment  of  massage  to  the  abdomen  and  loins. 
This  should  be  practiced  to  some  extent  during  the 
entire  latter  half  of  pregnancy ;  but  during  the  last 
two  or  three  weeks  should  be  employed  more  assid- 
uously. Properly  applied,  this  measure  is  not  capable 
of  doing  harm.  By  the  aid  of  it,  malpositions  may 
be  corrected,  the  abdominal  xnuscles  strengthened, 
and  the  patient  prepared  for  the  approaching  crisis. 
It  should  be  applied  daily  for  thirty  minutes  to  an 
hour,  during  the  last  two  months  of  pregnancy.  ' 

The  manipulation  consists  in  rubbing  and  knead- 
ing the  abdomen  and  loins  very  much  after  the  fash- 
ion of  kneading  bread,  care  being  taken  not  to  make 
such  violent  movements  as  to  endanger  the  child  or  to 
force  it  into  a  wrong  position.  There  is  really  little 
danger  of  this,  however,  as  the  tendency  of  any  manip. 
ulation  of  the  abdomen,  not  purposely  directed  in  a 
manner  to  reverse  the  position  of  the  child,  is  to 
bring  the  head,  or  heaviest  portion,  into  the  lowest 
part  of  the  abdomen. 

Fomentations  and  frictions  with  unguents  applied 
to  the  perineum  are  also  of  undoubted  utility  in  pre- 
paring this  part  for  the  extraordinary  strain  to  which 
it  is  to  be  subjected.  These  measures  should  be  em- 
ployed two  or  three  times  a  day,  and  for  fifteen  min- 
utes to  an  hour  at  a  time  during  the  last  two  weeks 
of  pregnancy. 

Care  should  be  taken  to  keep  the  bowels  loose 


and  the  kidneys  acting  freely.  The  diet  should  be 
especially  simple.  The  usual  amount  of  exercise 
should  be  taken,  or  as  nearly  so  as  possible,  to  the 
very  day  of  confinement,  unless  there  should  be  some 
complication  contra-indicating  exercise. 

Management  of  Labor. — The  first  thing  to  bo 
done  at  the  beginning  of  labor  is  to  secure  the  servi- 
ces of  a  competent  attendant.  The  attendant  should, 
if  possible,  be  a  thoroughly  trained  physician.  This 
is  a  field  in  which  woman  as  a  physician  can  fill  a 
very  useful  sphere.  Under  no  circumstances,  except 
in  emergencies,  should  the  important  process  of  par- 
turition be  placed  wholly  in  the  hands  of  a  midwife 
whose  qualifications,  such  as  she  may  possess,  are 
wholly  derived  from  experience  at  the  bedside,  no 
matter  how  large  be  the  number  of  cases  she  may 
have  attended.  No  one  person  could  by  practical  ex- 
perience alone  in  a  life-time  acquire  all  the  knowledge 
necessary  to  meet  the  urgent  emergencies  which  are 
liable  to  arise  at  any  time  in  childbirth.  The  science 
and  art  of  obstetrics  have  been  developed  by  a  very 
slow  process ;  and  as  they  exist  at  the  present  day, 
are  the  result  of  the  combined  experience  of  physi- 
cians during  the  last  two  thousand  years.  Thorough 
theoretical  knowledge  is  indispensable  as  a  founda- 
tion for  practical  skill. 

As  soon  as  the  first  labor  pains  make  their  ap- 
pearance, the  physician  should  be  promptly  notified, 
and  also  the  nurse,  if  the  latter  is  not  already  in 
readiness.  The  room  in  which  the  patient  is  to  be 
confined  should  be  a  large,  light,  airy,  and  pleasant 
one.     But  few  persons  should  be  allowed  to  be  pres- 

THE  MOTHER  45 1 

ent,  and  these  should  be  such  as  are  desired  by  the 
patient,  and  no  others. 

So  far  as  consistent,  all  her  wishes  should  be  com- 
plied with,  so  that  she  may  be  in  as  pleasant  a  state 
of  mind  as  possible,  and  that  no  mental  influence 
may  present  an  obstacle  to  prevent  the  completion  of 
the  process  in  which  her  physical  and  nervous  pow- 
ers will  be  taxed  to  the  uttermost.  No  remark  of  a 
discouraging  nature  should  be  uttered  in  the  presence 
of  the  patient,  but  hope  and  confidence  should  be  in- 

During  this  stage  the  patient  need  not  go  to 
bed.  In  fact,  it  is  better  that  she  should  sit  up,  as 
the  sitting  posture  favors  the  progress  of  labor. 
This  need  not  be  required,  however,  if  the  patient 
prefers  to  be  in  bed.  During  this  stage  the  patient 
should  quietly  allow  nature  to  carry  on  the  work  with- 
out any  attempt  to  hasten  matters  by  "  bearing  down," 
as  she  may  often  be  encouraged  to  do  by  ignorant 
friends.  These  voluntary  efforts  are  of  no  consequence 
until  the  neck  of  the  womb  is  fully  dilated.  The  pa- 
tient should  be  allowed  to  drink  cold  water,  or  weak 
lemonade  as  freely  as  desired ;  but  stimulants  should 
not  be  given,  as  they  will  produce  a  feverish  state  of 
the  system  without  giving  any  real  strength.  Hot 
teas  are  also  better  withheld.  If  the  bowels  have  not 
moved  freely,  they  should  be  relieved  by  a  full 

During  this  stage,  the  bed  should  be  made  in 
readiness.  The  feather  bed,  if  in  use,  should  be  re- 
moved and  replaced  by  a  moderately  hard  mattress 
covered  by  a  sheet.     Over  this  should  be  placed  a 


large  rubber  cloth  three  or  four  feet  wide  and  six 
feet  long.  This  should  be  covered  with  a  comfort- 
able, and  a  sheet  placed  over  all. 

At  the  beginning  of  the  second  stage  the  patient 
should  go  to  bed,  and  her  clothing  should  be  drawn 
up  under  her  arms  so  that  it  will  not  be  soiled,  the 
lower  portion  of  the  body  being  protected  by  a  sheet 
or  petticoat.  The  patient  may  lie  on  the  left  side  or 
on  the  back.  If  the  foetus  is  strongly  inclined  toward 
the  right  side,  it  is  better  for  the  patient  to  lie  upon 
the  left  side.  During  the  severe  pains  which  char- 
acterize the  second  stage  of  labor,  the  back  of  the 
patient  should  be  supported  by  firm  pressure  with 
the  hand.  The  knees  should  be  drawn  up  and  fixed 
in  such  a  position  as  to  give  them  support  during  the 
pains.  The  nurse  should  take  hold  of  the  hand  or 
wrist  of  the  patient  to  give  her  an  opportunity  to 
make  firm  traction  during  the  pain. 

It  is  at  this  stage  of  labor  that  much  can  be  done 
by  an  intelligent  midwife  or  physician  to  facilitate 
the  process  of  childbirth  and  to  relieve  the  sufferings 
of  the  patient.  Rubbing  and  manipulation  of  the 
muscles  of  the  loins  and  thighs  often  afford  great 
relief  to  the  patient.  In  case  the  pains  are  inefficient, 
and  hence  the  progress  slow  and  the  patient  discour- 
aged, frictions  should  be  made  oyer  the  abdomen 
with  the  hand,  gentle  pressure  being  made  above  the 
uterus  so  as  to  press  it  down  into  the  cavity  of  the 
pelvis;  when  there  is  considerable  delay,  what  is 
known  to  physicians  as  "  expression "  should  be  em- 
ployed. There  are  several  modes  of  applying  this 
useful    measure,  but  the   following,  known  as   the 

THE  MOTHER.  453 

method   of  Kristeller,   is   the   most   simple   and  ef- 
fective : — 

The  patient  lying  upon  the  back,  the  operator 
places  his  hands  upon  the  abdomen  in  such  a  manner 
as  to  grasp  the  womb,  as  shown  in  Plate  L,  Fig. 
1.  First  the  abdominal  walls  should  be  gently  rubbed 
against  the  uterus,  then  slight  pressure  should  be 
made  in  a  downward  direction,  care  being  taken  to 
bring  the  womb  exactly  to  the  middle  of  the  body  so 
that  its  mouth  may  be  brought  in  direct  line  with  the 
middle  of  the  pelvic  canal.  The  pressure  should  be 
gradually  increased  for  three  or  four  seconds,  and 
then  gradually  diminished,  the  whole  time  occupied 
by  the  pressure  being  five  to  eight  seconds.  The 
hand  should  be  retained  in  position,  and  the  pressure 
repeated  at  short  intervals.  During  the  early  part  of 
the  second  stage,  the  intervals  between  successive 
pressures  should  be  two  or  three  minutes;  but  as 
labor  advances,  it  should  be. shortened  to  one  or  one- 
half  minute.   • 

The  points  of  pressure  should  be  changed  occa- 
sionally, the  force  being  brought  to  bear  alternately 
upon  the  upper  lateral  portions  of  the  uterus  instead 
of  constantly  over  the  central  portion. 

The  systematic  application  of  this  simple  measure 
will  in  most  cases  obviate  the  use  of  the  forceps,  even 
in  difficult  labors,  and  in  cases  in  which  the  forceps 
are  required,  it  should  always  be  used  as  a  means  of 
bringing  the  child  within  easy  reach  of  the  forceps 
and  facilitating  the  extraction.  In  the  first  labors 
this   method   should    always   be   employed,  and  by 



means  of  it  the  tediousness  of  such  cases  may  be 
wonderfully  lessened. 

In  cases  of  breech  or  other  abnormal  presenta- 
tion the  method  is  also  found  most  serviceable.  It  is 
vastly  superior  to  ergot  and  all  other  medicinal  means 
of  exciting  uterine  contraction,  and  is  free  Irom  the 
dangers  well  known  to  accompany  the  use  of  drugs 
for  this  purpose. 

The  most  proper  time  for  the  application  of  "  ex- 
pression" is  after  the  membranes  have  ruptured, 
when  the  os  is  well  dilated  and  the  external  parts  are 
becoming  tense  from  the  pressure  of  the  head  of  the 
child.  When  the  method  becomes  sufficiently  well 
known  to  secure  its  general  and  thorough  adoption, 
we  doubt  not  that  it  will  almost  entirely  replace  the 
forceps,  and  thus  save  thousands  of  women  from  the 
pain  and  often  serious  injuries  resulting  from  instru- 
mental delivery. 

The  Mexican  midwife  practices  "  expression  "  by 
means  of  the  feet.  The  patient  is  placed  upon  the 
floor,  and  the  operator  stands  upon  the  abdomen,  the 
heels  being  placed  upon  the  stomach,  and  compression 
and  friction  applied  to  the  womb  with  the  toes.  The 
midwives  of  several  barbarous  tribes  employ  essen- 
tially the  same  means  by  suspending  the  patient  to  a 
rope  attached  to  the  ceiling  and  a  band  passed  be- 
neath the  arms,  while  the  operator  grasps  her  about 
the  waist  and  with  the  pressure  of  her  entire  weight 
performs  a  stripping  movement  downward.  Others 
strap  about  the  waist  a  strong  leather  band,  known 
among  the  Indians  as  a  "  squaw  belt,"  the  belt  being 
tightened  and  drawn  downward  as  the  child  advances. 


In  some  instances  the  pregnant  woman  applies  "  ex- 
pression" herself  by  pressing  the  body  against  the 
end  of  a  thick  stake  driven  into  the  ground  obliquely. 
These  methods,  though  effective,  are  much  less  so 
than  the  more  scientific  one  employed  by  modern  ob- 
stetricians, and  are  liable  to  result  in  injury  to  both 
mother  and  child. 

In  the  intervals  between  the  pains,  if  the  patient 
is  exhausted,  she  should  be  allowed  to  sleep,  if  possi- 
ble, in  order  to  recuperate  her  strength.  When 
the  face  becomes  hot  and  flushed,  it  should  be  bathed 
with  cool  water.  As  the  termination  of  labor  ap- 
proaches, as  indicated  by  the  increasing  severity  and 
frequency  of  the  pains  which  at  this  time  often  be- 
come almost  continuous,  a  supply  of  hot  water 
should  be  got  in  readiness,  a  large  pailful  being 
brought  to  the  bedside,  together  with  a  large  pan  to 
be  ready  for  use  if  necessary.  A  syphon  syringe 
should  also  be  filled  with  hot  water  and  held  ready 
for  use.  A  bottle  of  camphor  should  be  at  hand, 
and  a  strong  cord,  made  of  silk  or  linen  thread  twisted 
and  well  waxed,  with  a  pair  of  scissors,  should  be  in 
readiness  for  prompt  use. 

As  the  head  of  the  child  presses  severely  upon 
the  perinaeum,  the  efforts  of  the  patient  should  be  re- 
strained, to  avoid  rupture  by  giving  the  tissues  time 
to  dilate.  Pressing  back  the  back  of  the  head  and 
elevating  the  chin  of  the  child  by  means  of  two  fin- 
gers placed  in  the  rectum,  is  the  best  means  of  pre- 
venting laceration  of  the  perinseum. 

As  soon  as  the  head  passes  out,  the  cord  should 
be   felt  for,  as  it  is  sometimes  wound  around   the 


neck  in  such  a  way  as  to  interrupt  the  circulation 
as  the  strain  is  brought  to  bear  upon  it.  It  also 
sometimes  happens  that  knots  are  tied  in  it,  which 
being  tightened  by  the  strain  may  cut  off  the  supply 
of  blood  from  the  child  too  soon.  If  the  body  is  riot 
speedily  expelled,  the  child  may  be  withdrawn  by 
making  traction  with  the  finger  placed  in  the  armpit. 

During  the  delivery  of  the  child  the  hand  of  the 
nurse  or  assistant  should  be  kept  upon  the  abdo- 
men of  the  mother  in  such  a  way  as  to  grasp  the 
upper  part  of  the  womb,  firm  pressure  being  made  for 
the  purpose  of  securing  contraction  of  the  organ. 
This  pressure  should  be  kept  up  until  the  after-birth 
is  expelled  and  the  bandage  applied.  If  the  after- 
birth is  not  promptly  expelled,  and  the  uterine  con- 
tractions seem  to  be  suspended,  friction  should  be 
made  over  the  uterus ;  and  after  a  few  minutes,  firm 
pressure  should  be  applied,  the  womb  being  grasped 
in  the  manner  shown  in  Fig.  2,  Plate  0.  The 
pressure  should  be  firm  as  can  be  borne  by  the 
mother  without  discomfort,  and  should  be  applied  at 
brief  intervals,  every  half  minute  at  least,  until  the 
placenta  is  expelled,  gentle  traction  being  made  upon 
the  cord  to  assist  its  expulsion. 

As  soon  as  born,  the  child  should  be  brought  to 
the  edge  of  the  bed  and  carefully  examined.  Gener- 
ally it  at  once  utters  a  cry,  which  indicates  that  its 
lungs  are  filled  with  air.  In  case  it  does  not  cry,  and 
breathes  feebly,  or  only  gasps,  the  hand  should  be 
dipped  in  cold  water  and  placed  upon  its  chest,  or 
the  chest  may  be  slapped  with  the  hand.  This  will 
generally  be  sufficient  to  start  the   respiration.     If 


the  child  is  limp  and  pale,  and  makes  no  efforts  what- 
ever at  respiration,  it  should  be  immediately  inverted, 
being  held  with  the  head  downward,  and  hot  flannels 
should  be  wrapped  about  it.  Efforts  should  be  made 
to  excite  respiration  by  compressing  the  chest  at  in- 
tervals of  a  few  seconds.  Care  should  also  be  taken 
to  see  that  the  mouth  is  cleared  of  mucus,  though 
this  is  not  likely  to  be  necessary  unless  the  child  has 
begun  to  breathe  just  as  the  head  is  being  born  and 
has  drawn  mucus  into  the  throat.  If  the  face  has  a 
purplish  appearance,  the  child  should  be  placed  at 
once  in  a  warm  bath  of  a  temperature  of  ]  05°,  or  as 
hot  as  can  be  safely  used  without  injury  to  the  skin, 
and  cold  water  should  be  dashed  upon  the  chest. 
Artificial  respiration  may  also  be  employed  at  the 
same  time.  These  measures  should  be  continued  for 
some  time  and  should  not  be  abandoned  so  long  as 
any  evidence  whatever  of  the  action  of  the  heart  can 
be  obtained.  Some  cases  are  recorded  in  which  in- 
fants have  been  resuscitated  after  apparent  death  for 
fully  an  hour. 

As  soon  as  it  breathes  freely  or  the  cord  has 
ceased  to  pulsate,  the  cord  should  be  tied  in  two 
places ;  the  first  about  two  inches  from  the  body,  the 
other  about  three  inches.  The  child  should  then  be 
laid  upon  its  side,  not  on  the  back,  as  the  side  posi- 
tion favors  the  escape  of  mucus  from  the  throat.  If 
there  should  be  much  rattling  in  the  throat,  indicating 
the  presence  of  considerable  mucus,  the  infant  should 
be  laid  with  its  head  downward  and  to  one  side,  so  as 
to  allow  the  mucus  to  escape. 


Washing  and  Dressing  the  Child. — If  the  birth 
is  a  premature  one,  having  occurred  before  the  infant 
was  fully  developed,  the  child  will  be  smaller  than 
usual  and  less  well  developed  ;  its  movements  will  be 
slight  and  feeble,  its  cry  will  be  very  faint,  and  the 
countenance  will  have  a  peculiarly  old  expression. 
Such  a  child  requires  extra  care  and  warmth.  It 
should  be  carefully  wrapped  in  soft  cotton.  Very 
great  care  will  be  required  in  rearing  it,  as  it  will  at 
first  be  too  weak  to  nurse  and  must  be  fed  with  a 
spoon.  It  should  not  be  washed  and  dressed  for 
some  hours,  and  should  be  kept  very  warm.  Care 
should  be  taken  in  washing  the  child  not  to  expose  it 
to  cold  so  as  to  produce  blueness  of  the  surface,  as  is 
often  done.  It  should  be  recollected  that  the  infant 
has  all  its  life  thus  far  beeu  accustomed  to  a  temper- 
ature of  nearly  100°,  and  being  wholly  without  pro- 
tection when  born,  and  keenly  susceptible,  it  must  suf- 
fer quite  severely  from  cold.  Another  important  fact 
is  that  the  process  of  respiration  is  not  completely  car- 
ried on  by  the  lungs  for  some  days  after  birth,  the 
skin  performing  a  very  important  part  of  the  work. 
When  it  becomes  cold,  it  can  no  longer  perform  this 
extra  function,  and  the  blood  of  the  child  is  quickly 
poisoned  by  the  accumulation  of  carbonic  acid  and 
other  effete  products  which  should  be  eliminated. 

The  best  plan  for  washing  the  child  is  to  place  it 
in  a  warm  bath,  the  temperature  of  which  is  about 
blood  heat,  and  then  rub  it  gently  with  a  sponge 
dipped  in  warm,  weak  suds  made  of  castile  soap.  If 
the  surface  is  covered  with  curd-like  matter,  as  is 
sometimes  the  case,  it  should  be  smeared  with  a  mixt- 

TEE  MOTHER.  459 

ure  of  equal  parts  of  egg  and  sweet  oil  beaten  up  to- 
gether. After  the  bath,  the  surface  should  be 
anointed  with  a  little  olive-oil  or  vaseline.  If  some 
portions  of  the  curdy  matter  seem  to  be  firmly  adher- 
ent to  the  skin,  no  violent  efforts  should  be  made  to 
remove  them,  as  they  will  dry  up  and  disappear  in 
a  short  time  without  further  attention.  After  being 
thoroughly  washed,  the  child  should  be  carefully  ex- 
amined to  see  that  it  possesses  no  deformity.  The 
outlets  of  the  body  should  receive  particular  attention, 
as  in  some  cases  the  anus  or  urethra  are  closed. 

The  best  method  of  dressing  the  cord  is  this : 
Grasp  the  cord  with  the  thumb  and  finger  close  to 
the  body,  cutting  it  off  at  the  ligature.  Squeeze  out 
all  its  contents  by  pressure  with  the  thumb  and  fin- 
ger of  the  other  hand,  keeping  a  firm  grasp  upon  it 
with  the  thumb  and  finger  first  applied  so  as  to  pre- 
vent hemorrhage.  Now  apply  another  ligature  about 
an  inch  from  the  end  of  the  stump.  By  this  means 
the  cord  will  be  very  greatly  reduced  in  size  and 
may  be  much  more  easily  dressed  than  when  treated 
in  the  usual  way.  In  dressing,  apply  a  soft,  thin 
muslin  bandage,  about  as  wide  as  the  first  joint  of  the 
thumb,  wrapping  it  around  the  cord  three  or  four 
times.  Now  apply  another  ligature  outside  of  the 
bandage,  and  the  dressing  is  complete.  Some  prefer 
to  apply  for  a  bandage  a  soft  linen  cloth  four  or  five 
inches  square,  smeared  upon  the  under  surface  with 
mutton  tallow,  and  having  a  hole  in  the  center  through 
which  the  cord  is  slipped.  The  cloth  is  generally 
scorched,  but  not  much  is  gained  by    this   practice. 


By  dressing  the  cord  in  this  way,  much  offensiveness 
which  arises  from  decomposition  is  avoided. 

It  is  generally  customary  to  next  apply  what  is 
termed  the  belly-band.  This  is  not  so  important  as 
many  suppose,  if  indeed  it  is  needed  at  all,  which  we 
very  seriously  doubt.  If  applied  it  should  not  be 
drawn  too  tight,  and  should  be  fastened  with  tape  in- 
stead of  pins.  The  best  material  to  use  is  very  soft 
flannel.  When  the  dressing  is  completed,  the  infant 
should  be  placed  in  a  warm  bed ;  but  it  should  not 
have  its  head  covered,  as  it  needs  an  abundance  of 
air,  as  well  as  an  adult.  The  infant,  when  thus  prop- 
erly dressed,  generally  sleeps  several  hours.  When 
it  awakes,  it  should  be  applied  to  the  breast.  Al- 
though the  milk  is  not  yet  formed,  the  efforts  of  the 
child  to  nurse  will  promote  the  secretion  and  will  also 
benefit  the  child,  as  the  first  secretion  furnished  by 
the  breast,  a  watery  fluid  known  as  colostrum,  has  a 
slightly  laxative  effect  upon  the  bowels  of  the  infant, 
freeing  them  from  their  contents,  which  is  termed 

The  Binder. — After  the  child  has  been  born  and 
its  immediate  wants  attended  to,  the  binder  or  ab- 
dominal bandage  should  be  applied  to  the  mother. 
The  binder  consists  of  a  double  thickness  of  strong 
muslin  cloth  or  a  large  linen  towel.  It  should  be  ap- 
plied in  such  a  way  as  to  give  the  mother  the  least 
possible  amount  of  inconvenience  in  the  application. 
In  fastening,  it  should  be  drawn  so  as  to  fit  the  body 
snugly,  and  should  be  pinned *from  above  downward. 
The  bandage  is  generally  applied  more  tightly  than 
is  necessary,  the  serious  consequence  of  which  is  not 

THE  MOTHER.  461 

infrequently  prolapsus  of  the  womb.  In  case  there 
is  any  marked  tendency  to  hemorrhage  after  the 
birth,  a  folded  towel  should  be  laid  over  the  womb 
beneath  the  bandage.  The  use  of  the  binder  is  now 
by  no  means  so  universally  recommended  as  formerly. 
It  is  probable  that  it  may  be  dispensed  with  in  most 
cases  with  no  danger  and  with  real  advantage.  It 
need  not  be  worn  after  the  first  day  or  two ;  but  a 
bandage  should  be  worn  for  a  few  days  after  the 
mother  first  begins  to  walk  about. 

The  soiled  clothing  should  next  be  removed. 
The  patient  should  be  washed  and  wiped  dry,  and  a 
dry,  clean  sheet  with  old  cloths  for  absorbing  the  dis- 
charges should  be  placed  beneath  the  patient.  Care 
should  be  taken  that  the  patient  is  warmly  covered. 
A  slight  shivering  will  often  occur,  but  this  is  gener- 
ally from  nervousness.  If  the  patient  has  lost  much 
blood,  or  is  very  weak,  the  head  should  be  placed  low ; 
only  a  very  small  pillow  or  none  at  all  should  be 

The  patient  should  now  be  allowed  to  rest.  Sim- 
ple drinks  may  be  given  when  desired,  but  stimulants 
are  rarely  called  for.  The  patient  will  generally  fall 
asleep  if  allowed  to  do  so,  and  will  awake  after  two 
or  three  hours  very  much  refreshed.  Food  may  be 
taken  at  regular  times,  but  should  be  simple  and  un- 
stimulating.  Milk,  toast,  oatmeal  porridge,  and  oc- 
casionally soft  boiled  eggs,  should  constitute  the  chief 
diet.     Beefsteak  and  other  meats  are  better  avoided. 

Attention  should  be  given  to  the  bowels  and  blad- 
der. If  the  bowels  do  not  move  by  the  second  day, 
an  enema  should  be  administered.     Either  tepid  wa- 

462  THE  LADIEff  GUIDE. 

ter  or  flaxseed  tea  may  be  employed.  The  bladder 
should  be  emptied  within  a  few  hours  after  labor. 
If  there  is  inability  to  urinate,  a  warm  fomentation 
may  be  applied  over  the  bladder  between  the  thighs,  or 
a  warm  vaginal  douche  administered.  This  will  usu- 
ally bring  relief,  especially  the  latter  measure,  the  pa- 
tient being  directed  to  urinate  while  the  douche  is  be- 
ing given.  If  these  simple  measures  do  not  succeed,  it 
will  be  necessary  to  use  a  catheter.  The  bladder 
should  be  relieved  at  least  two  or  three  times  a  day. 

During  the  first  twenty-four  hours  after  child- 
birth, the  nurse  should  carefully  examine  the  condition 
of  the  womb  by  placing  the  hand  upon  the  abdomen, 
every  two  or  three  hours.  If  the  organ  is  found  con- 
tracted down  to  a  proper  size  and  firm,  all  is  well ; 
but  if  it  is  appreciably  enlarged  and  soft,  or  large 
and  tense,  friction  should  be  at  once  applied  and  kept 
up  until  firm  contractions  are  induced. 

For  the  first  day,  the  discharge  from  the  womb  is 
of  a  bloody  character ;  after  this,  it  gradually  becomes 
watery,  and  in  from  three  to  five  days  it  becomes 
thicker.  This  is  termed  the  lochial  discharge,  and 
generally  continues  from  one  to  three  weeks.  It  is 
often  checked  for  a  day  or  two  at  the  time  when  the 
milk  secretion  begins.  In  order  to  prevent  the  dis- 
charge from  becoming  offensive,  as  is  sometimes  the 
case,  the  vaginal  douche  should  be  taken  "at  least 
twice  a  day ;  and  when  the  discharge  is  very  profuse, 
more  frequently.  The  water  employed  should  be 
quite  warm,  and  should  contain  a  teaspoonful  of  car- 
bolic acid  dissolved  in  a  tablespoonful  of  glycerine  or 
alcohol  to  the  quart  of  water.     The  injection  of  hot 


water  not  only  cleanses  the  parts,  but  stimulates  com- 
plete contraction  of  the  tissues,  and  thus  prevents 
danger  from  hemorrhage,  and  hastens  the  process  by 
which  the  organ  returns  to  its  natural  size.  A  solu- 
tion of  permanganate  of  potash  in  the  proportion  of  a 
teaspoonful  of  the  crystals  to  a  quart  of  water,  is  also 
an  excellent  injection  for  use  when  the  discharge  is 
offensive.  The  carbolic  acid  solution  should  be  thor- 
oughly shaken  before  it  is  used.  When  blood  reap- 
pears in  the  discharges  after  a  few  days,  it  is  an  in- 
dication that  the  process  referred  to  is  not  taking 
place  regularly  and  satisfactorily.  This  is  generally 
the  result  of  the  patient's  getting  up  too  soon. 

Milk  Fever. — This  is  a  term  applied  to  the  fever- 
ishness  which  is  sometimes  present  on  the  third  day 
after  confinement.  The  fever  may  be  introduced  by 
a  slight  chilliness.  The  patient  has  thirst,  headache, 
and  frequent  pulse.  The  breasts  are  generally  some- 
what swollen,  harder  than  natural,  and  sensitive; 
throbbing  and  darting  pains  are  sometimes  felt  in 
them.  It  is  probable  that  the  fever  is  not  the  result 
of  the  milk  secretion,  but  is  due  to  the  absorption  of 
decomposing  discharges  through  the  raw  surfaces  of 
the  vagina  and  womb,  and  the  swelling  and  tender- 
ness of  the  breasts  is  due  to  the  fever.  The  thorough 
use  of  disinfectant  injections  will  generally  prevent 
the  ocurrence  of  this  fever.  Placing  the  child  to  the 
breast  soon  after  its  birth,  and  at  regular  intervals 
afterward,  is  also  an  excellent  means  of  prevention, 
as  it  not  only  empties  the  breast  and  promotes  the 
natural  secretion,  but  also  stimulates  contraction  of 
the  womb,  and  thus  hastens  the  process  of  involution. 


The  inability  of  a  mother  to  nurse  her  child  is  almost 
as  great  a  misfortune  to  herself  as  to  the  child,  as  nat- 
ure requires  this  natural  stimulus  to  uterine  contrac- 
tion to  enable  her  to  do  her  work  in  reducing  the 
womb  to  its  natural  condition  after  childbirth.  The 
treatment  at  this  time  should  consist  in  giving  the  pa- 
tient little  fluid  to  drink,  feeding  her  chiefly  with 
solid  food,  and  quenching  the  thirst  by  means  of 
pieces  of  ice.  Hot  fomentations  should  be  applied  to 
the  breasts,  and  they  should  be  emptied  by  means  of 
careful  manipulations,  unless  the  child  is  able  to  with- 
draw the  secretion  by  nursing.  Sometimes  the  swell- 
ing is  so  great  that  the  nipple  is  partly  buried,  thus 
interfering  with  the  nursing.  In  this  case  the  breast- 
pump  should  be  employed  to  draw  out  the  nipple,*  in 
case  it  cannot  be  drawn  out  by  manipulation  with  the 
hands,  which  is  by  far  the  best  means,  or  a  nipple 
shield  with  a  rubber  teat  should  be  employed.  In 
case  of  necessity,  an  adult  may  act  as  a  substi- 
tute for  the  child,  or  a  young  pup  may  be  em- 
ployed. When  the  breasts  have  been  properly  cared 
for  during  pregnancy,  such  troubles  as  this  very 
rarely  occur. 

Care  of  the  Breasts. — Care  should  be  taken  to 
wash  the  nipples  carefully  with  cold  water  both  before 
a*hd  after  nursing.  If  the  breasts  are  large,  flabby, 
and  pendulous,  it  is  well  to  support  them  by  means  of 
bandages  properly  applied,  passing  under  the  breasts 
and  over  the  neck.  This  precaution  will  often  pre- 
vent inflammation  of  the  breasts. 

The  friction  and  massage  to  which  the  nipple 
should  be  subjected  during  the  months  of  pregnancy, 


will  so  effectually  harden  and  toughen  its  covering  of 
skin  as  to  render  it  able  to  stand  the  hardest  usage 
during  a  prolonged  period  of  nursing.  In  applying 
massage  to  the  nipple,  press  back  the  areola  with  the 
forefinger  until  the  nipple  becomes  prominent,  then 
seize  it,  and  draw  it  forward  in  imitation  of  the  ac- 
tion of  the  child  in  nursing,  at  the  same  time  pinch- 
ing and  rolling  it  between  the  thumb  and  finger. 
Pressing  and  rolling  the  breast  between  the  hands  is 
also  a  useful  means  for  preparing  the  gland  for  use, 
and  for  increasing  its  activity  when  there  is  deficient 
secretion.  The  same  method  may  be  employed  for 
the  purpose  of  drawing  forward  the  retracted  nipple 
of  a  nursing  mother. 

Sore  Nipples  will  rarely  occur  when  these  pre- 
cautions are  observed.  If  the  nipple  should  become 
cracked  and  tender,  especial  attention  should  be  given 
to  cleansing,  both  before  and  after  nursing,  and  an 
ointment  of  carbolated  vaseline,  ten  drops  to  an 
ounce,  should  be  used,  care  being  taken  to  remove 
the  ointment  before  the  nipple  is  given  to  the  child. 
A  solution  of  tannin  in  glycerine,  fifteen  grains  to  the 
ounce,  is  also  an  excellent  application  for  sore  nipples. 
It  should  be  used  twice  a  day,  after  the  nipples  have 
been  well  cleansed. 

Another  excellent  remedy  is  the  following  lotioti, 
which  should  be  applied  twice  a  day  with  a  camel's- 
hair  brush  :  Carbolic  acid  twenty  drops,  glycerine  two 
teaspoonfuls,  water  a  tablespoonful  and  a  half;  mix 
thoroughly.  Several  other  excellent  prescriptions 
for  sore  nipples  are  given  in  the  appendix. 

Care  should  also  be  taken  to  give  the  nipple  as 


much  rest  as  possible,  by  using  the  breasts  alter- 
nately, and  making  the  intervals  between  nursing  as 
long  as  possible  without  doing  injury  to  the  child. 
One  of  the  greatest  causes  of  sore  nipples  is  compres- 
sion of  the  breast  by  improper  dressing  before  and 
during  pregnancy.  In  some  cases,  severe  pain  may 
be  felt  whenever  the  child  is  taken  to  the  breast,  in 
consequence  of  neuralgia  of  the  part.  This  should  be 
carefully  distinguished  from  soreness  of  the  nipple  by 
a  critical  examination  of  the  breast. 

Inflammation  of  the  Breast — If  swelling  of  the 
breast  occurs,  accompanied  by  redness,  pain,  and  ten- 
derness, it  should  be  given  entire  rest  at  once. 
Hot  fomentations  should  be  applied  to  relieve  the 
pain.  The  fomentations  should  not  be  simply  warm, 
but  they  should  be  as  hot  as  can  be  borne.  If  relief 
is  not  obtained  in  this  way,  ice-compresses  or  an  ice- 
pack should  be  used  continuously  until  the  symptoms 
disappear.  It  is  well  to  remove  the  ice-pack  or  ice- 
bag  for  a  few  minutes  every  two  or  three  hours,  ap- 
plying a  hot  fomentation. 

By  a  vigorous  application  of  these  measures,  an 
inflammation  may  often  be  cut  short  in  its  course. 
It  is  very  important  that  the  first  indication  of  inflam- 
mation should  be  detected.  When  this  is  done,  the 
continuous  application  of  cold  and  complete  emptying 
of  the  gland  by  manipulation  will  usually  control  the 
inflammatory  tendency.  Rubbing  of  the  breast  is 
also  an  excellent  means  of  producing  absorption  of 
inflammatory  products. 

After  the  inflammation  is  controlled,  the  breast 
should  be  carefully  kneaded  in  such  a  manner  as  to 

THE  MOTHER.  467 

thoroughly  remove  the  partially  coagulated  milk  cer- 
tain to  be  present.  A  failure  to  do  this  is  one  of  the 
chief  causes  of  the  formation  of  abscesses.  The 
common  use  of  the  breast  pump  is  objectionable  as  a 
means  of  emptying  the  breast.  By  its  use,  violence 
is  frequently  done  to  the  delicate  tissues,  so  that  act- 
ual harm  is  done,  sometimes  leading  to  permanent  in- 
jury. By  patient  and  well  directed  efforts,  the  breast 
can  be  emptied  by  manipulation  in  almost  every  case, 
so  that  the  pump  need  be  resorted  to  but  rarely. 
The  following  is  the  best  method  of  emptying  the 
breast  by  this  means  : — 

The  nurse  should  seat  herself  beside  the  patient 
so  that  the  left  forearm  rests  lightly  on  the  chest. 
Place  the  right  hand  beneath  the  breast  in  such  a 
manner  as  to  support  it,  allowing  it  to  rest  in  the 
crotch  formed  by  the  thumb  and  the  first  finger. 
Now  with  the  fingers  of  the  left  hand,  sweep  from 
the  upper  and  left  border  of  the  breast  toward  the 
nipple  with  gentle,  gradually  increasing  pressure. 
Occasionally  raise  the  breast  from  the  chest  and  roll  it 
between  the  palms ;  after  ten  or  fifteen  minutes  thus 
spent  in  alternate  stroking  and  rolling  of  the  breast, 
it  will  become  softer  and  much  less  nodular,  and  a 
drop  or  two  of  milk  may  be  squeezed  out.  Both 
hands  should  now  be  used,  the  left  being  employed  in 
the  same  way  as  the  right,  one  lifting  and  supporting 
the  breast,  and  the  other  stroking  as  described,  the 
action  of  lifting  and  stroking  being  alternately  per- 
formed by  the  two  hands.  By  this  means  the  milk 
will  be  pressed  out  of  the  gland  into  the  milk  sinuses 
around  the  nipple.     When  this  becomes  distended,  the 


nipple  is  to  be  milked  in  the  same  manner  as  the 
teat  of  a  cow.  After  the  secretion  is  once  started,  the 
breast  may  be  emptied  very  rapidly.  If  there  is 
only  a  slight  obstruction,  a  few  skillful  strokes  of  the 
hand  will  overcome  it ;  but  when  more  serious,  per- 
severing, but  always  gentle  efforts  must  be  made. 

A  little  olive-oil,  vaseline,  or  other  unguent  should 
be  used  to  facilitate  the  manipulation  and  prevent  ir- 
ritating friction  of  the  skin.  A  breast  threatened 
with  inflammation  should  be  emptied  by  this  means 
every  few  hours,  as  the  inflammatory  action  can  be 
much  more  readily  controlled  in  an  empty  breast  than 
in  one  distended  with  milk. 

Inflammation  of  the  breast  most  usually  occurs  in 
the  third  or  fourth  week  after  delivery.  The  usual 
exciting  causes  are  neglect  to  properly  empty  the 
breast  on  account  of  a  sore  nipple,  "a  cold,"  neglect  of 
the  bowels,  too  rich  food,  or  some  similar  infraction 
of  the  laws  of  hygiene  relating  to  the  nursing  period. 

A  breast  subject  to  inflammation  should  be  made 
to  rest  functionally,  if  possible.  It  is  not  always  easy 
to  stop  the  flow  of  the  milk,  but  something  can  be  done 
by  pressure.  A  firm  bandage  should  be  applied  about 
the  breast,  and  constant  pressure  should  be  employed. 
Dried  sponge  is  very  useful  for  this  purpose.  A 
large  sponge  should  be  moistened  and  then  dried  un- 
der pressure  so  as  to  flatten  it.  A  hole  should  be  cut 
in  the  middle  so  as  to  prevent  pressure  upon  the 
nipple  and  to  allow  the  milk  to  be  pressed  out.  This 
should  be  bound  over  the  breast,  being  exchanged  in 
five  or  six  hours  for  another  sponge  prepared  in  the 
same  manner,  thus  maintaining  the  pressure  almost 


without  intermission,  if  need  be  for  days.  By  this 
means  the  blood  supply  is  lessened,  and  so  the  se- 
cretion is  diminished. 

The  application  of  adhesive  straps  is  also  a  useful 
means  of  applying  pressure,  although  by  no  means 
equal  to  the  compressed  sponge. 

If  the  breast  becomes  tense,  hard,  shiny,  and  dis- 
colored, an  abscess  is  forming  or  has  formed,  and 
should  be  at  once  opened  so  as  to  prevent  burrowing 
and  absorption  of  pus.  This  is  of  course  the  duty  of 
the  physician,  and  the  exact  mode  of  procedure  need 
not  be  further  described. 

It  should  be  remarked  by  way  of  caution  that  the 
prolonged  use  of  poultices  or  fomentations  should  be 
avoided,  as  they  often  produce  a  sodden  and  relaxed 
condition  of  the  breast. 

To  Cheek  the  Secretion  of  Milk. — In  some 
cases  it  becomes  desirable  that  the  secretion  of  milk 
should  be  checked.  This  is  especially  important  in 
cases  of  still-birth  and  the  sudden  death  of  the  child. 
The  most  effective  measures  for  checking  the  secre- 
tion of  milk  is  to  require  the  patient  to  abstain  from 
the  use  of  fluids  of  any  sort,  and  the  application  of 
pressure.  The  food  should  be  of  a  solid  character. 
The  thirst  may  be  relieved  by  taking  small  quanti- 
ties of  ice.  This  should  be  continued  until  the  fourth 
or  fifth  day,  when  there  will  usually  be  no  further  dif- 
ficulty. The  breasts  should  be  partially  relieved  of 
their  contents  by  manipulation,  as  already  described,  or 
by  the  breast  pump  if  necessary,  but  should  not  be  en- 
tirely emptied.  The  application  of  compressed  sponge 
as  described  in  a  previous  paragraph  is  one  of  the  best  of 



all  known  means  of  rapidly  drying  up  the  secretion. 
The  application  of  the  ice-pack  or  cold  compresses  to 
the  breasts,  is  also  an  excellent  means  for  diminishing 
the  secretion.  It  is  also  a  good  plan  to  apply  to  the 
breasts  two  or  three  times  a  day  a  mixture  of  equal 
parts  of  sweet-oil  and  spirits  of  camphor,  and  to  keep 
the  breasts  constantly  covered  with  a  cloth  saturated 
with  spirits  of  camphor. 

Galactorrhea. — Sometimes  the  secretion  of  milk 
is  too  profuse,  the  secretion  being  in  consequence 
poor  in  quality,  and  so  affording  insufficient  nourish- 
ment to  the  child  while  draining  the  system  of  the 
mother.  The  remedial  measures  to  be  employed  ar^e 
the  same  as  those  mentioned  as  useful  "  to  check  the 
secretion  of  milk." 

To  Promote  the  Secretion  of  Milk. — This  must 
be  accomplished  chiefly  by  regulation  of  the  diet  and 
attention  to  the  general  health,  especially  to  the  im- 
provement of  the  digestion.  The  patient  should 
make  free  use  of  liquid  food,  particularly  fresh  milk, 
sweet  cream,  oatmeal  porridge,  graham  gruel,  and 
other  whole-grain  preparations.  Teas  of  various  kinds 
are  of  little  consequence  and  do  not  increase  the 
quantity  of  milk  except  by  the  addition  of  water. 
The  use  of  wine,  beer,  ale,  ancl  other  alcoholic  stimu- 
lants is  a  practice  to  be  in  the  highest  degree  con- 
demned, as  it  not  only  deteriorates  the  quality  of  milk, 
but  makes  the  child  liable  to  various  diseases.  An 
eminent  physician  declares  that  in  many  instances  in 
which  beer  and  ale  are  used,  the  infant  is  not  sober  a 
moment  from  the  time  it  begins  nursing  until  it  is 

THE  MOTHER      '  471 

Gentle  manipulation  of  the  breast  and  nipple,  as 
previously  described,  is  in  many  cases  very  efficacious 
in  promoting  the  secretion  of  milk.  By  this  means, 
the  secretion  has  been  produced  in  women  who  have 
never  borne  children,  in  such  a  quantity  as  to  enable 
them  to  act  as  wet-nurses  with  entire  success. 

Getting  Up. — No  definite  time  can  be  set  at 
which  it  would  be  safe  for  every  woman  "  to  get  up." 
Some  are  as  able  to  get  up  in  three  or  four  days  as 
others  at  the  end  of  two  weeks.  The  traditional  "  nine 
days  for  lying  in  "  has  no  substantial  foundation.  As 
a  general  rule,  the  woman  should  remain  recumbent 
dn  bed  for  a  week  or  ten  days.  If  she  has  been  get- 
ting along  nicely,  she  may  be  permitted  to  sit  up  a 
few  minutes  after  the  fourth  or  fifth  day  while  the 
bed  is  being  changed  and  aired ;  but  if  the  lochial 
discharge  becomes  bloody  after  being  up,  it  is  an  in- 
dication that  she  should  remain  in  bed  some  time 

Getting  up  too  soon  after  confinement  is  a  fre- 
quent cause  of  some  of  the  most  troublesome  chronic 
ailments  from  which  women  suffer.  The  worst  of 
these  is  enlargement  of  the  womb,  due  to  sub-involu- 
tion, a  condition  in  which  the  organ  fails  to  return  to  its 
natural  size,  remaining  permanently  enlarged.  When 
everything  progresses  well,  this  process  generally 
takes  place  in  six  or  eight  weeks.  During  this  time 
the  patient  should  exercise  very  great  care  to  avoid 
exposure  of  any  kind.  Getting  the  feet  wet,  being 
chilled,  overexertion  of  any  kind,  either  mental  or 
physical,  and  anything  which  has  a  prostrating  effect, 
will  be  likely  to  check  the  natural  retrograde  process, 


the  prompt  and  thorough  performance  of  which  is 
very  important.  Special  care  should  be  taken  so 
long  as  the  lochial  discharge  is  still  present.  Care 
during  this  period  will  often  save  the  patient  from 
many  years  of  suffering. 

Hemorrhage  after  Labor. — Sometimes  the  womb 
does  not  contract  so  firmly  as  it  should  after  child- 
birth, in  consequence  of  which  its  greatly  dilated 
blood-vessels  remain  open,  and  frightful  hemorrhage 
is  the  result.  This  is  also  sometimes  caused  by  only 
partial  separation  of  the  after-birth,  the  remainder  of 
the  after-birth  being  attached  so  firmly  that  it  cannot 
be  expelled  by  the  contractions  of  the  organ.  In 
other  cases  more  or  less  hemorrhage  continues  for 
some  time  after  childbirth  in  consequence  of  a  lacera- 
tion or  tear  of  the  neck  of  the  womb. 

Treatment :  When  the  hemorrhage  is  due  to  par- 
tial attachment  of  the  placenta,  the  after-birth  should 
be  removed  as  quickly  as  possible.  In  order  to  effect 
this,  it  is  sometimes  necessary  for  the  physician  to 
pass  his  hand  into  the  womb.  The  necessity  for  this 
measure  may  almost  always  be  obviated  by  the  em- 
ployment of  the  hot  water  douche  at  as  high  a  tem- 
perature as  can  be  borne  by  the  patient,  and  by  the 
employment  of  "  expression,"  described  on  page  452. 
When  the  directions  there  given  are  followed  out, 
hemorrhage  after  labor  will  rarely  occur. 

Where  hemorrhage  is  due  to  failure  of  the  uterus 
to  contract,  the  best  remedy  known  is  the  hot  water 
douche  and  massage  or  friction  over  the  womb.  The 
syphon  syringe,  or  some  other  efficient  instrument  of 
the  kind  should  be  in  readiness  for  use  in  an  emergency 

THE  MOTHEB.  473 

of  this  sort.  The  water  employed  should  be  as  hot 
as  can  be  used  without  burning  the  tissues,  or  giving 
great  discomfort  to  the  patient,  which  will  usually  be 
at  a  temperature  of  about  110°  to  120°  F.  These 
means  combined  will  seldom  fail.  Uterine  contrac- 
tion may  also  be  stimulated  by  alternate  hot  and  cold 
applications  to  the  abdomen  over  the  womb  and  to 
the  breast. 

Care  should  be  taken  by  the  nurse  to  examine 
the  patient  frequently  after  childbirth  to  see  that 
there  is  no  unusual  hemorrhage. 

Inactivity  of  the  Womb. — When  labor  is  delayed 
in  any  of  its  stages  in  consequence  of  failure  of  the 
uterus  to  contract  with  sufficient  vigor,  it  is  necessary 
to  adopt  means  for  the  purpose  of  stimulating  the 
contractions.  Among  the  various  simple  measures 
which  may  be  employed  with  advantage  are  the  ap- 
plication of  cold  water  to  the  breast  and  over  the 
abdomen.  Sometimes  alternate  hot  and  cold  applica- 
tions are  more  effective  than  cold  alone.  Sometimes 
the  inactivity  is  due  to  exhaustion,  and  rest  is 
needed.  In  such  cases  the  patient  should  be  allowed 
to  sleep,  if  possible,  and  should  be  given  food.  The 
most  important  and  effective  of  all  measures  is  mas- 
sage or  "  expression." 

The  hot  vaginal  douche  should  also  be  employed, 
and  farradic  electricity  may  be  in  some  cases  used 
with  advantage.  When  the  last  named  agent  is  em- 
ployed, the  positive  pole  should  be  applied  to  the 
back  and  the  negative  over  the  womb. 

Retention  of  the  After-birth. — As  remarked  in 
the  preceding  paragraph,  hemorrhage  sometimes  oc- 


curs  in  consequence  of  failure  of  the  uterus  to  con- 
tract properly  after  the  child  has  been  born,  or  in 
consequence  of  an  unusually  firm  attachment  of  the 
placenta  to  the  internal  walls  of  the  uterus.  When 
the  uterine  contractions  suddenly  cease  after  the 
child  is  born,  so  that  the  placenta  is  not  expelled,  the 
remedies  suggested  for  inactivity  of  the  womb  should 
be  applied.  In  case  these  are  not  effective,  it  be- 
comes necessary  for  the  physician  to  pass  two  or 
more  fingers  into  the  womb,  and  by  gradually  work- 
ing them  under  the  placenta,  loosen  it  and  bring  it 
away.  This  is  a  painful  procedure,  and  should  not  be 
resorted  to  until  a  very  thorough  trial  of  other  means 
has  been  made. 

Rigidity  of  the  Womb. — In  some  cases  labor  is 
delayed  by  a  failure  of  the  neck  or  mouth  of  the 
womb  to  dilate  with  sufficient  rapidity.  This  is 
sometimes  due  to  an  early  rupture  of  the  membranes, 
in  consequence  of  which  the  "  bag  of  waters,"  which 
precedes  the  child  as  it  passes  downward,  does 
not  perform  its  usual  and  important  function  of  di- 
latation. It  is  also  sometimes  due  to  an  unnatural 
condition  of  the  tissues  of  the  neck  of  the  womb.  In 
these  cases  the  pains  are  very  severe  and  acute, 
being  felt  mostly  in  the  sacrum.  The  patient  is 
feverish  and  very  restless,  the  pulse  becomes  very 
frequent,  and  the  patient  sutlers  great  distress.  By 
internal  examination,  the  os,  or  mouth,  of  the  womb 
is  felt  like  a  hard  ring. 

The  best  remedies  for  this  condition  are  the  hot 
sitz  bath,  and  hot  vaginal  douche.  They  may  be 
continued  for  several  hours  if  necessary  without  detr 


riment.  Large,  hot  enemas  are  also  very  useful  in 
this  condition.  They  should  be  retained  as  long  as 

Rigidity  of  the  Perinceum. — In  this  condition, 
the  perinseum,  or  portion  of  the  tissue  between  the  va- 
gina and  rectum,  does  not  dilate  as  it  should,  but  the 
central  portion  bulges  forward  while  the  upper  edge 
remains  hare":  and  unyielding.  This  is  the  most  fre- 
quent cause  of  rupture  of  the  perinseum.  The  best 
remedies  are  the  hot  sitz  bath  and  hot  fomentations 
to  the  parts.  A  very  excellent  way  Of  applying 
moist  heat  is  by  means  of  a  large .  sponge  dipped  in 
hot  water,  and  applied  as  hot  as  can  be  borne.  The 
hot-water  douche  arid  the  hot  enema  are  remedies  of 
very  great  value.  The  employment  of  daily  sitz 
baths  during  the  later  months  of  pregnancy,  and  of 
daily  massage  of  the  part  are  the  most  reliable  means 
of  preventing  this  complication. 

After-Pains. — In  some  cases,  contractions  of  the 
uterus  continue  for  a  longer  or  shorter  period  after 
labor  is  completed.  When  these  contractions  are  so 
severe  as  to  give  the  patient  great  discomfort,  hot 
fomentations  should  be  applied  over  the  abdomen. 
The  hot  vaginal  douche  is  also  an  excellent  means  of 
relieving  after-pains  by  producing  firm  contraction  of 
the  womb.  Friction  over  the  womb  is  also  a  use- 
ful measure  for  these  cases  by  securing  thorough 
contraction  of  the  uterine  muscles. 

The  Use  of  Ergot. — This  drug,  once  very,  popu- 
lar, indeed  thought  to  be  almost  indispensable  in  all 
cases  of  childbirth,  is  now  charged  by  many  of  the 
most  eminent  obstetricians  with  being  the  cause  of 


much  increase  of  suffering  during  childbirth,  and  se- 
rious subsequent  disease.  It  has  often  been  tlie 
cause  of  ruptures  of  the  neck  of  the  womb  and  of  the 
perinaeum  by  producing  too  rapid  labor.  If  used  at 
all,  it  should  be  only  after  the  delivery  of  the  head, 
and  it  is  probable  that  its  use  can  be  dispensed  with 
in  most,  if  not  all,  cases,  without  detriment  to  any, 
and  with  benefit  to  many.  As  elsewhere  remarked, 
the  proper  employment  of  massage  and  "  expression  " 
obviates  the  use  of  ergot  even  in  those  cases  in  which 
it  has  long  been  considered  indispensable. 

The  Use  of  Anaesthetics. — The  employment  of 
anaesthetics  in  childbirth  is  a  practice  of  very  recent 
date.  When  it  was  first  introduced,  many  fears  were 
expressed  that  harm  would  result  to  either  mother  or 
child,  or  both.  Some  opposed  the  measure  on  moral 
grounds,  claiming  that  the  pains  of  childbirth  were 
part  of  the  curse  pronounced  upon  Eve,  and  that  the 
use  of  anaesthetics  for  the  purpose  of  mitigating  the 
pain  was  preventing  the  execution  of  the  penalty. 
Notwithstanding  the  opposition,  however,  some  form 
of  anaesthetic,  generally  chloroform,  is  now  very 
largely  used,  especially  in  prolonged  and  unusually 
painful  labors.  If  the  patient  is  strong  and  vigorous, 
and  the  labor  is  not  unusually  severe,  there  is  no  oc- 
casion for  the  use  of  the  anaesthetic ;  but  if  the  con- 
trary of  this  is  true,  there  is  no  question  but  that 
benefit,  as  well  as  comfort,  may  be  derived  from  the 
judicious  use  of  chloroform.  It  is  unnecessary  to  pro- 
duce profound  anaesthesia,  or  to  bring  the  patient 
fully  under  the  influence  of  the  drug,  and  hence  there 
is  little  or  no  danger  of  immediate  injury  to  the  pa- 


tient.  Neither  have  those  opposed  to  the  use  of 
chloroform  been  able  to  show  that  injury  results 
to  the  child.  It  should  never  be  used,  however, 
without  the  advice  and  constant  supervision  of  the 
physician.  When  the  proper  preparatory  treatment 
has  been  carefully  employed  during  pregnancy,  there 
will  be  little  necessity  for  an  anaesthetic. 

Twins. — Twin  pregnancy  may  be  suspected  when 
the  mother  is  unusually  large,  or  when  there  is  a 
double  appearance  of  the  enlarged  abdomen.  Twin 
birth  occurs  in  proportion  of  about  one  to  seventy  or 
eighty  single  births.  The  usual  unpleasant  symptoms 
which  occur  during  pregnancy  are  greatly  exagger- 
ated in  twin  pregnancy.  Complicated  labors  are  also 
somewhat  more  frequent  in  twin  births.  The  birth 
of  the  second  child  generally  succeeds  that  of  the 
first  very  quickly,  but  cases  have  been  observed  in 
which  several  hours  and  even  days  have  elapsed 
before  the  birth  of  the  second  child. 

Abdominal  Pregnancy. — It  sometimes  happens 
that  the  impregnated  ovum  finds  its  way  into  the  ab- 
dominal cavity  and  there  undergoes  development ; 
fortunately,  occurrences  of  this  kind  are  very  rare. 
In  many  cases,  the  foetus  becomes  surrounded  with  a 
cyst,  by  means  of  which  it  is  separated  from  the  rest 
of  the  body,  and  sometimes  may  be  thus  preserved 
for  years  in  a  degenerated  condition.  In  other  cases< 
the  different  portions  of  the  foetus  gradually  work 
out  through  the  bowels,  or  even  through  the  abdom- 
inal wall.  In  still  other  cases,  decomposition  and 
suppuration  take  place,  the  system  becomes  infected 
with  the  products  of  decomposition,  and  the  patient 


dies  of  blood  poisoning.  Cases  have  occurred  in 
which,  by  the  performance  of  a  surgical  operation,  a 
fully  developed  child  has  been  removed  from  the  ab- 
dominal cavity,  the  lives  of  both  mother  and  infant 
being  saved. 

Puerperal  Fever. — This  disease  is  responsible 
for  a  large  number  of  deaths  following  confinement, 
and  a  great  multitude  of  chronic,  diseased  conditions, 
by  which  women  who  have  suffered  from  it  are  crij)- 
pled  and  maimed,  many  times  for  life.  It  is  now 
pretty  generally  conceded  that  severe  fever  following 
confinement  is  usually  the  result  of  absorption  into 
the  system  of  some  of  the  products  of  the  decomposi- 
tion taking  place  in  the  generative  passages.  Having 
gained  access  to  the  blood,  the  diseased  germs  multi- 
ply in  great  numbers  and  soon  pervade  the  whole 
system.  In  addition  to  the  general  fever,  inflamma- 
tions of  the  womb  or  its  surrounding  tissues  and  the 
ovary  and  other  organs  are  very  likely  to  occur, 
leaving  adhesions,  consolidations,  abscesses,  indu- 
rations, etc. 

The  best  treatment  of  this  disease  is  prevention. 
If  the  parts  are  thoroughly  washed  out  two  or  three 
times  a  day  with  a  disinfectant  lotion,  by  means  of  a 
syphon  syringe,  the  thorough  cleansing  being  kept  up 
continuously  until  the  lochial  discharge  has  entirely 
ceased,  there  is  little  chance  for  the  germs  of  disease 
to  find  an  entrance  into  the  system,  and  puerperal 
fever  will  not  be  likely  to  occur.  A  physician  at- 
tending one  case  of  the  disease  will  be  very  likely  to 
convey  it  to  other  patients  whom  he  may  visit,  unless 
he  takes  great  care  to  disinfect  his  person  and  clothing. 

THE  MOTHEB.  47*> 

The  fever  should  be  treated  on  the  general  principles 
which  govern  the  treatment  of  fever  in  other  diseases. 
Such  cases  as  this  require  the  services  of  a  skill- 
ful and  experienced  physician,  and  the  most  careful 

Lacerations  of  the  Womb  and  Perinoeum. — The 
long  continuance  of  a  bloody  discharge  after  confine- 
ment is  ground  for  suspicion  that  the  neck  of  the 
womb  has  been  torn,  and  the  matter  should  at  once 
receive  attention. 

After  every  confinement  a  careful  examination 
should  be  made  to  ascertain  whether  there  has  been 
a  tear  of  the  perinseum  or  any  other  serious  injury  to 
the  soft  parts  of  the  mother.  The  neglect  of  this 
precaution  has-  left  thousands  of  women  to  suffer  a 
life-time  from  a  long  train  of  painful  ailments  which 
might  have  been  easily  prevented  by  the  immediate 
performance  of  an  operation  to  restore  the  torn  parts. 
The  old  adage  *•  a  stitch  in  time  saves  nine  "  is  in  no 
case  more  applicable  than  in  these. 

Phlegmasia  Dolens. — Milk-leg. — This  painful 
complication  of  parturition  usually  appears  about  ten 
days  after  childbirth,  being  ushered  in  by  chills,  head- 
ache, mental  depression,  heaviness  in  the  bowels,  gen- 
eral uneasiness,  feverishness,  and  a  quickened  pulse. 
These  symptoms  are  speedily  followed  by  pain  in 
the  groin  of  the  affected  side,  extending  down  the 
limb.  Very  soon  the  whole  limb  becomes  hot,  swol- 
len, white,  and  shining.  The  patient  is  exceedingly 
restless  and  uneasy,  and  suffers  much.  There  is 
complete  loss  of  powTer  in  the  limb.  The  flesh  yields 
to  the  finger,  but  does  not  "pit"  on  pressure.     Tho 


swelling  usually  begins  at  the  body  and  extends 
downward,  but  sometimes  the  reverse  is  the  case. 

Nothing  positive  is  known  respecting  the  cause  of 
this  disease,  except  that  it  is  most  likely  to  occur  in 
debilitated  patients,  especially  those  who  have  suf- 
fered from  severe  hemorrhage.  It  is  probable  also 
that  lacerations  of  the  neck  of  the  womb  and  of  the 
perinseum  favor  the  occurrence  of  the  disease  by 
affording  an  easy  channel  for  entrance  of  germs  and 
septic  matter  into  the  system.  It  has  been  observed 
that  the  disease  is  most  likely  to  occur  in  the  left  leg, 
and  that  it  is  more  frequent  in  women  who  have  pre- 
viously borne  children  than  in  those  who  are  mothers 
for  the  first  time.  Undoubtedly  there  is,  during  the 
disease,  closure  of  the  veins  and  lymphatic  vessels. 

Treatment :  At  the  very  beginning  of  the  attack, 
the  affected  limb  should  be  elevated,  the  calf  being 
supported  by  a  soft  cushion  by  which  it  will  be  ra